Gene Symbol: PRM1
Description: protamine 1
Alias: CT94.1, sperm protamine P1, cancer/testis antigen family 94, member 1, cysteine-rich protamine, testicular tissue protein Li 91, testis specific protamine 1
Species: human
Products:     PRM1

Top Publications

  1. Haueter S, Kawasumi M, Asner I, Brykczynska U, Cinelli P, Moisyadi S, et al. Genetic vasectomy-overexpression of Prm1-EGFP fusion protein in elongating spermatids causes dominant male sterility in mice. Genesis. 2010;48:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing a Protamine-1 (Prm1) EGFP fusion protein under the transcriptional and translational regulatory control of Prm1...
  2. Hamad M. Quantification of histones and protamines mRNA transcripts in sperms of infertile couples and their impact on sperm's quality and chromatin integrity. Reprod Biol. 2019;19:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..55 ± 2.01) was significantly lower than in normal (21.73 ± 2.64, p < 0.01). The PRM1/PRM2 and H2A/H2B mRNAs ratios were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients than normal (1.02 ± 0...
  3. Mayes C, Houston R, Seashols Williams S, LaRue B, Hughes Stamm S. The stability and persistence of blood and semen mRNA and miRNA targets for body fluid identification in environmentally challenged and laundered samples. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2019;38:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the mRNA markers, HBB was detected in all bloodstained samples and PRM1 persisted in all but one semen stained sample...
  4. Selvaraju S, Parthipan S, Somashekar L, Binsila B, Kolte A, Arangasamy A, et al. Current status of sperm functional genomics and its diagnostic potential of fertility in bovine (Bos taurus). Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2018;64:484-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Their abundance is indicative of the timing of events associated with spermatogenesis, e.g., PRM1, IGF1, BMP2; sperm function, TSSK6, CRISP, HSFY2; fertility, UBE2D3, Integrin-β, LDC-1; and embryonic development, ..
  5. Dehghanpour F, Fesahat F, Miresmaeili S, Zare Mehrjardi E, Honarju A, Talebi A. Analysis of PRM1 and PRM2 Polymorphisms in Iranian Infertile Men with Idiopathic Teratozoospermia. Int J Fertil Steril. 2019;13:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present case-control study was to examine the association of SNPs in protamine1 (PRM1) and protamine2 (PRM2) genes with idiopathic teratozoospermia. In this case-control study, some SNPs in PRM1 (c...
  6. Nayeri M, Talebi A, Heidari M, Seifati S, Tabibnejad N. Polymorphisms of sperm protamine genes and CMA3 staining in infertile men with varicocele. Rev Int Androl. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms of PRM1 and PRM2 genes in extracted DNA samples were assessed by PCR-SSCP and sequencing...
  7. Zhao H, Nie J, Zhu X, Lu Y, Liang X, Xu H, et al. In vitro differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells using testicular cells from Guangxi Bama mini-pig. J Vet Sci. 2018;19:592-599 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that STRA8, DMC1, PRM1, and TNP1 were upregulated significantly in the colonies after induction compared to that in testis from ..
  8. Makala H, Pothana L, Sonam S, Malla A, Goel S. Regeneration of Leydig cells in ectopically autografted adult mouse testes. Reproduction. 2015;149:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of germ cell-specific proteins such as POU5F1, DAZL, TNP1, TNP2, PRM1 and PRM2 revealed that, although proliferating and differentiating spermatogenic germ cells such as spermatogonia, ..
  9. Zubakov D, Kokmeijer I, Ralf A, Rajagopalan N, Calandro L, Wootton S, et al. Towards simultaneous individual and tissue identification: A proof-of-principle study on parallel sequencing of STRs, amelogenin, and mRNAs with the Ion Torrent PGM. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2015;17:122-128 pubmed publisher
    ..ALAS2 and SPTB for peripheral blood, MMP10 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, HTN3 and STATH for saliva, PRM1 and TGM4 for semen, CYP2B7P1 and MUC4 for vaginal secretion, CCL27 and LCE1C for skin) together with two candidate ..

More Information


  1. Dogan S, Vargovic P, Oliveira R, Belser L, Kaya A, Moura A, et al. Sperm protamine-status correlates to the fertility of breeding bulls. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:92 pubmed publisher
    ..the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility...
  2. H M Y, Kumar S, Chaudhary R, Mishra C, A S, Kumar A, et al. Nucleotide variability of protamine genes influencing bull sperm motility variables. Anim Reprod Sci. 2018;193:126-139 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCR-SSCP analysis indicated there were two band patterns only in fragment I of the PRM1 and fragment II of the PRM2 gene. The sequence analysis revealed A152G and G179A transitions in the PRM1 gene...
  3. Cullinane D, Chowdhury T, Kleene K. Mechanisms of translational repression of the Smcp mRNA in round spermatids. Reproduction. 2015;149:43-54 pubmed publisher
    The protamine 1 (Prm1) and sperm mitochondria-associated, cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNAs exemplify a widespread pattern of mRNA-specific regulation of mRNA translation in post-meiotic spermatogenic cells, spermatids...
  4. Talha A, Pirahmadi S, Mehrizi A, Djadid N, Nour B, Zakeri S. Molecular genetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Eastern and Central Sudan using pvcsp and pvmsp-3α genes as molecular markers. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;32:12-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Sudanese isolates displayed variations in the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs) ranging from 17 to 19 with GDRADGQPA (PRM1), GDRAAGQPA (PRM2) and DDRAAGQPA (PRM3)...
  5. Palazzese L, Czernik M, Iuso D, Toschi P, Loi P. Nuclear quiescence and histone hyper-acetylation jointly improve protamine-mediated nuclear remodeling in sheep fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0193954 pubmed publisher
    ..and exposure time to trichostatin A (TSA) in serum-starved fibroblasts (nuclear quiescence), before expressing Prm1 gene. To stop cell proliferation, we starved cells in 0...
  6. Palma Guerrero J, Zhao J, Gonçalves A, Starr T, Glass N. Identification and characterization of LFD-2, a predicted fringe protein required for membrane integrity during cell fusion in neurospora crassa. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:265-77 pubmed publisher
    ..crassa, two proteins have been identified to function at the step of membrane fusion during somatic cell fusion: PRM1 and LFD-1...
  7. Shilpa M, Selvaraju S, GirishKumar V, Parthipan S, Binsila K, Arangasamy A, et al. Novel insights into the role of cell-free seminal mRNAs on semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls (Bos taurus). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;29:2446-2456 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the cfs-mRNAs screened using real time PCR, expression of protamine 1 (PRM1) was positively (P<0...
  8. Wang X, Wang Q, Wang J, Bai P, Shi L, Shen W, et al. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6245-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated P AOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to P AOX1 at different sites and did not ..
  9. Arias M, Andara K, Briones E, Felmer R. Bovine sperm separation by Swim-up and density gradients (Percoll and BoviPure): Effect on sperm quality, function and gene expression. Reprod Biol. 2017;17:126-132 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the gene expression analysis of leptin (LEP), aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) and protamine I (PRM1), after validation of 6 reference genes, showed no differences between groups...
  10. Schneider S, Balbach M, Jan F Jikeli -, Fietz D, Nettersheim D, Jostes S, et al. Re-visiting the Protamine-2 locus: deletion, but not haploinsufficiency, renders male mice infertile. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36764 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio...
  11. Czernik M, Iuso D, Toschi P, Khochbin S, Loi P. Remodeling somatic nuclei via exogenous expression of protamine 1 to create spermatid-like structures for somatic nuclear transfer. Nat Protoc. 2016;11:2170-2188 pubmed publisher
    ..and mouse somatic cells into spermatid-like nuclei through the heterologous expression of the protamine 1 gene (Prm1)...
  12. Oyama T, Sasagawa S, Takeda S, Hess R, Lieberman P, Cheng E, et al. Cleavage of TFIIA by Taspase1 activates TRF2-specified mammalian male germ cell programs. Dev Cell. 2013;27:188-200 pubmed publisher
    ..the unprocessed TFIIA still complexes with TRF2, this complex is impaired in targeting and thus activating Tnp1 and Prm1 promoters...
  13. Hashemi M, Mozdarani H, Ghaedi K, Nasr Esfahani M. Expression of ZMYND15 in Testes of Azoospermic Men and Association With Sperm Retrieval. Urology. 2018;114:99-104 pubmed publisher
    To compare the expression levels of ZMYND15 and its target haploid genes (TNP1, PRM1, and SPEM1) in testicular samples of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) vs obstructive azoospermia (OA)...
  14. Kleene K. Position-dependent interactions of Y-box protein 2 (YBX2) with mRNA enable mRNA storage in round spermatids by repressing mRNA translation and blocking translation-dependent mRNA decay. Mol Reprod Dev. 2016;83:190-207 pubmed publisher
    ..abundant and well-known translational repressor, Y-box protein 2 (YBX2), as a critical factor: First, protamine 1 (Prm1) and sperm-mitochondria cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNAs are prematurely recruited onto polysomes in Ybx2-..
  15. Hamilton T, de Castro L, Delgado J, de Assis P, Siqueira A, Mendes C, et al. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status. Reproduction. 2016;151:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (..
  16. Lüke L, Tourmente M, Dopazo H, Serra F, Roldan E. Selective constraints on protamine 2 in primates and rodents. BMC Evol Biol. 2016;16:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Mature-PRM2 may be free to evolve under less constraint due to the existence of PRM1 as a more conserved and functionally redundant copy...
  17. Guo Y, Liu L, Sun M, Hai Y, Li Z, He Z. Expansion and long-term culture of human spermatogonial stem cells via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015;240:1112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..g. SYCP1, SYCP3, PRM1, and TNP1...
  18. Li B, Liu W, Zhuang M, Li N, Wu S, Pan S, et al. Overexpression of CD61 promotes hUC-MSC differentiation into male germ-like cells. Cell Prolif. 2016;49:36-47 pubmed publisher
    ..After BMP4 induction, expression levels of male germ cell markers such as Acrosin (ACR), Prm1 and meiotic markers including Stra8, Scp3 in oCD61 were significantly higher than those of the Control group...
  19. Iuso D, Czernik M, Toschi P, Fidanza A, Zacchini F, Feil R, et al. Exogenous Expression of Human Protamine 1 (hPrm1) Remodels Fibroblast Nuclei into Spermatid-like Structures. Cell Rep. 2015;13:1765-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we find that somatic cells can be remodeled by transient expression of protamine 1 (Prm1)...
  20. Shlush E, Maghen L, Swanson S, Kenigsberg S, Moskovtsev S, Barretto T, et al. In vitro generation of Sertoli-like and haploid spermatid-like cells from human umbilical cord perivascular cells. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:37 pubmed publisher
    ..After 5 weeks in culture, 10-30% of the cells were haploid, had adopted a spermatid-like morphology, and expressed PRM1, Acrosin, and ODF2...
  21. Jia X, Zhang C, Qiu J, Wang L, Bao J, Wang K, et al. Purification, structural characterization and anticancer activity of the novel polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;132:67-71 pubmed publisher
    Three novel acidic polysaccharides termed PRM1, PRM3 and PRM5 were purified from Rhynchosia minima root using DEAE-52 cellulose and sephadex G-150 column chromatography...
  22. Tüttelmann F, Krenkova P, Romer S, Nestorovic A, Ljujic M, Stambergova A, et al. A common haplotype of protamine 1 and 2 genes is associated with higher sperm counts. Int J Androl. 2010;33:e240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Haploinsufficiency of the protamine 1 (PRM1) or PRM2 gene causes infertility in mice...
  23. Choudhary S, Wykes S, Kramer J, Mohamed A, Koppitch F, Nelson J, et al. A haploid expressed gene cluster exists as a single chromatin domain in human sperm. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:8755-62 pubmed
    ..The genes for three of these low molecular weight basic nuclear proteins exist as a single linear array of PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 on human chromosome 16p13.2...
  24. Cavalcanti M, Steilmann C, Failing K, Bergmann M, Kliesch S, Weidner W, et al. Apoptotic gene expression in potentially fertile and subfertile men. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Casp4, Casp 6 and TNFSF10 are differentially expressed in potentially fertile and subfertile men and represent useful biomarkers for predicting male fertility in combination with P1 and P2. ..
  25. Fu C, Heitman J. PRM1 and KAR5 function in cell-cell fusion and karyogamy to drive distinct bisexual and unisexual cycles in the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007113 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified orthologs of the plasma membrane fusion protein Prm1 and the nuclear membrane fusion protein Kar5 in both Cryptococcus species, and demonstrated their conserved roles ..
  26. Pendergraft S, Sadri Ardekani H, Atala A, Bishop C. Three-dimensional testicular organoid: a novel tool for the study of human spermatogenesis and gonadotoxicity in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:720-732 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of postmeiotic genes including PRM1 and Acrosin, detected by quantitative-PCR, digital PCR and Immunofluorescence, indicated the transition of a small ..
  27. Günther K, Paradowska Dogan A, Bärmann B, Klein H, von Eichel Streiber C, Hartley R, et al. Expression of sperm-specific protamines impairs bacterial and eukaryotic cell proliferation. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;143:599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and HeLa cells by protamine expression. Follow-up studies on the molecular effect of protamines on proliferative cells may, in the future, open new avenues to investigate effective and specific treatments of cancer cells. ..
  28. Guinn B, Bland E, Lodi U, Liggins A, Tobal K, Petters S, et al. Humoral detection of leukaemia-associated antigens in presentation acute myeloid leukaemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:1293-304 pubmed
    ..Antigen presentation assays using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) showed that PASD1 could stimulate autologous T-cell responses, suggesting that PASD1 could be a promising target for future immunotherapy clinical trials. ..
  29. Li Y, Lalancette C, Miller D, Krawetz S. Characterization of nucleohistone and nucleoprotamine components in the mature human sperm nucleus. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunofluorescent localization of histones, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) along with fluorescence in situ hybridization localization of chromosome 16 telomeric ..
  30. Lee C, Hoyer Fender S, Engel W. The nucleotide sequence of a human protamine 1 cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:7639 pubmed
  31. Papoutsopoulou S, Nikolakaki E, Chalepakis G, Kruft V, Chevaillier P, Giannakouros T. SR protein-specific kinase 1 is highly expressed in testis and phosphorylates protamine 1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:2972-80 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that SRPK1 may have a role not only in pre-mRNA splicing, but also in the condensation of sperm chromatin. ..
  32. Chen Z, Shi C, Gao S, Feng Y. Impact of protamine I on colon cancer proliferation, invasion, migration, diagnosis and prognosis. Biol Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The paper investigated the Protamine I (PRM1) expression and its effects on proliferation, invasion and migration of colon cancer cells as well as its function in clinical diagnosis and prognosis...
  33. Tanaka H, Miyagawa Y, Tsujimura A, Matsumiya K, Okuyama A, Nishimune Y. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protamine-1 and -2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:69-73 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the human protamine-1 (PRM1) and -2 (PRM2) gene sequences in 226 sterile male patients and in 270 proven-fertile male volunteers revealed four ..
  34. Höfken T. Ecm22 and Upc2 regulate yeast mating through control of expression of the mating genes PRM1 and PRM4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1485-1490 pubmed publisher
    ..Ecm22 and Upc2 positively regulate basal expression of PRM1 and PRM4...
  35. Aoki V, Christensen G, Atkins J, Carrell D. Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1416-22 pubmed
    ..A number of SNPs are present in the testis-specific nuclear protein genes. However, the gene variants do not appear to underlie protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. ..
  36. Kempisty B, Depa Martynow M, Lianeri M, Jedrzejczak P, Darul Wasowicz A, Jagodziński P. Evaluation of protamines 1 and 2 transcript contents in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S109-13 pubmed
    ..The key role in this process is played by protamines 1 and 2 (PRM1, PRM2)...
  37. Depa Martynow M, Kempisty B, Jagodziński P, Pawelczyk L, Jedrzejczak P. Impact of protamine transcripts and their proteins on the quality and fertilization ability of sperm and the development of preimplantation embryos. Reprod Biol. 2012;12:57-72 pubmed
    Protamine 1 (PRM1) and 2 (PRM2) are major nuclear proteins in spermatozoa known to bind to chromatin during early spermatogenesis...
  38. Grassetti D, Paoli D, Gallo M, D Ambrosio A, Lombardo F, Lenzi A, et al. Protamine-1 and -2 polymorphisms and gene expression in male infertility: an Italian study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:882-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two types of protamines: protamine 1 (P1) and the protamine 2 family (P2, P3, and P4), coded by the genes PRM1 and PRM2...
  39. Kichine E, Msaidie S, Bokilo A, Ducourneau A, Navarro A, Levy N, et al. Low-frequency protamine 1 gene transversions c.102G->T and c.-107G->C do not correlate with male infertility. J Med Genet. 2008;45:255-6 pubmed
  40. Haraguchi T, Ishikawa T, Yamaguchi K, Fujisawa M. Cyclin and protamine as prognostic molecular marker for testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1424-6 pubmed publisher
    The CCNA1, CCNB1, CCNB2, PRM1, and PRM2 messenger RNA transcript ratios were significantly decreased in patients with spermatogenic disorders...
  41. Deng S, Wang X, Wang Z, Chen S, Wang Y, Hao X, et al. In vitro production of functional haploid sperm cells from male germ cells of Saanen dairy goat. Theriogenology. 2017;90:120-128 pubmed publisher
    ..05) of haploid cells, and stimulated the post-meiotic gene (Tnp1, Tnp2 and Prm1) expression...
  42. Viguie F, Domenjoud L, Rousseau Merck M, Dadoune J, Chevaillier P. Chromosomal localization of the human protamine genes, PRM1 and PRM2, to 16p13.3 by in situ hybridization. Hum Genet. 1990;85:171-4 pubmed
    ..The genes, called PRM1 and PRM2, have been found, tightly linked, on band 16p13.3...
  43. Hammoud S, Emery B, Aoki V, Carrell D. Identification of genetic variation in the 5' and 3' non-coding regions of the protamine genes in patients with protamine deregulation. Arch Androl. 2007;53:267-74 pubmed
  44. Wyckoff G, Wang W, Wu C. Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature. 2000;403:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open up opportunities to test the hypothesis that sexual selection plays some role in the molecular evolution of higher primates...
  45. Zeng C, Fan W, Zhang X. RRM1 expression is associated with the outcome of gemcitabine-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients--a short report. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2015;38:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional phase III randomized trials are required to confirm our current findings. ..
  46. Wykes S, Nelson J, Visscher D, Djakiew D, Krawetz S. Coordinate expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 multigene locus in human testis. DNA Cell Biol. 1995;14:155-61 pubmed
    ..The expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 genes facilitates the compaction and condensation of the genetic material within the developing ..
  47. Imken L, Rouba H, El Houate B, Louanjli N, Barakat A, Chafik A, et al. Mutations in the protamine locus: association with spermatogenic failure?. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..infertile men with either idiopathic azoospermia or oligozoospermia were sequenced for the open reading frame of PRM1, PRM2, PRM3 and TNP2 genes. All individuals carried an apparently intact Y chromosome...
  48. Mylonis I, Drosou V, Brancorsini S, Nikolakaki E, Sassone Corsi P, Giannakouros T. Temporal association of protamine 1 with the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor during spermiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11626-31 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that docking of protamine 1 to the nuclear envelope is an important intermediate step in spermiogenesis and reveal a novel role for SR protein kinases and p32. ..
  49. Jodar M, Oriola J, Mestre G, Castillo J, Giwercman A, Vidal Taboada J, et al. Polymorphisms, haplotypes and mutations in the protamine 1 and 2 genes. Int J Androl. 2011;34:470-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogenic high penetrance protamine gene missense mutations, if any, must be extremely rare. However, the detected presence of rare variants and haplotypes in infertile patients deserves further investigation. ..
  50. McKay D, Renaux B, Dixon G. The amino acid sequence of human sperm protamine P1. Biosci Rep. 1985;5:383-91 pubmed
    ..p.l.c. and sequenced completely. The 50 residue sequence is: (sequence see text) This sequence has a calculated molecular weight of 6674 and is homologous with four other published mammalian protamine sequences. ..
  51. Jamali S, Karimian M, Nikzad H, Aftabi Y. The c.-190 C>A transversion in promoter region of protamine1 gene as a genetic risk factor for idiopathic oligozoospermia. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..It is reported that defects in the protamine 1 (PRM1) and/or 2 (PRM2) genes cause male infertility. Located on chromosome 16 (16p13...
  52. Yu Q, YANG X, LI F, Ye L, Wu Y, Mao X. [Association of PRM1-190C- > A polymorphism with teratozoospermia]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2012;18:314-7 pubmed
    To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Protamine 1 (PRM1) gene in infertile men with teratozoospermia...
  53. de Mateo S, Gazquez C, Guimerá M, Balasch J, Meistrich M, Ballescà J, et al. Protamine 2 precursors (Pre-P2), protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2), and assisted reproduction outcome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The pre-P2/P2 ratio was not related to the fertilization rate. Decreased pre-P2/P2 and P1/P2 ratios are related to a poor pregnancy outcome, but not with the proportion of embryos obtained after ISCI. ..
  54. Queralt R, de Fàbregues Boixar O, Adroer R, Gene M, Gomez Catalan J, Huguet E, et al. Direct sequencing of the human protamine P1 gene and application in forensic medicine. J Forensic Sci. 1993;38:1491-501 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the single polymorphic site detected in the human P1 gene could be useful in conjunction with other markers in identification studies in humans. ..
  55. Ammer H, Henschen A, Lee C. Isolation and amino-acid sequence analysis of human sperm protamines P1 and P2. Occurrence of two forms of protamine P2. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1986;367:515-22 pubmed
  56. Hamad M, Shelko N, Montenarh M, Hammadeh M. The impact of cigarette smoking on protamines 1 and 2 transcripts in human spermatozoa. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2017;:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..sperm, reverse-transcribed and subjected to real-time quantitative PCR using specific primer pairs for protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2). The main outcomes showed that PRM1 mRNA levels in smokers were significantly lower (p?=?0...
  57. Domenjoud L, Nussbaum G, Adham I, Greeske G, Engel W. Genomic sequences of human protamines whose genes, PRM1 and PRM2, are clustered. Genomics. 1990;8:127-33 pubmed
    ..Using cDNA clones, we have isolated the genes for both human protamines, i.e., protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2), from a human cosmid library...
  58. Depa Martynow M, Kempisty B, Lianeri M, Jagodziński P, Jedrzejczak P. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S79-85 pubmed
    ..quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR) methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1), protamine 2 (PRM2), spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1) mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of ..
  59. Ravel C, Chantot Bastaraud S, El Houate B, Berthaut I, Verstraete L, De Larouziere V, et al. Mutations in the protamine 1 gene associated with male infertility. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:461-4 pubmed
    ..For this study, we screened the PRM1 (protamine 1) gene for mutations in a large cohort of 281 men seeking infertility treatment. We identified the c...
  60. Shabani Nashtaei M, Nekoonam S, Naji M, Bakhshalizadeh S, Amidi F. Cryoprotective effect of resveratrol on DNA damage and crucial human sperm messenger RNAs, possibly through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Cell Tissue Bank. 2018;19:87-95 pubmed publisher quantifying the presence of key paternal transcripts considered as markers for male fertility (protamine 1 [PRM1] and protamine 2 [PRM2]) and pregnancy success (adducin 1 alpha [ADD1]) in cryopreserved human spermatozoa through ..
  61. Aydos O, Hekmatshoar Y, Altinok B, Ozkan T, Sakiragaoglu O, Karadağ A, et al. Genetic Polymorphisms in PRM1, PRM2, and YBX2 Genes are Associated with Male Factor Infertility. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Protamine polymorphisms have been studied in different populations, but various results have been acquired...
  62. O Sullivan A, Eivers S, Mulvaney E, Kinsella B. Regulated expression of the TPβ isoform of the human T prostanoid receptor by the tumour suppressors FOXP1 and NKX3.1: Implications for the role of thromboxane in prostate cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:3153-3169 pubmed publisher
    ..and TPβ isoforms of T Prostanoid receptor (TP) that are transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters termed Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TBXA2R gene...
  63. Javadirad S, Hojati Z, Ghaedi K, Nasr Esfahani M. Expression ratio of histone demethylase KDM3A to protamine-1 mRNA is predictive of successful testicular sperm extraction in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Andrology. 2016;4:492-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the predictive value of histone demethylase KDM3A to protamine 1 (PRM1) mRNA expression ratio as a reliable marker of sperm retrieval in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)...
  64. Kramer J, Krawetz S. Nuclear matrix interactions within the sperm genome. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11619-22 pubmed
    Analysis of the haploid-expressed human PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 genic domain has revealed two regions of attachment to the sperm nuclear matrix...
  65. Jiang W, Zhu P, Zhang J, Wu Q, Li W, Liu S, et al. Polymorphisms of protamine genes contribute to male infertility susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Oncotarget. 2017;8:61637-61645 pubmed publisher
    ..Protamine (PRM) plays important roles in the packaging of DNA within the sperm nucleus. To investigate the role of PRM1/2 and transition protein 1 (TNP1) polymorphisms in male infertility, 636 infertile men and 442 healthy ..
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    ..The complex interactions of the NS3 fragments could influence one of the most important signal pathways of the cell and, therefore, could possibly provide new pathological mechanisms for HCV infections of liver...
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    ..P1 first appeared in the nucleus of step 5 spermatids and its concentration was increased in steps 6-8 spermatids, cytoplasm was not labelled. ..
  68. Aoki V, Liu L, Jones K, Hatasaka H, Gibson M, Peterson C, et al. Sperm protamine 1/protamine 2 ratios are related to in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates and predictive of fertilization ability. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1408-15 pubmed
  69. Nelson J, Krawetz S. Characterization of a human locus in transition. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31067-73 pubmed
    The spermatid-specific nucleoprotamine genes PRM1 and PRM2 and the transition protein gene TNP2 are clustered at a single site on human chromosome 16p13.2...
  70. Gazquez C, Oriola J, de Mateo S, Vidal Taboada J, Ballescà J, Oliva R. A common protamine 1 promoter polymorphism (-190 C->A) correlates with abnormal sperm morphology and increased protamine P1/P2 ratio in infertile patients. J Androl. 2008;29:540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..many infertile patients also have an abnormal sperm morphology and chromatin packaging, the human protamine 1 gene (PRM1) is an important candidate to screen for potential mutations...
  71. He X, Ruan J, Du W, Chen G, Zhou Y, Xu S, et al. PRM1 variant rs35576928 (Arg>Ser) is associated with defective spermatogenesis in the Chinese Han population. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25:627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to evaluate the association of PRM1, PRM2, KIT and KITLG variants with susceptibility to severely defective spermatogenesis, 309 male infertility ..
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    ..The gene was mapped to chromosome 16 with the use of a somatic cell hybrid panel and localized to the 21 region of the q arm by in situ hybridization of the human P1 protamine probe to human metaphase chromosomes. ..
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    ..The aim of this study was to determine if PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 transcripts in spermatozoa from normozoospermic and teratozoospermic men correlate with sperm ..