Gene Symbol: PRKD1
Description: protein kinase D1
Alias: CHDED, PKC-MU, PKCM, PKD, PRKCM, serine/threonine-protein kinase D1, nPKC-D1, nPKC-mu, protein kinase C mu type, protein kinase C, mu, protein kinase D
Species: human
Products:     PRKD1

Top Publications

  1. Sidorenko S, Law C, Klaus S, Chandran K, Takata M, Kurosaki T, et al. Protein kinase C mu (PKC mu) associates with the B cell antigen receptor complex and regulates lymphocyte signaling. Immunity. 1996;5:353-63 pubmed
    We have identified a Ser/Thr kinase associated with the B cell receptor (BCR) complex as protein kinase C mu (PKC mu)...
  2. Vega R, Harrison B, Meadows E, Roberts C, Papst P, Olson E, et al. Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8374-85 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that protein kinase D (PKD), a downstream effector of PKC, directly phosphorylates HDAC5 and stimulates its nuclear export...
  3. Biswas M, Du C, Zhang C, Straubhaar J, Languino L, Balaji K. Protein kinase D1 inhibits cell proliferation through matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2095-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The study shows a novel mechanism for antiproliferative effects of PKD1, a protein of emerging translational interest in several human cancers, through increased production of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cancer cells. ..
  4. Eisenberg Lerner A, Kimchi A. DAP kinase regulates JNK signaling by binding and activating protein kinase D under oxidative stress. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1908-15 pubmed
    ..We identify protein kinase D (PKD) as a novel substrate of DAPk and demonstrate that DAPk physically interacts with PKD in response to ..
  5. Evans I, Britton G, Zachary I. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces heat shock protein (HSP) 27 serine 82 phosphorylation and endothelial tubulogenesis via protein kinase D and independent of p38 kinase. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF activated Protein Kinase D (PKD) via PKC, and siRNAs targeted to PKD1 and PKD2 inhibited VEGF-induced HSP27 serine 82 phosphorylation...
  6. Ding G, Sonoda H, Yu H, Kajimoto T, Goparaju S, Jahangeer S, et al. Protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear export of sphingosine kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27493-502 pubmed
    ..Here we describe an important post-translational modification, namely, phosphorylation of SPHK2 catalyzed by protein kinase D (PKD), which regulates its localization...
  7. Fugmann T, Hausser A, Schöffler P, Schmid S, Pfizenmaier K, Olayioye M. Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:15-22 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a crucial regulator of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN)...
  8. Brändlin I, Hübner S, Eiseler T, Martinez Moya M, Horschinek A, Hausser A, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC)eta-mediated PKC mu activation modulates ERK and JNK signal pathways. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6490-6 pubmed
    ..The PKC-related isoform PKC mu/PKD has been implicated in mitogenic signal cascades because of the activation of p42/p44 MAPK leading to Elk1-..
  9. Pusapati G, Eiseler T, Rykx A, Vandoninck S, Derua R, Waelkens E, et al. Protein kinase D regulates RhoA activity via rhotekin phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9473-83 pubmed publisher
    The members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are major targets for tumor-promoting phorbol esters, G protein-coupled receptors, and activated protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs)...

More Information


  1. Zhang W, Zheng S, Storz P, Min W. Protein kinase D specifically mediates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-JNK signaling induced by H2O2 but not tumor necrosis factor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19036-44 pubmed
    ..However, Go6976 and calphostin, which can inhibit protein kinase C as well as protein kinase D (PKD), blocked H2O2- but not TNF-induced JNK activation, suggesting that PKD may be specifically involved in ..
  2. Mak P, Jaggi M, Syed V, Chauhan S, Hassan S, Biswas H, et al. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:618-23 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells...
  3. Stafford M, Watson S, Pears C. PKD: a new protein kinase C-dependent pathway in platelets. Blood. 2003;101:1392-9 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD, also known as PKCmu) is closely related to the protein kinase C superfamily but is differentially regulated and has a distinct catalytic domain that shares homology with Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases...
  4. Hui B, Xia W, Li J, Wang L, Ai J, Geng M. Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-acquired immune deficiency syndrome drug candidate, blocks neuroinflammatory signalling by targeting the transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. J Neurochem. 2006;97:334-44 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that SPMG might serve as a valuable therapeutic intervention for Tat-induced profound pro-inflammatory effects in the brain, and subsequent pathologic events of HAD. ..
  5. Storz P, Döppler H, Johannes F, Toker A. Tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase D in the pleckstrin homology domain leads to activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17969-76 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) is a member of the AGC family of Ser/Thr kinases and is distantly related to protein kinase C (PKC). Formerly known as PKCmu, PKD contains protein domains not found in conventional PKC isoforms...
  6. Jaggi M, Rao P, Smith D, Hemstreet G, Balaji K. Protein kinase C mu is down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;307:254-60 pubmed
    ..The consistent down regulation of PKCmu in cell line models and human prostate cancer tissues suggests a possible functionally significant role for PKCmu in progression to AI in prostate cancer. ..
  7. Parra M, Kasler H, McKinsey T, Olson E, Verdin E. Protein kinase D1 phosphorylates HDAC7 and induces its nuclear export after T-cell receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13762-70 pubmed
    ..In a mouse model of negative selection, PKD1 was activated during thymocyte activation. These observations indicate that PKD1 regulates the expression of Nur77 during thymocyte activation at least in part by phosphorylating HDAC7. ..
  8. Czöndör K, Ellwanger K, Fuchs Y, Lutz S, Gulyás M, Mansuy I, et al. Protein kinase D controls the integrity of Golgi apparatus and the maintenance of dendritic arborization in hippocampal neurons. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2108-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) is known to participate in various cellular functions, including secretory vesicle fission from the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed transport...
  9. Peterburs P, Heering J, Link G, Pfizenmaier K, Olayioye M, Hausser A. Protein kinase D regulates cell migration by direct phosphorylation of the cofilin phosphatase slingshot 1 like. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5634-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a negative regulator of epithelial cell migration; however, its molecular substrates and downstream signaling pathways that mediate this activity have remained elusive...
  10. Nhek S, Ngo M, Yang X, Ng M, Field S, Asara J, et al. Regulation of oxysterol-binding protein Golgi localization through protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2327-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) plays a critical role at the trans-Golgi network by regulating the fission of transport carriers destined for the plasma membrane...
  11. Li J, O Connor K, Hellmich M, Greeley G, Townsend C, Evers B. The role of protein kinase D in neurotensin secretion mediated by protein kinase C-alpha/-delta and Rho/Rho kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28466-74 pubmed
    ..NT is regulated by phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms-alpha and -delta and may involve protein kinase D (PKD)...
  12. Jamora C, Yamanouye N, van Lint J, Laudenslager J, Vandenheede J, Faulkner D, et al. Gbetagamma-mediated regulation of Golgi organization is through the direct activation of protein kinase D. Cell. 1999;98:59-68 pubmed
    ..In this report, evidence is presented that the downstream target of Gbetagamma is protein kinase D (PKD), an isoform of protein kinase C...
  13. Matthews S, Iglesias T, Rozengurt E, Cantrell D. Spatial and temporal regulation of protein kinase D (PKD). EMBO J. 2000;19:2935-45 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD; also known as PKCmicro) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by diacylglycerol signalling pathways in a variety of cells...
  14. McKinsey T, Zhang C, Lu J, Olson E. Signal-dependent nuclear export of a histone deacetylase regulates muscle differentiation. Nature. 2000;408:106-11 pubmed
  15. Storz P, Toker A. Protein kinase D mediates a stress-induced NF-kappaB activation and survival pathway. EMBO J. 2003;22:109-20 pubmed
    ..We show that tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase D (PKD) at Y463 in the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain is mediated by the Src and Abl tyrosine kinase signaling ..
  16. Hassan S, Biswas M, Zhang C, Du C, Balaji K. Heat shock protein 27 mediates repression of androgen receptor function by protein kinase D1 in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:4386-96 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that protein kinase D1 (PKD1), charter member of PKD protein family, is downregulated in advanced prostate cancer (PC) and influences androgen receptor (AR) function in PC cells...
  17. Van Lint J, Rykx A, Maeda Y, Vantus T, Sturany S, Malhotra V, et al. Protein kinase D: an intracellular traffic regulator on the move. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:193-200 pubmed
    Recent research has identified protein kinase D (PKD, also called PKCmu) as a serine/threonine kinase with potentially important roles in growth factor signaling as well as in stress-induced signaling...
  18. Rey O, Sinnett Smith J, Zhukova E, Rozengurt E. Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein kinase D in response to G protein-coupled receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:49228-35 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD)/protein kinase C mu is a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by growth factors, antigen-receptor engagement, and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that ..
  19. Sharlow E, Giridhar K, LaValle C, Chen J, Leimgruber S, Barrett R, et al. Potent and selective disruption of protein kinase D functionality by a benzoxoloazepinolone. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33516-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases targeted by the second messenger diacylglycerol. It has been implicated in many important cellular processes and pathological conditions...
  20. Döppler H, Bastea L, Eiseler T, Storz P. Neuregulin mediates F-actin-driven cell migration through inhibition of protein kinase D1 via Rac1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:455-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a mechanism through which the Rho GTPase Rac1 cross-talks with PKD1 signaling pathways to facilitate directed cell migration. ..
  21. Johannessen M, Delghandi M, Rykx A, Dragset M, Vandenheede J, Van Lint J, et al. Protein kinase D induces transcription through direct phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14777-87 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD), a family of serine/threonine kinases, can be activated by a multitude of stimuli in a protein kinase C-dependent or -independent manner...
  22. Storz P, Döppler H, Toker A. Protein kinase D mediates mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling and detoxification from mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8520-30 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that release of mROS activates a signal relay pathway in which the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) activates the NF-kappaB transcription factor, leading to induction of SOD2...
  23. Storz P, Döppler H, Toker A. Protein kinase Cdelta selectively regulates protein kinase D-dependent activation of NF-kappaB in oxidative stress signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2614-26 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) participates in activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) in cells exposed to oxidative stress, leading to increased cellular survival...
  24. Eiseler T, Hausser A, De Kimpe L, Van Lint J, Pfizenmaier K. Protein kinase D controls actin polymerization and cell motility through phosphorylation of cortactin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18672-83 pubmed publisher
    We here identify protein kinase D (PKD) as an upstream regulator of the F-actin-binding protein cortactin and the Arp actin polymerization machinery...
  25. Karam M, Legay C, Auclair C, Ricort J. Protein kinase D1 stimulates proliferation and enhances tumorigenesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:558-69 pubmed publisher
  26. Johannes F, Prestle J, Eis S, Oberhagemann P, Pfizenmaier K. PKCu is a novel, atypical member of the protein kinase C family. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:6140-8 pubmed
    ..presence of a unique NH2-terminal sequence with a potential signal peptide and a transmembrane domain suggest that PKC mu is a novel member of the subgroup of atypical PKCs...
  27. Liu D, Evans I, Britton G, Zachary I. The zinc-finger transcription factor, early growth response 3, mediates VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2008;27:2989-98 pubmed
    ..VEGF-induced Egr3 gene expression was also mediated in part via a PKC-dependent activation of protein kinase D. Inhibition of Egr3 gene expression by RNA interference was effective in inhibiting basal and VEGF-induced ..
  28. Vertommen D, Rider M, Ni Y, Waelkens E, Merlevede W, Vandenheede J, et al. Regulation of protein kinase D by multisite phosphorylation. Identification of phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and characterization by site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19567-76 pubmed
    Activation of the serine/threonine kinase, protein kinase D (PKD/PKC mu) via a phorbol ester/PKC-dependent pathway involves phosphorylation events...
  29. Hao Q, Wang L, Tang H. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces protein kinase D-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C821-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that the cytokine production by VEGF was essentially mediated by the Gö-6976-sensitive protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases...
  30. Cowell C, Yan I, Eiseler T, Leightner A, Döppler H, Storz P. Loss of cell-cell contacts induces NF-kappaB via RhoA-mediated activation of protein kinase D1. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:714-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this pathway is of relevance for epithelial tumor cell biology, where loss of cell-cell contacts has been implicated in regulating cell survival and motility. ..
  31. Syed V, Mak P, Du C, Balaji K. Beta-catenin mediates alteration in cell proliferation, motility and invasion of prostate cancer cells by differential expression of E-cadherin and protein kinase D1. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:82-95 pubmed
    ..This study establishes the functional significance of combined dysregulation of PKD1 and E-cadherin in PC and that their effect on cell growth is mediated by beta-catenin. ..
  32. Yeaman C, Ayala M, Wright J, Bard F, Bossard C, Ang A, et al. Protein kinase D regulates basolateral membrane protein exit from trans-Golgi network. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:106-12 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) binds to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and is activated by trimeric G-protein subunits beta gamma...
  33. Döppler H, Storz P, Li J, Comb M, Toker A. A phosphorylation state-specific antibody recognizes Hsp27, a novel substrate of protein kinase D. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15013-9 pubmed
    ..the development and use of such an antibody which is directed against the optimal phosphorylation motif of protein kinase D (PKD)...
  34. Bastea L, Döppler H, Balogun B, Storz P. Protein kinase D1 maintains the epithelial phenotype by inducing a DNA-bound, inactive SNAI1 transcriptional repressor complex. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30459 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they suggest, that the analysis of breast tissue for PKD-mediated phosphorylation of SNAI1 using our novel phosphoS11-SNAI1-specific antibody may allow predicting the ..
  35. Du C, Zhang C, Hassan S, Biswas M, Balaji K. Protein kinase D1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through phosphorylation of snail. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7810-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that PKD1 functions as a tumor and metastasis suppressor, at least partly by regulating Snail-mediated EMT, and that loss of PKD1 may contribute to acquisition of an aggressive malignant phenotype. ..
  36. Eiseler T, Döppler H, Yan I, Kitatani K, Mizuno K, Storz P. Protein kinase D1 regulates cofilin-mediated F-actin reorganization and cell motility through slingshot. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, expression of constitutively active PKD1 in invasive tumour cells enhanced the phosphorylation of cofilin and effectively blocked the formation of free actin-filament barbed ends and directed cell migration. ..
  37. Jaggi M, Rao P, Smith D, Wheelock M, Johnson K, Hemstreet G, et al. E-cadherin phosphorylation by protein kinase D1/protein kinase C{mu} is associated with altered cellular aggregation and motility in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:483-92 pubmed
    ..Because both E-cadherin and PKD1 are known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer, our study identified an important protein-protein interaction influencing the signal transduction system associated with cell adhesion in prostate cancer. ..
  38. Döppler H, Storz P. A novel tyrosine phosphorylation site in protein kinase D contributes to oxidative stress-mediated activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31873-81 pubmed
    ..PKD1 phosphorylation at Tyr95 generates a binding motif for PKCdelta, and that oxidative stress-mediated PKCdelta/PKD interaction results in PKD1 activation loop phosphorylation and activation...
  39. Kisfalvi K, Hurd C, Guha S, Rozengurt E. Induced overexpression of protein kinase D1 stimulates mitogenic signaling in human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKD1 mediates mitogenic signaling in PANC-1 and suggests that this enzyme could be a novel target for the development of therapeutic drugs that restrict the proliferation of these cells. ..
  40. Yoo J, Chung C, Slice L, Sinnett Smith J, Rozengurt E. Protein kinase D mediates synergistic expression of COX-2 induced by TNF-{alpha} and bradykinin in human colonic myofibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C1576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase C (PKC) inhibitors Ro31-8220 and GF-109203X, and Gö-6976, an inhibitor of conventional PKCs and protein kinase D (PKD)...
  41. Eisenberg Lerner A, Kimchi A. PKD is a kinase of Vps34 that mediates ROS-induced autophagy downstream of DAPk. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that both the tumor-suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) and protein kinase D (PKD), which we previously showed to be phosphorylated and consequently activated by DAPk, mediate the ..
  42. Sundram V, Chauhan S, Jaggi M. Emerging roles of protein kinase D1 in cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the structural and functional aspects of PKD1 and highlight the pathobiological roles of this kinase in cancer. ..
  43. Díaz Añel A. Phospholipase C beta3 is a key component in the Gbetagamma/PKCeta/PKD-mediated regulation of trans-Golgi network to plasma membrane transport. Biochem J. 2007;406:157-65 pubmed
    The requirement of DAG (diacylglycerol) to recruit PKD (protein kinase D) to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) for the targeting of transport carriers to the cell surface, has led us to a search for new components involved in this regulatory ..
  44. Eiseler T, Döppler H, Yan I, Goodison S, Storz P. Protein kinase D1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase expression and inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R13 pubmed publisher
    ..samples of invasive breast cancer and normal breast, as well as breast cancer cell lines, were evaluated for protein kinase D (PKD) expression, to test if altered expression could serve as a marker for invasive breast cancer...
  45. Iglesias T, Cabrera Poch N, Mitchell M, Naven T, Rozengurt E, Schiavo G. Identification and cloning of Kidins220, a novel neuronal substrate of protein kinase D. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40048-56 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) is a serine/threonine kinase regulated by diacylglycerol signaling pathways with unique domain composition and enzymatic properties, still awaiting identification of its specific substrate(s)...
  46. Watkins J, Lewandowski K, Meek S, Storz P, Toker A, Piwnica Worms H. Phosphorylation of the Par-1 polarity kinase by protein kinase D regulates 14-3-3 binding and membrane association. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18378-83 pubmed publisher
    ..that Par-1b is also regulated by another arm of the PKC pathway, one that involves novel PKCs (nPKC) and protein kinase D. Treatment of cells with the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) potently stimulated ..
  47. Liljedahl M, Maeda Y, Colanzi A, Ayala I, van Lint J, Malhotra V. Protein kinase D regulates the fission of cell surface destined transport carriers from the trans-Golgi network. Cell. 2001;104:409-20 pubmed
    When a kinase inactive form of Protein Kinase D (PKD-K618N) was expressed in HeLa cells, it localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and caused extensive tubulation...
  48. Olayioye M, Barisic S, Hausser A. Multi-level control of actin dynamics by protein kinase D. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein kinase D (PKD) is a serine-threonine kinase known to be involved in diverse biological functions ranging from vesicle ..
  49. Eiseler T, Köhler C, Nimmagadda S, Jamali A, Funk N, Joodi G, et al. Protein kinase D1 mediates anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of tumor cells via the zinc finger transcription factor Snail1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32367-80 pubmed
    ..Regardless of its phosphorylation status or following co-expression of constitutively active PKD, Snail1 was predominantly localized to cell nuclei...
  50. Avkiran M, Rowland A, Cuello F, Haworth R. Protein kinase d in the cardiovascular system: emerging roles in health and disease. Circ Res. 2008;102:157-63 pubmed publisher
    The protein kinase D (PKD) family is a recent addition to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase group of serine/threonine kinases, within the protein kinase complement of the mammalian genome...
  51. Kim M, Jang H, Kim J, Noh S, Song K, Cho J, et al. Epigenetic inactivation of protein kinase D1 in gastric cancer and its role in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:629-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase D (PKD) 1 influences cell migration by mediating both trans-Golgi vesicle fission and integrin recycling to the cell surface...
  52. Ha C, Wang W, Jhun B, Wong C, Hausser A, Pfizenmaier K, et al. Protein kinase D-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced gene expression and angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14590-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate a critical role of protein kinase D (PKD) and histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in VEGF-induced gene expression and angiogenesis...
  53. Wang S, Li X, Parra M, Verdin E, Bassel Duby R, Olson E. Control of endothelial cell proliferation and migration by VEGF signaling to histone deacetylase 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..that VEGF induces the phosphorylation of three conserved serine residues in histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) via protein kinase D, which promotes nuclear export of HDAC7 and activation of VEGF-responsive genes in ECs...
  54. Rybin V, Guo J, Steinberg S. Protein kinase D1 autophosphorylation via distinct mechanisms at Ser744/Ser748 and Ser916. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2332-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PKD-Ser916 autophosphorylation is widely used to track cellular PKD activity, this study exposes conditions leading to ..