Gene Symbol: PRKAR2B
Description: protein kinase cAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit beta
Alias: PRKAR2, RII-BETA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit, H_RG363E19.2, WUGSC:H_RG363E19.2, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory chain, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory subunit type II beta, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta
Species: human
Products:     PRKAR2B

Top Publications

  1. Scambler P, Oyen O, Wainwright B, Farrall M, Law H, Estivill X, et al. Exclusion of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as candidate genes for the defect causing cystic fibrosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1987;41:925-32 pubmed
    ..Two of these genes--those for the human homologue of the mouse type I regulatory subunit and the human homologue of the rat type II regulatory subunit--map to human chromosome 7. ..
  2. Budillon A, Cereseto A, Kondrashin A, Nesterova M, Merlo G, Clair T, et al. Point mutation of the autophosphorylation site or in the nuclear location signal causes protein kinase A RII beta regulatory subunit to lose its ability to revert transformed fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10634-8 pubmed
    The RII beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) contains an autophosphorylation site and a nuclear location signal, KKRK. We approached the structure-function analysis of RII beta by using site-directed mutagenesis...
  3. Laxminarayana D, Khan I, Mishra N, Olorenshaw I, Tasken K, Kammer G. Diminished levels of protein kinase A RI alpha and RI beta transcripts and proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1999;162:5639-48 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, reduced expression of RIalpha and RIbeta transcripts is associated with a decrement in RIalpha and RIbeta proteins and may contribute to deficient type I protein kinase A isozyme activity in SLE T cells. ..
  4. Lignitto L, Carlucci A, Sepe M, Stefan E, Cuomo O, Nistico R, et al. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Praja2 is required for efficient nuclear cAMP signalling and for PKA-mediated long-term memory. Thus, praja2 regulates the total concentration of R subunits, tuning the strength and duration of PKA signal output in response to cAMP. ..
  5. Levy F, Oyen O, Sandberg M, Tasken K, Eskild W, Hansson V, et al. Molecular cloning, complementary deoxyribonucleic acid structure and predicted full-length amino acid sequence of the hormone-inducible regulatory subunit of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from human testis. Mol Endocrinol. 1988;2:1364-73 pubmed
    ..the isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone for the hormone-inducible regulatory subunit RII beta (formerly called RII51) of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from a human testis cDNA library...
  6. Piles M, Fernandez Lozano C, Velasco Galilea M, González Rodríguez O, Sanchez J, Torrallardona D, et al. Machine learning applied to transcriptomic data to identify genes associated with feed efficiency in pigs. Genet Sel Evol. 2019;51:10 pubmed publisher
    ..II, PPARα/RXRα activation, and GPCR-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells and SMOX, IL4I1, PRKAR2B, CLOCK and CCK genes in liver...
  7. Mostafaei S, Kazemnejad A, Azimzadeh Jamalkandi S, Amirhashchi S, Donnelly S, Armstrong M, et al. Identification of Novel Genes in Human Airway Epithelial Cells associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) using Machine-Based Learning Algorithms. Sci Rep. 2018;8:15775 pubmed publisher
    ..The most significantly regulated of these genes included: PRKAR2B, GAD1, LINC00930 and SLITRK6...
  8. Weise S, Arumugam G, Villarreal A, Videm P, Heidrich S, Nebel N, et al. FOXG1 Regulates PRKAR2B Transcriptionally and Posttranscriptionally via miR200 in the Adult Hippocampus. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..overexpressing miR200 family members identified cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit (PRKAR2B) as a target of miR200 in neural cells...
  9. Chiarini A, Armato U, Pacchiana R, Dal Pra I. Proteomic analysis of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 multiprotein complexes in cultured normal adult human astrocytes under both basal and cytokine-activated conditions. Proteomics. 2009;9:1850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a first enticing glimpse into the intricate mechanisms regulating GCH1 activation by proinflammatory cytokines in NAHA, and may have therapeutic implications. ..

More Information


  1. Islam A, Jones H, Hiroi T, Lam J, Zhang J, Moss J, et al. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling induces TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release via anchoring of PKA regulatory subunit RIIbeta to BIG2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25364-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Liu S, Saloustros E, Mertz E, Tsang K, Starost M, Salpea P, et al. Haploinsufficiency for either one of the type-II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A improves the bone phenotype of Prkar1a+/- mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6080-92 pubmed publisher an unregulated PKA catalytic subunit and increased PKA type II (PKA-II) activity mediated by the PRKAR2A and PRKAR2B subunits...
  3. Su J, Wu W, Huang S, Xue R, Wang Y, Wan Y, et al. PKA-RIIB Deficiency Induces Brown Fatlike Adipocytes in Inguinal WAT and Promotes Energy Expenditure in Male FVB/NJ Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:578-591 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and in the brain...
  4. Fang E, Zhang X, Wang Q, Wang D. Identification of prostate cancer hub genes and therapeutic agents using bioinformatics approach. Cancer Biomark. 2017;20:553-561 pubmed publisher
    ..While CDH1, BMP2, NKX3-1, PPARG and PRKAR2B were identified as the hub genes in the PPI network...
  5. Ji Z, Mei F, Miller A, Thompson E, Cheng X. Protein kinase A (PKA) isoform RIIbeta mediates the synergistic killing effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21920-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Ferrero S, Vaira V, Del Gobbo A, Vicentini L, Bosari S, Beck Peccoz P, et al. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues. Histol Histopathol. 2015;30:473-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal ..
  7. Rovani M, Gasperin B, Ilha G, Ferreira R, Bohrer R, Duggavathi R, et al. Expression and molecular consequences of inhibition of estrogen receptors in granulosa cells of bovine follicles. J Ovarian Res. 2014;7:96 pubmed publisher
    ..that ESRs inhibition in the dominant follicle decreased the transcript levels of the GJA1 but not those of PRKAR2B, MRO or LRP11 genes...
  8. Kim S, Ho J, Jin H, Lee S, Lee S, Hong S, et al. Upregulated expression of BCL2, MCM7, and CCNE1 indicate cisplatin-resistance in the set of two human bladder cancer cell lines: T24 cisplatin sensitive and T24R2 cisplatin resistant bladder cancer cell lines. Investig Clin Urol. 2016;57:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes were PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B, CYCS, BCL2, BIRC3, DFFB, CASP6, CDK6, CCNE1, STEAP3, MCM7, ORC2, ORC5, ANAPC1, and ANAPC7, CDC7, CDC27, and SKP1...
  9. Yadav S, Pandey A, Kumar L, Devi A, Kushwaha B, Vishvkarma R, et al. The thermo-sensitive gene expression signatures of spermatogenesis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018;16:56 pubmed publisher
    ..The study has identified Acly, selV, SLC16A7(MCT-2), Txnrd1 and Prkar2B as potential heat sensitive targets in germ cells, which may be tightly regulated by heat sensitive miRNAs rno-..
  10. Evangelou E, Valdes A, Kerkhof H, Styrkarsdottir U, Zhu Y, Meulenbelt I, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies confirms a susceptibility locus for knee osteoarthritis on chromosome 7q22. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The associated signal is located within a large (500 kb) linkage disequilibrium block that contains six genes: PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, β), HPB1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1), COG5 (..
  11. Li Z, Zheng Z, Ruan J, Li Z, Zhuang X, Tzeng C. Integrated analysis miRNA and mRNA profiling in patients with severe oligozoospermia reveals miR-34c-3p downregulates PLCXD3 expression. Oncotarget. 2016;7:52781-52796 pubmed publisher
    ..Four miRNAs (miR-1246, miR-375, miR-410, and miR-758) and six mRNAs (SLC1A3, PRKAR2B, HYDIN, WDR65, PRDX1, and ADATMS5) were selected to validate the microarray data using quantitative real-time PCR...
  12. DeGiorgis J, Jaffe H, Moreira J, Carlotti C, Leite J, Pant H, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis of synaptosomes from human cerebral cortex. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:306-15 pubmed
    ..The study shows that new phosphoproteomic strategies can be used to analyze subcellular fractions from small amounts of tissue for the identification of phosphorylated residues for research and potentially for diagnostic purposes. ..
  13. Li P, Wang T, Buckley K, Chenine A, Popov S, Ruprecht R. Phosphorylation of HIV Nef by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Virology. 2005;331:367-74 pubmed
    ..As this mutation played a major role in abrogating the Nef effect on HIV replication in unstimulated primary cells, we postulate that Nef phosphorylation by PKA is an important step in the viral life cycle in resting cells. ..
  14. Sigloch F, Burk U, Biniossek M, Brabletz T, Schilling O. miR-200c dampens cancer cell migration via regulation of protein kinase A subunits. Oncotarget. 2015;6:23874-89 pubmed
    ..By bioinformatics, we define a miRNA target cluster consisting of PRKAR1A, PRKAR2B, PRKACB, and COF2, which is targeted by a group of 14 miRNAs.
  15. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Fan J, Nguyen T, Fahey J. HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro. AIDS. 1994;8:1016-7 pubmed
  16. Del Gobbo A, Peverelli E, Treppiedi D, Lania A, Mantovani G, Ferrero S. Expression of protein kinase A regulatory subunits in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues: A systematic review. Exp Cell Res. 2016;346:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The PKA regulatory subunit R2B (PRKAR2B) is highly expressed in benign, as well as in malignant differentiated and undifferentiated lesions...
  17. Isensee J, Schild C, Schwede F, Hucho T. Crosstalk from cAMP to ERK1/2 emerges during postnatal maturation of nociceptive neurons and is maintained during aging. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:2134-2146 pubmed publisher
    ..that nociceptive subgroups defined by the signaling components protein kinase A (PKA)-RIIβ (also known as PRKAR2B) and CaMKIIα (also known as CAMK2A) developed at around postnatal day 10, the time of nociceptor maturation...
  18. Harrich D, McMillan N, Munoz L, Apolloni A, Meredith L. Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:1595-606 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, Tat remains an attractive, virus-specific molecule and detailed understanding of specific protein interaction holds promise for future drug discovery. ..
  19. Chen H, Zhao J, Li Y, He L, Huang Y, Shu W, et al. Gene expression network regulated by DNA methylation and microRNA during microcystin-leucine arginine induced malignant transformation in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2018;289:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHDC1), protein kinase CAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit beta (PRKAR2B), nodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN), myosin light chain kinase 3 (MYLK3), epidermal growth factor ..
  20. Rios R, Celati C, Lohmann S, Bornens M, Keryer G. Identification of a high affinity binding protein for the regulatory subunit RII beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Golgi enriched membranes of human lymphoblasts. EMBO J. 1992;11:1723-31 pubmed
    ..Only the RII beta isoform was detected in the Golgi-rich fraction, although RII alpha has also been found to be present in these ..
  21. van Zuylen W, Doyon P, Clément J, Khan K, D Ambrosio L, Dô F, et al. Proteomic profiling of the TRAF3 interactome network reveals a new role for the ER-to-Golgi transport compartments in innate immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002747 pubmed publisher
  22. Saloustros E, Salpea P, Qi C, Gugliotti L, Tsang K, Liu S, et al. Hematopoietic neoplasms in Prkar2a-deficient mice. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015;34:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with inactivation of the Prkar2a and Prkar2b genes (coding for RIIα and RIIβ, respectively) are also viable but have not been studied for their ..
  23. Yukitake H, Furusawa M, Taira T, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. AAT-1, a novel testis-specific AMY-1-binding protein, forms a quaternary complex with AMY-1, A-kinase anchor protein 84, and a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and is phosphorylated by its kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45480-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both AAT-1 and AMY-1 play roles in spermatogenesis. ..
  24. Butt E, Gambaryan S, Göttfert N, Galler A, Marcus K, Meyer H. Actin binding of human LIM and SH3 protein is regulated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation on serine 146. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15601-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of LASP by cGK and cAK may be involved in cytoskeletal organization and cell motility. ..
  25. Sha J, Xue W, Dong B, Pan J, Wu X, Li D, et al. PRKAR2B plays an oncogenic role in the castration-resistant prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:6114-6129 pubmed publisher
    ..Followed functional validation experiments showed that PRKAR2B promoted CRPC cell proliferation and invasion, and inhibited CRPC cell apoptosis...
  26. Glantz S, Li Y, Rubin C. Characterization of distinct tethering and intracellular targeting domains in AKAP75, a protein that links cAMP-dependent protein kinase II beta to the cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:12796-804 pubmed
    ..are enriched in forebrain neurons and have distinct high affinity binding domains for the regulatory subunit (RII beta) of PKAII beta and components of the dendritic cytoskeleton. The selective accumulation of AKAP...
  27. Ghil S, Choi J, Kim S, Lee Y, Liao Y, Birnbaumer L, et al. Compartmentalization of protein kinase A signaling by the heterotrimeric G protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19158-63 pubmed
    ..This regulatory mechanism by which G(o) bifurcates PKA signaling may provide insights into how G(o) regulates complex processes such as neuritogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and cell transformation. ..
  28. Miki K, Eddy E. Identification of tethering domains for protein kinase A type Ialpha regulatory subunits on sperm fibrous sheath protein FSC1. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34384-90 pubmed
    ..This is apparently the first report of an RIalpha-specific protein kinase A anchoring protein tethering domain. ..
  29. Elliott M, Tolnay M, Tsokos G, Kammer G. Protein kinase A regulatory subunit type II beta directly interacts with and suppresses CREB transcriptional activity in activated T cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:3636-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nuclear RIIbeta can act as a repressor of CREB transcriptional activity in T cells, providing a potential functional significance for aberrant levels of nuclear RIIbeta in systemic lupus erythematosus T cells. ..
  30. Basso F, Rocchetti F, Rodriguez S, Nesterova M, Cormier F, Stratakis C, et al. Comparison of the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on signaling pathways, cell growth, and cell cycle control of adrenocortical cells. Horm Metab Res. 2014;46:883-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B inactivation have anti-apoptotic effects on the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R...
  31. Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Yokoyama M, Izumi T, Matsui M, Io K, et al. Phosphorylation of APOBEC3G by protein kinase A regulates its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of A3G can regulate the interaction between A3G and Vif. ..
  32. Wang X, Herberg F, Laue M, Wullner C, Hu B, Petrasch Parwez E, et al. Neurobeachin: A protein kinase A-anchoring, beige/Chediak-higashi protein homolog implicated in neuronal membrane traffic. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8551-65 pubmed
  33. Marx S, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N, et al. PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts. Cell. 2000;101:365-76 pubmed
    ..6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein, mAKAP. In failing human hearts, RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation. ..
  34. Yu P, Yang Z, Jones J, Wang Z, Owens S, Mueller S, et al. D1 dopamine receptor signaling involves caveolin-2 in HEK-293 cells. Kidney Int. 2004;66:2167-80 pubmed
    ..The majority of hD1Rs are distributed in lipid rafts. Heterologously and endogenously expressed D1Rs in renal cells are associated with and regulated by caveolin-2. ..
  35. Whittard J, Akiyama S. Positive regulation of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion by protein kinase A. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3265-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that PKA plays a key role in the signaling pathway, resulting from activation of beta(1) integrins, and that this enzyme may be required for upregulation of cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion. ..
  36. Zidovetzki R, Wang J, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Hofman F. Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:825-33 pubmed
    ..Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia. ..
  37. Tortora G, Clair T, Cho Chung Y. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type II beta regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:705-8 pubmed
    The type II beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII beta) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but ..
  38. Dwivedi Y, Rizavi H, Shukla P, Lyons J, Faludi G, Palkovits M, et al. Protein kinase A in postmortem brain of depressed suicide victims: altered expression of specific regulatory and catalytic subunits. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:234-43 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities in PKA may be critical in the pathophysiology of depression. ..
  39. Swingler S, Gallay P, Camaur D, Song J, Abo A, Trono D. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix. J Virol. 1997;71:4372-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase. ..
  40. Gagliano S, Tiwari A, Freeman N, Lieberman J, Meltzer H, Kennedy J, et al. Protein kinase cAMP-dependent regulatory type II beta (PRKAR2B) gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014;29:330-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse and human studies suggest that the protein kinase cAMP-dependent regulatory type II beta (PRKAR2B) gene may be involved in energy metabolism, and there is evidence that it is associated with clozapine's effects ..
  41. Berg J, Ree A, Sandvik J, Tasken K, Landmark B, Torjesen P, et al. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alters the effect of cAMP in thyroid cells by increasing the regulatory subunit type II beta of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32233-8 pubmed
    ..of 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated cells revealed a 4-fold increase in the cytosolic amount of the PKA regulatory subunit RII beta, whereas no changes were detected in the regulatory subunits RI alpha and RII alpha or the catalytic (C) subunit...
  42. Stefan E, Malleshaiah M, Breton B, Ear P, Bachmann V, Beyermann M, et al. PKA regulatory subunits mediate synergy among conserved G-protein-coupled receptor cascades. Nat Commun. 2011;2:598 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a direct mechanism by which coincident activation of G?s-coupled receptors controls the precision of adaptive responses of activated G?i-coupled receptor cascades. ..
  43. Vetter M, Zenn H, Mendez E, van den Boom H, Herberg F, Skålhegg B. The testis-specific C?2 subunit of PKA is kinetically indistinguishable from the common C?1 subunit of PKA. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:40 pubmed publisher
    ..This is also the case for their potency to inhibit catalytic activities of C?2 and C?1. We conclude that the regulatory complexes formed with either C?1 or C?2, respectively, are indistinguishable. ..
  44. Zhang P, Knape M, Ahuja L, Keshwani M, King C, Sastri M, et al. Single Turnover Autophosphorylation Cycle of the PKA RIIβ Holoenzyme. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002192 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously unappreciated molecular mechanism is an integral part of PKA signaling for type II holoenzymes. ..
  45. Huang L, Durick K, Weiner J, Chun J, Taylor S. D-AKAP2, a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein with a putative RGS domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11184-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of this domain raises the intriguing possibility that D-AKAP2 may interact with a Galpha protein thus providing a link between the signaling machinery at the plasma membrane and the downstream kinase. ..
  46. Adkins D, Aberg K, McClay J, Bukszar J, Zhao Z, Jia P, et al. Genomewide pharmacogenomic study of metabolic side effects to antipsychotic drugs. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..055). Genomewide significant finding were also found for SNPs in PRKAR2B, GPR98, FHOD3, RNF144A, ASTN2, SOX5 and ATF7IP2, as well as in several intergenic markers...
  47. Möller S, Alfieri A, Bertinetti D, Aquila M, Schwede F, Lolicato M, et al. Cyclic nucleotide mapping of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. ACS Chem Biol. 2014;9:1128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..So, this makes 7-CH-cAMP a promising activator of the HCN channels in vitro whose functionality can be translated in living cells. ..
  48. Faulds G, Ryden M, Ek I, Wahrenberg H, Arner P. Mechanisms behind lipolytic catecholamine resistance of subcutaneous fat cells in the polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2269-73 pubmed
    ..This may cause low in vivo lipolytic activity and enlarged sc fat cell size and promote later development of obesity in PCOS. ..
  49. Herberg F, Maleszka A, Eide T, Vossebein L, Tasken K. Analysis of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction with protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits: PKA isoform specificity in AKAP binding. J Mol Biol. 2000;298:329-39 pubmed
  50. Wainwright B, Lench N, Davies K, Scambler P, Kruyer H, Williamson R, et al. A human regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase localized by its linkage relationship to several cloned chromosome 7q markers. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1987;45:237-9 pubmed
  51. Tzitzivacos D, Tiemessen C, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Viral genetic determinants of nonprogressive HIV type 1 subtype C infection in antiretroviral drug-naive children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, LT46 Nef is unable to bind AP-1 and AP-2 and therefore is inactive on CD4 endocytosis. The biological relevance of these findings requires further investigation. ..
  52. Furusawa M, Ohnishi T, Taira T, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. AMY-1, a c-Myc-binding protein, is localized in the mitochondria of sperm by association with S-AKAP84, an anchor protein of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36647-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AMY-1 plays a role in spermatogenesis. ..
  53. Calebiro D, Hannawacker A, Lyga S, Bathon K, Zabel U, Ronchi C, et al. PKA catalytic subunit mutations in adrenocortical Cushing's adenoma impair association with the regulatory subunit. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5680 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the two mutations cause high basal catalytic activity and lack of regulation by cAMP through interference of complex formation between the regulatory and the catalytic subunits of PKA. ..
  54. Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PKA activity during HIV-1 infection abrogates Vpr cell cycle arrest. These findings provide new insight into the signaling event that activates Vpr cell cycle arrest, ultimately leading to the death of infected T cells. ..
  55. Keryer G, Luo Z, Cavadore J, Erlichman J, Bornens M. Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of type II beta cAMP-dependent protein kinase by cyclin B/p34cdc2 kinase impairs its binding to microtubule-associated protein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5418-22 pubmed
    ..By using truncated NH2-terminal RII beta fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and the mitotic protein kinase p34cdc2 isolated from HeLa cells or ..
  56. Vincent Dejean C, Cazabat L, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Tissier F, et al. Identification of a clinically homogenous subgroup of benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors characterized by alterations of the protein kinase A (PKA) subunits and high PKA activity. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:829-39 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA is a heterotetramer with two regulatory subunits (four genes: PRKAR1A, PRKAR1B, PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B) and two catalytic subunits...
  57. Elliott M, Shanks R, Khan I, Brooks J, Burkett P, Nelson B, et al. Down-regulation of IL-2 production in T lymphocytes by phosphorylated protein kinase A-RIIbeta. J Immunol. 2004;172:7804-12 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which serine 114 phosphorylation and nuclear localization of RIIbeta controls the regulation of gene expression in T cells. ..
  58. Chaudhry A, Zhang C, Granneman J. Characterization of RII(beta) and D-AKAP1 in differentiated adipocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C205-12 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that D-AKAP1/S-AKAP84 does not interact with PKA in differentiated C3H/10T1/2 adipocytes under the conditions tested...
  59. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey J. Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6676-80 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the HIV-induced augmentation of cAMP/PKA activity may be a key part of the mechanism responsible for all or part of the HIV-induced anergy of T lymphocytes. ..
  60. Ashton K, Reichelt M, Mustafa S, Teng B, Ledent C, Delbridge L, et al. Transcriptomic effects of adenosine 2A receptor deletion in healthy and endotoxemic murine myocardium. Purinergic Signal. 2017;13:27-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Few canonical paths were impacted, with altered Gnb1, Prkar2b, Pde3b and Map3k2 (among others) implicating modified G protein/cAMP/PKA and cGMP/NOS signalling...
  61. Marx S, Kurokawa J, Reiken S, Motoike H, D ARMIENTO J, Marks A, et al. Requirement of a macromolecular signaling complex for beta adrenergic receptor modulation of the KCNQ1-KCNE1 potassium channel. Science. 2002;295:496-9 pubmed
    ..Yotiao binds to hKCNQ1 by a leucine zipper motif, which is disrupted by an LQTS mutation (hKCNQ1-G589D). Identification of the hKCNQ1 macromolecular complex provides a mechanism for SNS modulation of cardiac APD through IKS. ..
  62. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Baldwin R, Insixiengmay P, Nel A, Fahey J. HIV inhibits the early steps of lymphocyte activation, including initiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. J Immunol. 1990;145:3699-705 pubmed
    ..Reduced availability of DAG presumably interferes with pkC activation and leads to decreased expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin and impaired proliferation. ..
  63. Luo Z, Singh I, Fujihira T, Erlichman J. Characterization of a minimal promoter element required for transcription of the mouse type II beta regulatory subunit (RII beta) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24738-47 pubmed
    The 5'-flanking DNA of the mouse RII beta subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase gene was characterized by transient transfection of RII beta-CAT constructs into mouse neuroblastoma cells (NB2a) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells ..
  64. Gullingsrud J, Kim C, Taylor S, McCammon J. Dynamic binding of PKA regulatory subunit RI alpha. Structure. 2006;14:141-9 pubmed
    ..The model structure is consistent with available experimental data. ..
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