PRKCH

Summary

Gene Symbol: PRKCH
Description: protein kinase C eta
Alias: PKC-L, PKCL, PRKCL, nPKC-eta, protein kinase C eta type
Species: human
Products:     PRKCH

Top Publications

  1. Bacher N, Zisman Y, Berent E, Livneh E. Isolation and characterization of PKC-L, a new member of the protein kinase C-related gene family specifically expressed in lung, skin, and heart. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:126-33 pubmed
    ..The ability of phorbol esters to bind to and stimulate the kinase activity of PKC-L was revealed by introducing the cDNA into COS cells. ..
  2. Hussaini I, Karns L, Vinton G, Carpenter J, Redpath G, Sando J, et al. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces protein kinase ceta-specific proliferative response in astrocytic tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22348-54 pubmed
  3. Maissel A, Marom M, Shtutman M, Shahaf G, Livneh E. PKCeta is localized in the Golgi, ER and nuclear envelope and translocates to the nuclear envelope upon PMA activation and serum-starvation: C1b domain and the pseudosubstrate containing fragment target PKCeta to the Golgi and the nuclear envelope. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1127-39 pubmed
  4. Kubo M, Hata J, Ninomiya T, Matsuda K, Yonemoto K, Nakano T, et al. A nonsynonymous SNP in PRKCH (protein kinase C eta) increases the risk of cerebral infarction. Nat Genet. 2007;39:212-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that a nonsynonymous SNP in a member of protein kinase C (PKC) family, PRKCH, was significantly associated with lacunar infarction in two independent Japanese samples (P = 5...
  5. Abu Ghanem S, Oberkovitz G, Benharroch D, Gopas J, Livneh E. PKCeta expression contributes to the resistance of Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines to apoptosis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1375-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKCeta could provide a new target aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments of HL and other cancer patients...
  6. Ueda E, Ohno S, Kuroki T, Livneh E, Yamada K, Yamanishi K, et al. The eta isoform of protein kinase C mediates transcriptional activation of the human transglutaminase 1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:9790-4 pubmed
    ..In comparison with other PKC isoforms, nPKCeta most effectively induced the luciferase activity. We suggest that nPKCeta, an epithelium-specific isoform of PKC, mediates the activation of the TGase 1 transcription. ..
  7. Takata Y, Hamada D, Miyatake K, Nakano S, Shinomiya F, Scafe C, et al. Genetic association between the PRKCH gene encoding protein kinase Ceta isozyme and rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:30-42 pubmed
    ..Multiple SNPs in the PRKCH gene encoding the eta isozyme of protein kinase C (PKCeta) showed significant single-locus disease associations, ..
  8. Serizawa M, Nabika T, Ochiai Y, Takahashi K, Yamaguchi S, Makaya M, et al. Association between PRKCH gene polymorphisms and subcortical silent brain infarction. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..study has shown significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the protein kinase C eta (PRKCH) gene with cerebral infarction, particularly, with lacunar infarction...
  9. Wu L, Shen Y, Liu X, Ma X, Xi B, Mi J, et al. The 1425G/A SNP in PRKCH is associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage in a Chinese population. Stroke. 2009;40:2973-6 pubmed publisher
    b>PRKCH (the gene encoding protein kinase C eta) has a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The 1425G/A SNP in PRKCH (rs2230500) is significantly associated with ischemic stroke in Japanese...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rotem Dai N, Oberkovitz G, Abu Ghanem S, Livneh E. PKCeta confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKCeta could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments. ..
  2. Raveh Amit H, Hai N, Rotem Dai N, Shahaf G, Gopas J, Livneh E. Protein kinase C? activates NF-?B in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We and others have previously shown that PKC? confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKC? is involved in NF-?B signaling leading to drug resistance. ..
  3. Kashiwagi M, Ohba M, Watanabe H, Ishino K, Kasahara K, Sanai Y, et al. PKCeta associates with cyclin E/cdk2/p21 complex, phosphorylates p21 and inhibits cdk2 kinase in keratinocytes. Oncogene. 2000;19:6334-41 pubmed
    ..Among the known regulatory mechanisms of cdk2 activity, dephosphorylation of Thr160 was demonstrated. Oncogene (2000) 19, 6334 - 6341. ..
  4. Goto Y, Hishida A, Matsuo K, Tajima K, Morita E, Naito M, et al. PRKCH gene polymorphism is associated with the risk of severe gastric atrophy. Gastric Cancer. 2010;13:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3783799) of the PRKCH gene, which encodes the eta isozyme of protein kinase C (PKCeta), has been reported to be a tag single nucleotide ..
  5. Park I, Wang J, Groopman J. HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes. Blood. 2001;97:352-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway. ..
  6. Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E. HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta. FASEB J. 2002;16:546-54 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms. ..
  7. Weyrich P, Neuscheler D, Melzer M, Hennige A, Haring H, Lammers R. The Par6alpha/aPKC complex regulates Akt1 activity by phosphorylating Thr34 in the PH-domain. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;268:30-6 pubmed
    ..In summary, Par6alpha-mediated inhibition of insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis in C2C12 cells depends on the direct interaction of Par6alpha with aPKC and on aPKC-mediated T34 phosphorylation of Akt1. ..
  8. Eckschlager T, Adam V, Hrabeta J, Figova K, Kizek R. Metallothioneins and cancer. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2009;10:360-75 pubmed
    ..MTs are also involved with several important proteins e.g. p53, NF-kappaB, PKCl, and GTPase Rab3A...
  9. Ma L, Shan Y, Bai R, Xue L, Eide C, Ou J, et al. A therapeutically targetable mechanism of BCR-ABL-independent imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:252ra121 pubmed publisher
    ..signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is sustained after IM treatment because of up-regulation of PRKCH, which encodes the protein kinase C (PKC) family member PKCη, an activator of CRAF...
  10. Aeder S, Martin P, Soh J, Hussaini I. PKC-eta mediates glioblastoma cell proliferation through the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2004;23:9062-9 pubmed
    ..However, activation of Akt, but not mTOR was inhibited by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002. This study identifies Akt and mTOR as downstream targets of PKC-eta that are involved in GBM cell proliferation. ..
  11. Wheeler E, Huang N, Bochukova E, Keogh J, Lindsay S, Garg S, et al. Genome-wide SNP and CNV analysis identifies common and low-frequency variants associated with severe early-onset obesity. Nat Genet. 2013;45:513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..971 severely obese children and 1,990 controls identified 4 new loci associated with severe obesity (LEPR, PRKCH, PACS1 and RMST)...
  12. Yang G, Fang W, Liu T, He F, Chen X, Zhou Y, et al. Gene expression profiling of bone marrow-derived stromal cells seeded onto a sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched-treated titanium implant surface: The role of the Wnt pathway. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;61:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..after SLA treatment, which included Apc2, Fzd1, Frzb, Wnt16, Fzd2, Plau, Wnt5b, Wnt5a, Lrp6, Wnt9a, Sfrp4, Prkch, Calcoco1, Ccnd1, Wif1, Fzd4, Myc, LRP5, and Lect2...
  13. Libersan D, Merhi Y. Platelet P-selectin expression: requirement for protein kinase C, but not protein tyrosine kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89:1016-23 pubmed
    ..The novel epsilon and eta and atypical zeta, but not the conventional alpha and beta and the novel delta PKCs, may be involved in this process. ..
  14. Kubo M. [Genetic risk factors of ischemic stroke identified by a genome-wide association study]. Brain Nerve. 2008;60:1339-46 pubmed
    ..We used a two-stage screening method and identified 2 genes related to the susceptibility of ischemic stroke: PRKCH and AGTRL1...
  15. Zhu Y, Wang P, Zhang L, Bai G, Yang C, Wang Y, et al. Superhero Rictor promotes cellular differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Death Differ. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Rictor is able to interact with Prkch and facilitate Prkch phosphorylation at Ser-642...
  16. Chowdhury I, Koyanagi Y, Kobayashi S, Hamamoto Y, Yoshiyama H, Yoshida T, et al. The phorbol ester TPA strongly inhibits HIV-1-induced syncytia formation but enhances virus production: possible involvement of protein kinase C pathway. Virology. 1990;176:126-32 pubmed
  17. van Baal J, de Widt J, Divecha N, van Blitterswijk W. Translocation of diacylglycerol kinase theta from cytosol to plasma membrane in response to activation of G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9870-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with the concept that hormone-induced PKC activation regulates the intracellular localization of DGK, which may be important in the negative regulation of PKCepsilon and/or PKCeta activity. ..
  18. Shahaf G, Rotem Dai N, Koifman G, Raveh Amit H, Frost S, Livneh E. PKC? is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:789-99 pubmed publisher
  19. Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson E, Wilson S. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:1443-52 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells. ..
  20. Ambrus L, Oláh A, Oláh T, Balla G, Saleem M, Orosz P, et al. Inhibition of TRPC6 by protein kinase C isoforms in cultured human podocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:2771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is proposed that targeted manipulation of certain PKC isoforms might be beneficial in certain proteinuric kidney diseases with altered TRPC6 functions. ..
  21. Kitoh R, Nishio S, Ogawa K, Okamoto M, Kitamura K, Gyo K, et al. SOD1 gene polymorphisms in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Acta Otolaryngol. 2016;136:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..were observed in four SNPs from three genes, Glutathione-S-transferase pai 1 (GSTP1), proteine kinase C heta (PRKCH), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), in terms of allele frequency between SSNHL patients and HapMap controls...
  22. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley L, Capitani S. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:332-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta. ..
  23. Masso Welch P, Winston J, Edge S, Darcy K, Asch H, Vaughan M, et al. Altered expression and localization of PKC eta in human breast tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001;68:211-23 pubmed
    ..The invasive tumors which possessed high PKC eta staining were associated with positive lymph node status. These results demonstrate that quantitative and qualitative alterations in PKC eta occur in human breast cancers. ..
  24. Uht R, Amos S, Martin P, Riggan A, Hussaini I. The protein kinase C-eta isoform induces proliferation in glioblastoma cell lines through an ERK/Elk-1 pathway. Oncogene. 2007;26:2885-93 pubmed
    ..Elk-1 target genes involved in GBM proliferative responses have yet to be identified. ..
  25. Kamioka N, Akahane T, Kohno Y, Kuroki T, Iijima M, Honma I, et al. Protein kinase C delta and eta differently regulate the expression of loricrin and Jun family proteins in human keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that inverse effects of PKCdelta and PKCeta on loricrin expression attributes to the expression of c-Jun and JunD. ..
  26. Torisu K, Zhang X, Nonaka M, Kaji T, Tsuchimoto D, Kajitani K, et al. PKC? deficiency improves lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Genes Cells. 2016;21:1030-1048 pubmed publisher
    Genomewide association studies have shown that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in PRKCH is associated with cerebral infarction and atherosclerosis-related complications...
  27. Porter S, Magee J. PRKCH regulates hematopoietic stem cell function and predicts poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. Exp Hematol. 2017;53:43-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified PRKCH (protein kinase C eta) as a gene that is highly expressed in both mouse and human HSCs, as well as in LSCs from ..
  28. Li J, Luo M, Xu X, Sheng W. Association between 1425G/A SNP in PRKCH and ischemic stroke among Chinese and Japanese populations: a meta-analysis including 3686 cases and 4589 controls. Neurosci Lett. 2012;506:55-8 pubmed publisher
    Meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between 1425G/A SNP in PRKCH (the gene encoding for protein kinase C ?) and ischemic stroke among Chinese and Japanese populations...
  29. Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19364-9 pubmed
    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..
  30. Ward N, Gravitt K, O Brian C. Inhibition of protein kinase C by a synthetic peptide corresponding to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein. Cancer Lett. 1995;88:37-40 pubmed
  31. Yu G, Shen F, Sturch S, Aquino A, Glazer R, Felsted R. Regulation of HIV-1 gag protein subcellular targeting by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:4792-6 pubmed
    ..This signal may provide a mechanism for the cellular regulation of virus development through modulation of gag protein-related developmental steps such as capsid targeting, assembly, encapsidation, budding, and maturation. ..
  32. Liyanage M, Frith D, Livneh E, Stabel S. Protein kinase C group B members PKC-delta, -epsilon, -zeta and PKC-L(eta). Comparison of properties of recombinant proteins in vitro and in vivo. Biochem J. 1992;283 ( Pt 3):781-7 pubmed
    ..Consistent with their ability to bind phorbol ester, recombinant PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon are down-regulated in COS cells by prolonged treatment with phorbol ester, whereas PKC-zeta protein levels remain unaltered. ..
  33. Ruegg C, Strand M. Inhibition of protein kinase C and anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx in Jurkat T cells by a synthetic peptide with sequence identity to HIV-1 gp41. J Immunol. 1990;144:3928-35 pubmed
  34. Brändlin I, Hübner S, Eiseler T, Martinez Moya M, Horschinek A, Hausser A, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC)eta-mediated PKC mu activation modulates ERK and JNK signal pathways. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6490-6 pubmed
  35. Cheng H, Wang F, Ding X, Ding H, Song X. Association of PRKCH gene with lacunar infarction in a local Chinese Han population. Neurosci Lett. 2009;464:146-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence indicated that the PRKCH gene was a susceptibility gene for lacunar infarction in a Japanese population...
  36. Kittel Schneider S, Lorenz C, Auer J, Weißflog L, Reif A. DGKH genetic risk variant influences gene expression in bipolar affective disorder. J Affect Disord. 2016;198:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of DGKH1, DGKH2, INPP5E, PI4K2B, PIK4CA, PLCG2, PRKCA, PRKCD, PRKCE and PRKCH was analysed by qRT PCR. DGKH1 expression was increased in peripheral blood of risk variant carriers (p=0.027)...
  37. Micheva Viteva S, Shou Y, Ganguly K, Wu T, Hong Geller E. PKC-η-MARCKS Signaling Promotes Intracellular Survival of Unopsonized Burkholderia thailandensis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:231 pubmed publisher
    ..thailandensis CDC2721121 within monocytic THP-1 cells and found that ≥75% knock-down of PRKCH transcript levels reduced intracellular bacterial load 100% more efficiently when compared to growth in cells ..
  38. Badou A, Bennasser Y, Moreau M, Leclerc C, Benkirane M, Bahraoui E. Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: implication of protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J Virol. 2000;74:10551-62 pubmed
    ..This production of IL-10 induced by Tat could participate in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. ..
  39. Matsumura M, Tanaka N, Kuroki T, Ichihashi M, Ohba M. The eta isoform of protein kinase C inhibits UV-induced activation of caspase-3 in normal human keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:350-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that PKC eta negatively regulates UV-induced apoptosis through its localization, resistance to cleavage, and the p38 MAPK pathway. ..
  40. Lachmann S, Rommeleare J, Nüesch J. Novel PKCeta is required to activate replicative functions of the major nonstructural protein NS1 of minute virus of mice. J Virol. 2003;77:8048-60 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results underline the tight interconnection between PKC-mediated signaling and the parvoviral life cycle. ..
  41. Luciano M, Evans D, Hansell N, Medland S, Montgomery G, Martin N, et al. A genome-wide association study for reading and language abilities in two population cohorts. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results implicate novel candidates for study in additional cohorts for reading and language abilities...
  42. Matsuo R, Ago T, Hata J, Kuroda J, Wakisaka Y, Sugimori H, et al. Impact of the 1425G/A polymorphism of PRKCH on the recurrence of ischemic stroke: Fukuoka Stroke Registry. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014;23:1356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2230500 single-nucleotide polymorphism) in exon 9 of the protein kinase C eta (PRKCH) gene is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke: stroke incidence is significantly higher in the subjects ..
  43. Palmer R, Ridden J, Parker P. Identification of multiple, novel, protein kinase C-related gene products. FEBS Lett. 1994;356:5-8 pubmed
    ..The origin and relationships of these predicted proteins is discussed. ..
  44. Smith C, Lau K, Rahmani Z, Dho S, Brothers G, She Y, et al. aPKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates asymmetric membrane localization of the cell fate determinant Numb. EMBO J. 2007;26:468-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a model in which phosphorylation of Numb by aPKC regulates its polarized distribution in epithelial cells as well as during asymmetric cell divisions. ..
  45. Boi M, Todaro M, Vurchio V, Yang S, MOON J, Kwee I, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor OTX015/MK-8628 in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: an alternative modality to overcome resistant phenotypes. Oncotarget. 2016;7:79637-79653 pubmed publisher
    ..factors (E2F2, NFKBIZ, FOS, JUNB, ID1, HOXA5 and HOXC6), members of multiple signaling pathways (ITK, PRKCH, and MKNK2), and histones (clusters 1-3)...
  46. Burnette B, Yu G, Felsted R. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 gag proteins by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8698-703 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the identification of a highly conserved consensus PKC phosphorylation site motif in the HIV-1 gag protein at Ser111 and suggests that PKC phosphorylation plays an important role in gag protein function. ..
  47. Wolf D, Giese S, Witte V, Krautkrämer E, Trapp S, Sass G, et al. Novel (n)PKC kinases phosphorylate Nef for increased HIV transcription, replication and perinuclear targeting. Virology. 2008;370:45-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the activation of nPKCs by Nef is required to increase viral replication/infectivity and direct the subcellular localization of Nef. ..
  48. McFall T, Patki M, Rosati R, Ratnam M. Role of the short isoform of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer cell invasiveness at estrogen and progesterone levels in the pre- and post-menopausal ranges. Oncotarget. 2015;6:33146-64 pubmed publisher
    ..g., HES1, PRKCH, ELF5, TM4SF1), leading to invasiveness...
  49. Jakobovits A, Rosenthal A, Capon D. Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1990;9:1165-70 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that PKC regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation, suggesting a key role for the mitogenic induction of trans-activation in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth. ..
  50. Parada N, Cruikshank W, Danis H, Ryan T, Center D. IL-16- and other CD4 ligand-induced migration is dependent upon protein kinase C. Cell Immunol. 1996;168:100-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a role for PKC in CD4-mediated migratory responses. ..
  51. Huang M, Bond V. Involvement of protein kinase C in HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in primary endothelium. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25:375-89 pubmed
  52. Hussaini I, Carpenter J, Redpath G, Sando J, Shaffrey M, VandenBerg S. Protein kinase C-eta regulates resistance to UV- and gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells by preventing caspase-9 activation. Neuro Oncol. 2002;4:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that resistance to UV and gamma irradiation in glioblastoma cell lines is modified significantly by PKC-eta expression and that PKC-eta appears to block the apoptotic cascade at caspase-9 activation. ..
  53. Vattemi G, Tonin P, Mora M, Filosto M, Morandi L, Savio C, et al. Expression of protein kinase C isoforms and interleukin-1beta in myofibrillar myopathy. Neurology. 2004;62:1778-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that protein kinase C and interleukin-1beta may play a role in the pathogenesis of myofibrillar myopathy. ..
  54. Kitazono T, Kubo M, Hata J, Ibayashi S, Kiyohara Y, Iida M. [Molecular epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases; the Hisayama study and the Fukuoka Stroke Registry (FSR)]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2008;48:892-5 pubmed
    ..We performed a genome-wide case-control study and found that a nonsynonymous SNP in PRKCH encoding a member of protein kinase C (PKCC eta) was significantly associated with brain infarction...
  55. Ruegg C, Strand M. A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium influx. Cell Immunol. 1991;137:1-13 pubmed
  56. Carnegie G, Smith F, McConnachie G, Langeberg L, Scott J. AKAP-Lbc nucleates a protein kinase D activation scaffold. Mol Cell. 2004;15:889-99 pubmed
    ..This configuration illustrates the utility of kinase anchoring as a mechanism to constrain the action of broad-spectrum enzymes. ..
  57. Sun L, Zhang Z, Ma M, Xu G, Liu X. A quantitative assessment of the association between 1425G/A polymorphism in PRKCH and risk of stroke. Neuromolecular Med. 2014;16:814-20 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies suggested an association between 1425G/A polymorphism in PRKCH and stroke risk, but the results were inconsistent...
  58. Pedros C, Canonigo Balancio A, Kong K, Altman A. Requirement of Treg-intrinsic CTLA4/PKC? signaling pathway for suppressing tumor immunity. JCI Insight. 2017;2: pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of PKC?-deficient (Prkch-/-) Tregs in the tumor microenvironment was associated with a significantly increased expression of the ..
  59. Zhu J, Yan J, Kuai Z, Gao W, Tang J, Jia E, et al. The role of PRKCH gene variants in coronary artery disease in a Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:1777-82 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to assess the influences of PRKCH gene variants (1425G/A and _15) on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Chinese population...
  60. Pal D, Outram S, Basu A. Novel regulation of protein kinase C-?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of PKC? but not PKC? inhibited PKC activator-induced upregulation of PKC?. Thus, our results suggest that the regulation of PKC? is unique and PKC? is required for the PKC activator-induced upregulation of PKC?. ..
  61. Zurgil U, Ben Ari A, Atias K, Isakov N, Apte R, Livneh E. PKCη promotes senescence induced by oxidative stress and chemotherapy. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1531 pubmed publisher
    ..This will improve our ability to develop new strategies to harness senescence as a potential cancer therapy in the future. ..
  62. Gupta S, Aggarwal S, Kim C, Gollapudi S. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 recombinant gp120 induces changes in protein kinase C isozymes--a preliminary report. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1994;16:197-204 pubmed
    ..The most striking change was observed in PKC-zeta isozymes levels. This study for the first time demonstrates that HIV-1 gp120 affects calcium-independent PKC isozymes in U937 cells. ..
  63. Okuda H, Hirai S, Takaki Y, Kamada M, Baba M, Sakai N, et al. Direct interaction of the beta-domain of VHL tumor suppressor protein with the regulatory domain of atypical PKC isotypes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;263:491-7 pubmed
    ..Since aPKC isotypes have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis, these results suggest that aPKC isotypes are potential direct target of the VHL beta-domain. ..
  64. Díaz Añel A. Phospholipase C beta3 is a key component in the Gbetagamma/PKCeta/PKD-mediated regulation of trans-Golgi network to plasma membrane transport. Biochem J. 2007;406:157-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate that fission of transport carriers at the TGN is dependent on PI-PLCs, specifically PLCbeta3, which is necessary to activate PKCeta and PKD in that Golgi compartment, via DAG production. ..
  65. Shirai Y, Morioka S, Sakuma M, Yoshino K, Otsuji C, Sakai N, et al. Direct binding of RalA to PKC? and its crucial role in morphological change during keratinocyte differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of cytoskeletal regulation leading to drastic change of cell shape. ..
  66. Tozser J, Bagossi P, Boross P, Louis J, Majerova E, Oroszlan S, et al. Effect of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation on retroviral proteinase substrates. Eur J Biochem. 1999;265:423-9 pubmed
  67. Nunnari G, Smith J, Daniel R. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer. ..
  68. Raveh Amit H, Maissel A, Poller J, Marom L, Elroy Stein O, Shapira M, et al. Translational control of protein kinase Ceta by two upstream open reading frames. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work further suggests that translational regulation could provide an additional level for controlling the expression of PKC family members, being more common than currently recognized. ..
  69. Chen Y, Chen P, Wu Y, Shie S, Chen S, Lee Chen G, et al. Protein kinase C? polymorphism and the susceptibilities to intracerebral hemorrhage in the Taiwan population. Neurosci Lett. 2012;528:170-3 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase C? (PRKCH) 1425G/A polymorphism has been suggested to be a susceptible genetic locus of stroke by genome-wide polymorphism analysis with several replication reports in the Asian populations...
  70. Zhang Z, Xu G, Zhu W, Cao L, Yan B, Liu X. PRKCH 1425G/A Polymorphism Predicts Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:1648-1653 pubmed publisher
    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a nonsynonymous SNP (1425G/A) in PRKCH which was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke...
  71. Denning M, Dlugosz A, Threadgill D, Magnuson T, Yuspa S. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor signal transduction pathway stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase C delta. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:5325-31 pubmed
  72. Zidovetzki R, Wang J, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Hofman F. Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:825-33 pubmed
    ..Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia. ..
  73. Brenner W, Färber G, Herget T, Wiesner C, Hengstler J, ThUroff J. Protein kinase C eta is associated with progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4001-6 pubmed
    ..PKC alpha, with known tumor-suppressor properties, was decreased in ccRCC versus normal tissue. These findings may become important for both classification and treatment of ccRCC. ..
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    ..These results indicate that PKC eta directs the induction of IRF-4 expression downstream of BLNK in the pre-BCR signaling pathway promoting kappa gene rearrangement. ..
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    ..Altogether, our studies establish PKCeta as a unique element in IFN signaling that plays a key and essential role in the generation of the regulatory effects of type I IFNs on normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. ..
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    ..This provided evidence of shared genetic risks of rheumatoid arthritis between the populations. ..
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    ..Deficiency of these gene expression levels might represent the feature related to T-cell immunodeficiency. The study might contribute to better understand the cellular immune features in CLL patients. ..
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    ..Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase. ..
  79. Vertommen D, Rider M, Ni Y, Waelkens E, Merlevede W, Vandenheede J, et al. Regulation of protein kinase D by multisite phosphorylation. Identification of phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and characterization by site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19567-76 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results show that PKD is a multisite phosphorylated enzyme and suggest that its phosphorylation may be an intricate process that regulates its biological functions in very distinct ways. ..
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    ..LPA and potentially other natural ligands primarily utilize a PKC-dependent pathway to modulate GSK-3. ..
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    ..Reduced expression of PKCeta may represent a molecular lesion in the development of more aggressive disease of HCC. ..
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    ..These results suggest that siRNA-mediated silencing of PKC? can be a potent tool to complement existing chemotherapy regimens for treating EBV(+) B lymphoma. ..
  84. Bacher N, Zisman Y, Berent E, Livneh E. Isolation and characterization of PKC-L, a new member of the protein kinase C-related gene family specifically expressed in lung, skin, and heart. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:1404 pubmed
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    ..These effects include Tat's ability to upregulate the synthesis of specific cytokines and to act as a growth factor. ..
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    ..Mutations of the Ets/heat shock factor binding sites caused loss of functional enhancer activity. These data elucidate transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of the PKC-eta gene. ..
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    ..We previously found that CPI-17 co-purified with casein kinase I in brain suggesting they are part of a complex and we now show that CPI-17 associates with the kinase domain of CKI isoforms. ..
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    ..We found associations of several SNPs and antidepressant response; those genes support the role of T cell (CD3E, PRKCH, PSMD9 and STAT3) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (UCN3) functions in treatment response...
  89. Solstad T, Bjørgo E, Koehler C, Strozynski M, Torgersen K, Tasken K, et al. Quantitative proteome analysis of detergent-resistant membranes identifies the differential regulation of protein kinase C isoforms in apoptotic T cells. Proteomics. 2010;10:2758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that in-depth proteomic analysis of DRMs provides a tool to study differential localization and regulation of signaling molecules important in health and disease. ..
  90. Fagerholm S, Morrice N, Gahmberg C, Cohen P. Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin CD18 chain by protein kinase C isoforms in leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1728-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CD18 after cell stimulation could lead to the recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins to the activated integrin, which may play a role in regulating its adhesive state or ability to signal. ..
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