Gene Symbol: PRKAR2A
Description: protein kinase cAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit alpha
Alias: PKR2, PRKAR2, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit, cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit RII alpha, protein kinase A, RII-alpha subunit, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory subunit type II alpha
Species: human
Products:     PRKAR2A

Top Publications

  1. Hemmings B, Aitken A, Cohen P, Rymond M, Hofmann F. Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5. Eur J Biochem. 1982;127:473-81 pubmed
  2. Westphal R, Soderling S, Alto N, Langeberg L, Scott J. Scar/WAVE-1, a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, assembles an actin-associated multi-kinase scaffold. EMBO J. 2000;19:4589-600 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose a previously unrecognized function for WAVE-1 as an actin-associated scaffolding protein that recruits PKA and Abl. ..
  3. Morikis D, Roy M, Newlon M, Scott J, Jennings P. Electrostatic properties of the structure of the docking and dimerization domain of protein kinase A IIalpha. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2040-51 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the structural requirements necessary for the formation of a stacked (rather than intertwined) dimer, which has consequences for the orientation of the functionally important and distinct faces. ..
  4. Pariset C, Weinman S. Differential localization of two isoforms of the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in human sperm: biochemical and cytochemical study. Mol Reprod Dev. 1994;39:415-22 pubmed
    ..These findings are in agreement with the concept of a concerted mechanism involving phosphorylation of both the axonemal microtubules and the fibrous structures for the regulation of mammalian sperm motion. ..
  5. Eide T, Coghlan V, Orstavik S, Holsve C, Solberg R, Skalhegg B, et al. Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and cell cycle-dependent subcellular distribution of the A-kinase anchoring protein, AKAP95. Exp Cell Res. 1998;238:305-16 pubmed
    ..The results show a distinct redistribution of AKAP95 during mitosis, suggesting that the interaction between AKAP95 and RIIalpha may be cell cycle-dependent. ..
  6. Gold M, Lygren B, Dokurno P, Hoshi N, McConnachie G, Tasken K, et al. Molecular basis of AKAP specificity for PKA regulatory subunits. Mol Cell. 2006;24:383-95 pubmed
  7. Coghlan V, Langeberg L, Fernandez A, Lamb N, Scott J. Cloning and characterization of AKAP 95, a nuclear protein that associates with the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:7658-65 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that AKAP 95 could play a role in targeting type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase for cAMP-responsive nuclear events. ..
  8. Huang L, Durick K, Weiner J, Chun J, Taylor S. D-AKAP2, a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein with a putative RGS domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11184-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of this domain raises the intriguing possibility that D-AKAP2 may interact with a Galpha protein thus providing a link between the signaling machinery at the plasma membrane and the downstream kinase. ..
  9. Alto N, Soderling S, Hoshi N, Langeberg L, Fayos R, Jennings P, et al. Bioinformatic design of A-kinase anchoring protein-in silico: a potent and selective peptide antagonist of type II protein kinase A anchoring. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4445-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, computer-based and peptide array screening approaches have generated a reagent that binds PKA with higher affinity than previously described AKAPs. ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Huang L, Durick K, Weiner J, Chun J, Taylor S. Identification of a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein that binds both type I and type II regulatory subunits. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8057-64 pubmed
    ..These results raise a novel possibility that the type I regulatory subunit may be anchored via anchoring proteins. ..
  2. Newlon M, Roy M, Morikis D, Hausken Z, Coghlan V, Scott J, et al. The molecular basis for protein kinase A anchoring revealed by solution NMR. Nat Struct Biol. 1999;6:222-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, this same dimerization motif is present in other signaling molecules, the S100 family. Therefore, the X-type four-helix bundle may represent a conserved fold for protein-protein interactions in signal transduction. ..
  3. Zhang L, Duan C, Binkley C, Li G, Uhler M, Logsdon C, et al. A transforming growth factor beta-induced Smad3/Smad4 complex directly activates protein kinase A. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2169-80 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate an important and previously unrecognized interaction between the TGFbeta and PKA signaling pathways. ..
  4. Zimmermann B, Chiorini J, Ma Y, Kotin R, Herberg F. PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5370-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP. ..
  5. Lignitto L, Carlucci A, Sepe M, Stefan E, Cuomo O, Nistico R, et al. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Praja2 is required for efficient nuclear cAMP signalling and for PKA-mediated long-term memory. Thus, praja2 regulates the total concentration of R subunits, tuning the strength and duration of PKA signal output in response to cAMP. ..
  6. Hausken Z, Coghlan V, Hastings C, Reimann E, Scott J. Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires isoleucines 3 and 5. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24245-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that two isoleucine side chains on each RII protomer are principle sites of contact with the conserved amphipathic helix binding domain on AKAPs. ..
  7. Zakhary D, Fink M, Ruehr M, Bond M. Selectivity and regulation of A-kinase anchoring proteins in the heart. The role of autophosphorylation of the type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:41389-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, these mechanisms may be involved in adding additional specificity in intracellular signaling in diverse cell types and under conditions of cAMP/PKA activation. ..
  8. Gullingsrud J, Kim C, Taylor S, McCammon J. Dynamic binding of PKA regulatory subunit RI alpha. Structure. 2006;14:141-9 pubmed
    ..The model structure is consistent with available experimental data. ..
  9. Forde N, Bazer F, Spencer T, Lonergan P. 'Conceptualizing' the Endometrium: Identification of Conceptus-Derived Proteins During Early Pregnancy in Cattle. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:156 pubmed publisher the conceptus compared to the endometrium (ARPC5L, CAPG, CKMT1, CSTB, HSPA8, HSPE1, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, TKT) as determined by RNA sequencing...
  10. Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Negri L, Fusco I, Miele R. PK2β ligand, a splice variant of prokineticin 2, is able to modulate and drive signaling through PKR1 receptor. Neuropeptides. 2018;71:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Using different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we examined the specificity of PKR1 and PKR2 G-protein coupling following PK2β binding...
  11. Grove B, Bruchey A. Intracellular distribution of gravin, a PKA and PKC binding protein, in vascular endothelial cells. J Vasc Res. 2001;38:163-75 pubmed
  12. Birkeli K, Llorente A, Torgersen M, Keryer G, Tasken K, Sandvig K. Endosome-to-Golgi transport is regulated by protein kinase A type II alpha. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1991-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results demonstrate that transport of ricin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the ER is regulated by PKA type II alpha isozyme. ..
  13. Ficarro S, Chertihin O, Westbrook V, White F, Jayes F, Kalab P, et al. Phosphoproteome analysis of capacitated human sperm. Evidence of tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-anchoring protein 3 and valosin-containing protein/p97 during capacitation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11579-89 pubmed
    ..Immunolocalization of VCP showed fluorescent staining in the neck of noncapacitated sperm. However, after capacitation, staining in the neck decreased, and most of the sperm showed fluorescent staining in the anterior head. ..
  14. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Fan J, Nguyen T, Fahey J. HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro. AIDS. 1994;8:1016-7 pubmed
  15. Dransfield D, Bradford A, Smith J, Martin M, Roy C, Mangeat P, et al. Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein. EMBO J. 1997;16:35-43 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that ezrin is a major AKAP in gastric parietal cells and may function to tether type II A-kinase to a region near the secretory canaliculus. ..
  16. Kapiloff M, Schillace R, Westphal A, Scott J. mAKAP: an A-kinase anchoring protein targeted to the nuclear membrane of differentiated myocytes. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 16):2725-36 pubmed
  17. Carnegie G, Smith F, McConnachie G, Langeberg L, Scott J. AKAP-Lbc nucleates a protein kinase D activation scaffold. Mol Cell. 2004;15:889-99 pubmed
    ..This configuration illustrates the utility of kinase anchoring as a mechanism to constrain the action of broad-spectrum enzymes. ..
  18. Wojtal K, de Vries E, Hoekstra D, Van IJzendoorn S. Efficient trafficking of MDR1/P-glycoprotein to apical canalicular plasma membranes in HepG2 cells requires PKA-RIIalpha anchoring and glucosylceramide. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3638-50 pubmed
  19. Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, Moeini A, Nowzari Dalini A, Masoudi Nejad A. Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67552 pubmed publisher
    ..ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong to modules 1 and 22...
  20. Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Marconi V, Florenzano F, Franchi S, Borsani E, et al. Prokineticin 2 upregulation in the peripheral nervous system has a major role in triggering and maintaining neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury model. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:301292 pubmed publisher
    The new chemokine Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) and its receptors (PKR1 and PKR2) have a role in inflammatory pain and immunomodulation...
  21. Baburski A, Sokanovic S, Andric S, Kostic T. Aging has the opposite effect on cAMP and cGMP circadian variations in rat Leydig cells. J Comp Physiol B. 2017;187:613-623 pubmed publisher
    ..circadian pattern of Pde7b and Pde8a); and circadian expression of protein kinase A subunits (Prkac/PRKAC and Prkar2a)...
  22. Beebe S, Salomonsky P, Holroyd C, Becker D. Differential expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes in normal human melanocytes and malignant melanomas. Cell Growth Differ. 1993;4:1005-12 pubmed
    ..Differences were noted for the ratios of RI/RII and RI holoenzyme/free RI subunit among different melanomas. ..
  23. Carr D, Hausken Z, Fraser I, Stofko Hahn R, Scott J. Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. Cloning and characterization of the RII-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:13376-82 pubmed
    ..The nanomolar affinity constant and the different patterns of RII-anchoring proteins in each tissue suggest that the type II alpha PKA holoenzyme may be specifically targeted to different locations in each type of cell. ..
  24. Zhang C, Min L, Liu J, Tian W, Han Y, Qu L, et al. Integrated analysis identified an intestinal-like and a diffuse-like gene sets that predict gastric cancer outcome. Tumour Biol. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Among genes overexpressed in intestinal subtype, ATPIF1, PRDX2, PRKAR2A, and SMC1A were correlated with positive prognosis...
  25. Herberg F, Maleszka A, Eide T, Vossebein L, Tasken K. Analysis of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction with protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits: PKA isoform specificity in AKAP binding. J Mol Biol. 2000;298:329-39 pubmed
  26. Wang X, Herberg F, Laue M, Wullner C, Hu B, Petrasch Parwez E, et al. Neurobeachin: A protein kinase A-anchoring, beige/Chediak-higashi protein homolog implicated in neuronal membrane traffic. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8551-65 pubmed
  27. Li P, Wang T, Buckley K, Chenine A, Popov S, Ruprecht R. Phosphorylation of HIV Nef by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Virology. 2005;331:367-74 pubmed
    ..As this mutation played a major role in abrogating the Nef effect on HIV replication in unstimulated primary cells, we postulate that Nef phosphorylation by PKA is an important step in the viral life cycle in resting cells. ..
  28. Han Y, Arroyo J, Ogut O. Human heart failure is accompanied by altered protein kinase A subunit expression and post-translational state. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;538:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, failing myocardium displays altered expression and post-translational modification of PKA subunits that may impact downstream signaling. ..
  29. Sun F, Hug M, Bradbury N, Frizzell R. Protein kinase A associates with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator via an interaction with ezrin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:14360-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that PKA II is linked physically and functionally to CFTR by an AKAP interaction, and they suggest that ezrin serves as an AKAP for PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CFTR. ..
  30. Dodge K, Khouangsathiene S, Kapiloff M, Mouton R, Hill E, Houslay M, et al. mAKAP assembles a protein kinase A/PDE4 phosphodiesterase cAMP signaling module. EMBO J. 2001;20:1921-30 pubmed
    ..Disruption of PKA- mAKAP interaction prevents this enhancement of PDE4D3 activity, suggesting that the proximity of both enzymes in the mAKAP signaling complex forms a negative feedback loop to restore basal cAMP levels. ..
  31. Murcia Belmonte V, Astillero López V, Esteban P. Anosmin 1 Interacts with the Prokineticin Receptor 2 In Vitro Indicating a Molecular Link Between Both Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Kallmann Syndrome. Protein Pept Lett. 2016;23:650-5 pubmed
    Sexual maturation and olfactory bulb defects found in prokineticin 2 (Pk2) and prokineticin receptor 2 (Pkr2) mutant mice resembling the phenotypic characteristics of Kallmann syndrome (KS), gave rise to the question of whether these ..
  32. Kong D, Shen Y, Liu G, Zuo S, Ji Y, Lu A, et al. PKA regulatory II? subunit is essential for PGD2-mediated resolution of inflammation. J Exp Med. 2016;213:2209-26 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling in macrophages, whereas its activation facilitated binding of the separated PKA regulatory II? subunit (PRKAR2A) to the transmembrane domain of IFN-? receptor, suppressed JAK2-STAT1 axis-mediated M1 polarization, and promoted ..
  33. Vijayaraghavan S, Liberty G, Mohan J, Winfrey V, Olson G, Carr D. Isolation and molecular characterization of AKAP110, a novel, sperm-specific protein kinase A-anchoring protein. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:705-17 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that AKAP110 shares compartments with both RI and RII isoforms of PKA and may function as a regulator of both motility- and head-associated functions such as capacitation and the acrosome reaction. ..
  34. Alto N, Soderling J, Scott J. Rab32 is an A-kinase anchoring protein and participates in mitochondrial dynamics. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:659-68 pubmed
    ..This implicates Rab32 as a participant in synchronization of mitochondrial fission. Thus, Rab32 is a dual function protein that participates in both mitochondrial anchoring of PKA and mitochondrial dynamics. ..
  35. Li H, Adamik R, Pacheco Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M. Protein kinase A-anchoring (AKAP) domains in brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1627-32 pubmed
    ..All findings are consistent with a role for BIG2 as an A kinase-anchoring protein (or AKAP) that could coordinate cAMP and ARF regulatory pathways. ..
  36. Ek P, Malm J, Lilja H, Carlsson L, Ronquist G. Exogenous protein kinases A and C, but not endogenous prostasome-associated protein kinase, phosphorylate semenogelins I and II from human semen. J Androl. 2002;23:806-14 pubmed
    ..In vivo, about half the protein kinase activity in seminal plasma was bound to prostasomes. PKA but not PKC purified from prostasomes could phosphorylate specific substrates, but they could phosphorylate either of the semenogelins. ..
  37. Masci A, Galgani M, Cassano S, De Simone S, Gallo A, De Rosa V, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces anergy in naive T lymphocytes through CD4-independent protein kinase-A-mediated signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:1117-24 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which HIVenv may modulate the processes of clonal expansion, homeostatic proliferation, and terminal differentiation of the naive T lymphocyte subset. ..
  38. Yang H, Li G, Wu J, Wang L, UHLER M, Simeone D. Protein kinase A modulates transforming growth factor-? signaling through a direct interaction with Smad4 protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this Smad4-PKA interaction was required for TGF?-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition, invasion of pancreatic tumor cells, and regulation of tumor growth in vivo. ..
  39. Burgers P, van der Heyden M, Kok B, Heck A, Scholten A. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs. Biochemistry. 2015;54:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, THAHIT provides a comprehensive overview of known and novel PKA-AKAP interaction domains and their PKA-R specificities. ..
  40. Swingler S, Gallay P, Camaur D, Song J, Abo A, Trono D. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix. J Virol. 1997;71:4372-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase. ..
  41. Dong F, Feldmesser M, Casadevall A, Rubin C. Molecular characterization of a cDNA that encodes six isoforms of a novel murine A kinase anchor protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:6533-41 pubmed
  42. Liapi C, Takahashi N, Raynaud F, Evain Brion D, Anderson W. Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal and psoriatic human fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:332-7 pubmed
  43. Schillace R, Andrews S, Liberty G, Davey M, Carr D. Identification and characterization of myeloid translocation gene 16b as a novel a kinase anchoring protein in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:1590-9 pubmed
    ..These experiments represent the first report of AKAPs in T cells and suggest that MTG16b is a novel AKAP that targets PKA to the Golgi of T lymphocytes. ..
  44. Heck D, Wortmann S, Kraus L, Ronchi C, Sinnott R, Fassnacht M, et al. Role of Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (EG-VEGF) and Its Receptors in Adrenocortical Tumors. Horm Cancer. 2015;6:225-36 pubmed
    ..mediated via the two G protein-coupled receptors prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2)...
  45. Kim S, Ho J, Jin H, Lee S, Lee S, Hong S, et al. Upregulated expression of BCL2, MCM7, and CCNE1 indicate cisplatin-resistance in the set of two human bladder cancer cell lines: T24 cisplatin sensitive and T24R2 cisplatin resistant bladder cancer cell lines. Investig Clin Urol. 2016;57:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes were PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B, CYCS, BCL2, BIRC3, DFFB, CASP6, CDK6, CCNE1, STEAP3, MCM7, ORC2, ORC5, ANAPC1, and ANAPC7, CDC7, CDC27, ..
  46. MacDougall M, Europe Finner G, Robson S. Human myometrial quiescence and activation during gestation and parturition involve dramatic changes in expression and activity of particulate type II (RII alpha) protein kinase A holoenzyme. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2194-205 pubmed
  47. Chiarini A, Armato U, Pacchiana R, Dal Pra I. Proteomic analysis of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 multiprotein complexes in cultured normal adult human astrocytes under both basal and cytokine-activated conditions. Proteomics. 2009;9:1850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a first enticing glimpse into the intricate mechanisms regulating GCH1 activation by proinflammatory cytokines in NAHA, and may have therapeutic implications. ..
  48. Song J, Li J, Liu H, Liu W, Feng Y, Zhou X, et al. Snapin interacts with G-protein coupled receptor PKR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:501-6 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in Prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor, have been identified in patients with Kallmann syndrome and/or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, characterized by delayed puberty and infertility...
  49. Landucci E, Lattanzi R, Gerace E, Scartabelli T, Balboni G, Negri L, et al. Prokineticins are neuroprotective in models of cerebral ischemia and ischemic tolerance in vitro. Neuropharmacology. 2016;108:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of OGD tolerance was associated with an increase in the expression of PK2, PKR1 and PKR2 mRNA and proteins and was prevented by addition of the antagonist PC7 into the medium during preconditioning...
  50. Collas P, Le Guellec K, Tasken K. The A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP95 is a multivalent protein with a key role in chromatin condensation at mitosis. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1167-80 pubmed
    ..We propose that AKAP95 is a multivalent molecule that in addition to anchoring a cAMP/PKA-signaling complex onto chromosomes, plays a role in regulating chromosome structure at mitosis. ..
  51. Liu S, Saloustros E, Mertz E, Tsang K, Starost M, Salpea P, et al. Haploinsufficiency for either one of the type-II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A improves the bone phenotype of Prkar1a+/- mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6080-92 pubmed publisher
    ..activity due to an unregulated PKA catalytic subunit and increased PKA type II (PKA-II) activity mediated by the PRKAR2A and PRKAR2B subunits...
  52. Cao Y, Zhang Z, Wang J, Miao M, Xu J, Shen Y, et al. Association between polymorphisms of prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and recurrent pregnancy loss. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2016;17:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..During the last decade, studies indicated that the expression patterns of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 and PKR2) are closely related to early pregnancy. However, there are few studies on the role of PKR1 and PKR2 in RPL...
  53. Willoughby D, Wong W, Schaack J, Scott J, Cooper D. An anchored PKA and PDE4 complex regulates subplasmalemmal cAMP dynamics. EMBO J. 2006;25:2051-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that gravin-associated PDE4D isoforms provide a means to rapidly terminate subplasmalemmal cAMP signals with concomitant effects on localized ion channels or enzyme activities. ..
  54. Shetzline M, Premont R, Walker J, Vigna S, Caron M. A role for receptor kinases in the regulation of class II G protein-coupled receptors. Phosphorylation and desensitization of the secretin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:6756-62 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the GRK-arrestin system regulates Class II G protein-coupled receptors. ..
  55. Kultgen P, Byrd S, Ostrowski L, Milgram S. Characterization of an A-kinase anchoring protein in human ciliary axonemes. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4156-66 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that we have identified the first human axonemal AKAP, a protein that likely plays a role in the signaling necessary for efficient modulation of ciliary beat frequency. ..
  56. Tzitzivacos D, Tiemessen C, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Viral genetic determinants of nonprogressive HIV type 1 subtype C infection in antiretroviral drug-naive children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, LT46 Nef is unable to bind AP-1 and AP-2 and therefore is inactive on CD4 endocytosis. The biological relevance of these findings requires further investigation. ..
  57. Scott J, Stofko R, McDonald J, Comer J, Vitalis E, Mangili J. Type II regulatory subunit dimerization determines the subcellular localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21561-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, anchored PKA holoenzyme topology may position the catalytic subunit and MAP2 as to allow its preferential phosphorylation upon kinase activation. ..
  58. Cho Chung Y, Nesterova M. Tumor reversion: protein kinase A isozyme switching. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1058:76-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, switching of PKA isozyme can cause tumor cells to undergo phenotypic reversion of the malignancy. ..
  59. Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PKA activity during HIV-1 infection abrogates Vpr cell cycle arrest. These findings provide new insight into the signaling event that activates Vpr cell cycle arrest, ultimately leading to the death of infected T cells. ..
  60. Huang F, Zhu Q, Zhu A, Wu X, Xie L, Wu X, et al. Mutants in the imprinted PICKLE RELATED 2 gene suppress seed abortion of fertilization independent seed class mutants and paternal excess interploidy crosses in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2017;90:383-395 pubmed publisher
    ..The causes of the failure of cellularization are poorly understood. In this study we identified PICKLE RELATED 2 (PKR2) mutations which suppress seed abortion in fis1/mea by restoring endosperm cellularization...
  61. Hedrick E, Agarwal E, Leiphrakpam P, Haferbier K, Brattain M, Chowdhury S. Differential PKA activation and AKAP association determines cell fate in cancer cells. J Mol Signal. 2013;8:10 pubmed publisher
  62. de Sousa S, Kawasaki K, Kawasaki M, Volponi A, Gomez R, Gomes C, et al. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;15:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization...
  63. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Baldwin R, Insixiengmay P, Nel A, Fahey J. HIV inhibits the early steps of lymphocyte activation, including initiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. J Immunol. 1990;145:3699-705 pubmed
    ..Reduced availability of DAG presumably interferes with pkC activation and leads to decreased expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin and impaired proliferation. ..
  64. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey J. Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6676-80 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the HIV-induced augmentation of cAMP/PKA activity may be a key part of the mechanism responsible for all or part of the HIV-induced anergy of T lymphocytes. ..
  65. Niu J, Vaiskunaite R, Suzuki N, Kozasa T, Carr D, Dulin N, et al. Interaction of heterotrimeric G13 protein with an A-kinase-anchoring protein 110 (AKAP110) mediates cAMP-independent PKA activation. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1686-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, AKAP110 significantly potentiated G alpha 13-induced activation of PKA. Thus, AKAP110 provides a link between heterotrimeric G proteins and cAMP-independent activation of PKA. ..
  66. Dema A, Schröter M, Perets E, Skroblin P, Moutty M, Deák V, et al. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Interaction Protein (GSKIP) Regulates ?-Catenin through Its Interactions with Both Protein Kinase A (PKA) and GSK3?. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:19618-30 pubmed publisher
  67. Fax P, Carlson C, Collas P, Tasken K, Esche H, Brockmann D. Binding of PKA-RIIalpha to the Adenovirus E1A12S oncoprotein correlates with its nuclear translocation and an increase in PKA-dependent promoter activity. Virology. 2001;285:30-41 pubmed
    ..Based on these results we conclude that E1A12S functions as a viral A-kinase anchoring protein redistributing RIIalpha from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it is involved in E1A12S-mediated activation of the E2 promoter. ..
  68. Ruppelt A, Mosenden R, Grönholm M, Aandahl E, Tobin D, Carlson C, et al. Inhibition of T cell activation by cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate requires lipid raft targeting of protein kinase A type I by the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin. J Immunol. 2007;179:5159-68 pubmed
    ..Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ezrin abrogates cAMP regulation of IL-2. We propose that Ezrin is essential in the assembly of the cAMP-mediated regulatory pathway that modulates T cell immune responses. ..
  69. Marx S, Kurokawa J, Reiken S, Motoike H, D ARMIENTO J, Marks A, et al. Requirement of a macromolecular signaling complex for beta adrenergic receptor modulation of the KCNQ1-KCNE1 potassium channel. Science. 2002;295:496-9 pubmed
    ..Yotiao binds to hKCNQ1 by a leucine zipper motif, which is disrupted by an LQTS mutation (hKCNQ1-G589D). Identification of the hKCNQ1 macromolecular complex provides a mechanism for SNS modulation of cardiac APD through IKS. ..
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