Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PRKAG1
Description: protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 1
Alias: AMPKG, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, gamma-1 subunit, AMPK gamma-1 chain, AMPK gamma1, protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit
- Hamilton S, Stapleton D, O Donnell J, Kung J, Dalal S, Kemp B, et al. An activating mutation in the gamma1 subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 2001;500:163-8 pubmed..These data illustrate the importance of the gamma1 subunit in the regulation of AMPK and its modulation by AMP. ..
- Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher..Inhibition of PKA activity during HIV-1 infection abrogates Vpr cell cycle arrest. These findings provide new insight into the signaling event that activates Vpr cell cycle arrest, ultimately leading to the death of infected T cells. ..
- Cheung P, Salt I, Davies S, Hardie D, Carling D. Characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase gamma-subunit isoforms and their role in AMP binding. Biochem J. 2000;346 Pt 3:659-69 pubmed..Labelling studies, using the reactive AMP analogue 8-azido-[(32)P]AMP, indicate that the gamma subunit may participate directly in the binding of AMP within the complex. ..
- Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Fan J, Nguyen T, Fahey J. HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro. AIDS. 1994;8:1016-7 pubmed
- Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Baldwin R, Insixiengmay P, Nel A, Fahey J. HIV inhibits the early steps of lymphocyte activation, including initiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. J Immunol. 1990;145:3699-705 pubmed..Reduced availability of DAG presumably interferes with pkC activation and leads to decreased expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin and impaired proliferation. ..
- Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey J. Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6676-80 pubmed..These studies show that the HIV-induced augmentation of cAMP/PKA activity may be a key part of the mechanism responsible for all or part of the HIV-induced anergy of T lymphocytes. ..
- Minokoshi Y, Alquier T, Furukawa N, Kim Y, Lee A, Xue B, et al. AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus. Nature. 2004;428:569-74 pubmed..Thus, hypothalamic AMPK plays a critical role in hormonal and nutrient-derived anorexigenic and orexigenic signals and in energy balance. ..
- Oliveira S, Zhang Y, Solis R, Isackson H, Bellahcene M, Yavari A, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates cardiac troponin I and alters contractility of murine ventricular myocytes. Circ Res. 2012;110:1192-201 pubmed publisher..We conclude that cTnI phosphorylation by AMPK may represent a novel mechanism of regulation of cardiac function. ..
- Stapleton D, Woollatt E, Mitchelhill K, Nicholl J, Fernandez C, Michell B, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase isoenzyme family: subunit structure and chromosomal location. FEBS Lett. 1997;409:452-6 pubmed..Human chromosomal localizations were determined for AMPK-alpha1 (5p11-p14), AMPK-beta1 (12q24.1-24.3) and AMPK-gamma1 (12q12-q14), respectively. ..
- Fisher K, Das B, Kim H, Clymer B, Gehring D, Smith D, et al. AMPK Promotes Aberrant PGC1Î² Expression To Support Human Colon Tumor Cell Survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3866-79 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that Ras oncogenesis relies on the aberrant activation of a PGC1Î²-dependent transcriptional pathway via a specific AMPK isoform. ..
- Sanli T, Linher Melville K, Tsakiridis T, Singh G. Sestrin2 modulates AMPK subunit expression and its response to ionizing radiation in breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32035 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that in breast cancer cells SESN2 is associated with AMPK, it is involved in regulation of basal and IR-induced expression and activation of this enzyme, and it mediates sensitization of cancer cells to IR. ..
- Zhang H, Ruan Z, Sang W. HDAC1/NF?B pathway is involved in curcumin inhibiting of Tat-mediated long terminal repeat transactivation. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3385-91 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our data provide new insights into understanding of the molecular mechanisms of curcumin inhibited Tat-regulated transcription, suggesting that targeting AMPK/HDAC1/NF?B pathway could serve as new anti-HIV-1 agents. ..
- Jassim G, Fernø J, Theisen F, Haberhausen M, Christoforou A, Håvik B, et al. Association study of energy homeostasis genes and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2011;44:15-20 pubmed publisher..We genotyped tagSNPs in several genes ( ADIPOQ, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3, FTO and FABP3) that regulate lipid and energy homeostasis for their possible association to ..
- Choi M, An C, Yoo N, Lee S. Frameshift mutations of PRKAG1 gene encoding an AMPK gamma subunit in colorectal cancers. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2014;23:343-5 pubmed
- Stapleton D, Mitchelhill K, Gao G, Widmer J, Michell B, Teh T, et al. Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:611-4 pubmed..5-kilobase mRNA and is most prominent in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. Isoforms of the beta and gamma subunits present in the human genome sequence reveal that the AMPK consists of a family of isoenzymes. ..
- Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Yokoyama M, Izumi T, Matsui M, Io K, et al. Phosphorylation of APOBEC3G by protein kinase A regulates its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1184-91 pubmed publisher..These data imply that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of A3G can regulate the interaction between A3G and Vif. ..
- Dërmaku Sopjani M, Almilaji A, Pakladok T, Munoz C, Hosseinzadeh Z, Blecua M, et al. Down-regulation of the Na+-coupled phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa by AMP-activated protein kinase. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2013;37:547-56 pubmed publisher..The AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK is a powerful regulator of NaPi-IIa and thus of renal tubular phosphate transport. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. ..
- Lee J, Park S, Takahashi Y, Wang H. The association of AMPK with ULK1 regulates autophagy. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15394 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK association with ULK1 plays an important role in autophagy induction, at least in part, by phosphorylation of raptor to lift the inhibitory effect of mTOR on the ULK1 autophagic complex. ..
- Moreno D, Viana R, Sanz P. Two-hybrid analysis identifies PSMD11, a non-ATPase subunit of the proteasome, as a novel interaction partner of AMP-activated protein kinase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2431-9 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that AMPK is able to interact physically with this subunit and modify its phosphorylation status, supporting a possible role for AMPK in regulating proteasome function. ..
- Dyck J, Gao G, Widmer J, Stapleton D, Fernandez C, Kemp B, et al. Regulation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity by the noncatalytic beta and gamma subunits. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17798-803 pubmed
- Swingler S, Gallay P, Camaur D, Song J, Abo A, Trono D. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix. J Virol. 1997;71:4372-7 pubmed..Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase. ..
- Zhu K, Chen X, Liu J, Ye H, Zhu L, Wu J. AMPK interacts with DSCAM and plays an important role in netrin-1 induced neurite outgrowth. Protein Cell. 2013;4:155-61 pubmed publisher..Together, these findings demonstrate that AMPK interacts with DSCAM and plays an important role in netrin-1 induced neurite outgrowth. Our study uncovers a previously unknown component, AMPK, in netrin-DSCAM signaling pathway. ..
- Li S, Bozzo L, Wu Z, Lu W, Romerio F. The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 activates the transcription factors c-Myc and CREB in human B cells. New Microbiol. 2010;33:13-24 pubmed..As both CREB and c-Myc are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, our findings might suggest a potential mechanism of B cell lymphomagenesis during HIV-1 infection. ..
- Wong K, Lodish H. A revised model for AMP-activated protein kinase structure: The alpha-subunit binds to both the beta- and gamma-subunits although there is no direct binding between the beta- and gamma-subunits. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36434-42 pubmed..There is no direct interaction between the beta- and gamma-subunits. ..
- Li C, Liu V, Chiu P, Chan D, Ngan H. Over-expressions of AMPK subunits in ovarian carcinomas with significant clinical implications. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:357 pubmed publisher..Correlations with clinical parameters suggest that expressions of AMPK subunits have different clinical implications in ovarian cancer development. ..
- Zidovetzki R, Wang J, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Hofman F. Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:825-33 pubmed..Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia. ..
- Woods A, Cheung P, Smith F, Davison M, Scott J, Beri R, et al. Characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase beta and gamma subunits. Assembly of the heterotrimeric complex in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10282-90 pubmed..These results suggest that AMPKbeta mediates the association of the heterotrimeric AMPK complex in vitro, and will facilitate future studies aimed at investigating the regulation of AMPK in vivo. ..
- Nakatsu Y, Iwashita M, Sakoda H, Ono H, Nagata K, Matsunaga Y, et al. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by associating with the CBS domain in the Î³ subunit. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24255-66 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that Pin1 plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, functioning as a negative regulator of AMPK. ..
- Mihaylova M, Shaw R. The AMPK signalling pathway coordinates cell growth, autophagy and metabolism. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1016-23 pubmed publisher..Here we review a number of recent breakthroughs in the mechanistic understanding of AMPK function, focusing on a number of newly identified downstream effectors of AMPK. ..
- Hallows K, Alzamora R, Li H, Gong F, Smolak C, Neumann D, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C672-81 pubmed publisher..V-ATPase activity may be coupled to the sensing of acid-base status via PKA and to metabolic status via AMPK. ..
- Beebe S, Oyen O, Sandberg M, Frøysa A, Hansson V, Jahnsen T. Molecular cloning of a tissue-specific protein kinase (C gamma) from human testis--representing a third isoform for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:465-75 pubmed
- Willows R, Navaratnam N, Lima A, Read J, Carling D. Effect of different Î³-subunit isoforms on the regulation of AMPK. Biochem J. 2017;474:1741-1754 pubmed publisher..Our studies show that activation of AMPK by 991 depends on the nature of the Î³-isoform. This finding may have implications for the design of isoform-selective AMPK activators. ..
- Rui Y, Xu Z, Patel B, Chen Z, Chen D, Tito A, et al. Huntingtin functions as a scaffold for selective macroautophagy. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:262-75 pubmed publisher..Our data uncover an important physiological function of Huntingtin and provide a missing link in the activation of selective macroautophagy in metazoans. ..
- Kahn B, Alquier T, Carling D, Hardie D. AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolism. Cell Metab. 2005;1:15-25 pubmed..Through signaling, metabolic, and gene expression effects, AMPK enhances insulin sensitivity and fosters a metabolic milieu that may reduce the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
- Gao G, Fernandez C, Stapleton D, Auster A, Widmer J, Dyck J, et al. Non-catalytic beta- and gamma-subunit isoforms of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8675-81 pubmed..The identification of isoform families for the AMPK subunits indicates the potential diversity of the roles of this highly conserved signaling system in nutrient regulation and utilization in mammalian cells. ..
- Klein H, Garneau L, Trinh N, Privé A, Dionne F, Goupil E, et al. Inhibition of the KCa3.1 channels by AMP-activated protein kinase in human airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C285-95 pubmed publisher..These observations argue for a regulation of KCa3.1 by AMPK in a functional epithelium through protein/protein interactions involving the gamma1-subunit of AMPK. ..
- Baba M, Hong S, Sharma N, Warren M, Nickerson M, Iwamatsu A, et al. Folliculin encoded by the BHD gene interacts with a binding protein, FNIP1, and AMPK, and is involved in AMPK and mTOR signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15552-7 pubmed..Our data suggest that FLCN, mutated in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and its interacting partner FNIP1 may be involved in energy and/or nutrient sensing through the AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways. ..
- Reinton N, Haugen T, Orstavik S, Skalhegg B, Hansson V, Jahnsen T, et al. The gene encoding the C gamma catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is a transcribed retroposon. Genomics. 1998;49:290-7 pubmed..Our results indicate that the C gamma gene is a retroposon specifically transcribed in primate testicular germ cells. ..