Gene Symbol: PRKACB
Description: protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta
Alias: PKA C-beta, PKACB, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic beta subunit isoform 4ab, protein kinase A catalytic subunit beta, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, beta catalytic subunit, protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta
Species: human
Products:     PRKACB

Top Publications

  1. Kvissel A, Ørstavik S, Eikvar S, Brede G, Jahnsen T, Collas P, et al. Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2795-809 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the nuclear PKA C subunit co-locates with HA95 in SFCs and regulates pre-mRNA splicing, possibly through a cAMP-independent mechanism. ..
  2. Funderud A, Henanger H, Hafte T, Amieux P, Orstavik S, Skålhegg B. Identification, cloning and characterization of a novel 47 kDa murine PKA C subunit homologous to human and bovine Cbeta2. BMC Biochem. 2006;7:20 pubmed
    ..Murine lymphoid tissues express a protein that is a homologue of human and bovine Cbeta2. The murine Cbeta gene encodes the splice variants Cbeta1, Cbeta2, Cbeta3 and Cbeta4, as is the case with the human Cbeta gene. ..
  3. Beebe S, Oyen O, Sandberg M, Frøysa A, Hansson V, Jahnsen T. Molecular cloning of a tissue-specific protein kinase (C gamma) from human testis--representing a third isoform for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:465-75 pubmed
  4. Ørstavik S, Reinton N, Frengen E, Langeland B, Jahnsen T, Skalhegg B. Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit Cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5066-73 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the various Cbeta splice variants when complexed with regulatory subunits may give rise to novel holoenzymes of protein kinase A that may be important for mediating specific effects of cAMP. ..
  5. Vermeulen L, De Wilde G, Van Damme P, Vanden Berghe W, Haegeman G. Transcriptional activation of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit by mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1). EMBO J. 2003;22:1313-24 pubmed
    ..This effect represents, together with phosphorylation of nucleosome components such as histone H3, an essential step leading to selective transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. ..
  6. Higuchi H, Yamashita T, Yoshikawa H, Tohyama M. PKA phosphorylates the p75 receptor and regulates its localization to lipid rafts. EMBO J. 2003;22:1790-800 pubmed
    ..Proper recruitment of activated p75(NTR) to lipid rafts, structures that represent specialized signaling organelles, is of fundamental importance in determining p75(NTR) bioactivity. ..
  7. Orchel J, Witek L, Kimsa M, Strzalka Mrozik B, Kimsa M, Olejek A, et al. Expression patterns of kinin-dependent genes in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2012;22:937-44 pubmed publisher
    ..differential gene expression was recorded for GNB1, PRKAR1A, KRAS, MAP2K2, GNG5, MAPK1, ADCY9, GNG11, JUN, PRKCA, PRKACB, FOS, PLCB4, ADCY8, and GNG12...
  8. Ye Y, Song Y, Zhuang J, Wang G, Ni J, Zhang S, et al. MicroRNA-302a-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by inhibiting proliferation and invasion. Onco Targets Ther. 2018;11:8175-8184 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data showed a direct effect of miR302a-3p on inhibiting the expression and signaling of PRKACB in HCC cells...
  9. Han E, Kim H, Hwang Y, Song G, Jeong H. Prostaglandin E2 induces CYP1B1 expression via ligand-independent activation of the ERalpha pathway in human breast cancer cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;114:204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PGE(2)-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERalpha pathway as a result of the activation of ERK, Akt, and PKA in breast cancer cells. ..

More Information


  1. Larkin S, Ferraù F, Karavitaki N, Hernández Ramírez L, Ansorge O, Grossman A, et al. Sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit of PKA in somatotroph adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171:705-10 pubmed publisher cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas and amplification of the beta catalytic subunit of protein kinase A PRKACB in acromegaly associated with Carney complex...
  2. Livshits A, Git A, Fuks G, Caldas C, Domany E. Pathway-based personalized analysis of breast cancer expression data. Mol Oncol. 2015;9:1471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..about 7% of the samples) exhibits high deregulation in 38 PKA pathways, induced by overexpression of the gene PRKACB. Another interesting finding is that basal tumors break into two subclasses, with low and high deregulation of a ..
  3. Sriroopreddy R, Sajeed R, P R, C S. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) based protein-protein interaction (PPI) network identifies a spectrum of gene interactome, transcriptome and correlated miRNA in nondisjunction Down syndrome. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;122:1080-1089 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, GNB5, CDC42, SPTAN1, GNG2, GNAZ, PRKACB, SST, CD44, FGF2, PHLPP1, APP, and FYN were identified as the candidate hub genes by using topological parameters...
  4. Wu D, Wen X, Han X, Wang S, Wang Y, Shen M, et al. Role of Circular RNA DLEU2 in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Mol Cell Biol. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism of circular RNA DLEU2 (circRNA-DLEU2) (hsa_circ_0000488) and microRNA 496 (miR-496), as well as PRKACB, in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell activities...
  5. Wang J, Chen Y, Chen Z, Xiang Z, Ding J, Han X. Microcystin-leucine arginine inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis in mice hypothalamus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;163:391-399 pubmed publisher
    ..We then further identified that miR-329-3p regulated PRKAR1A and PRKACB expression and thus influenced GnRH synthesis...
  6. Pemmari A, Leppänen T, Paukkeri E, Eskelinen A, Moilanen T, Moilanen E. Gene expression in adverse reaction to metal debris around metal-on-metal arthroplasty: An RNA-Seq-based study. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018;48:149-156 pubmed publisher
    ..The network analysis proposed PRKACB, CD2, CD52 and CD53 as the central regulators of the greatest (FC > 10) differences...
  7. Yamada Y, Takayama K, Fujimura T, Ashikari D, Obinata D, Takahashi S, et al. A novel prognostic factor TRIM44 promotes cell proliferation and migration, and inhibits apoptosis in testicular germ cell tumor. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis of NTERA2 cells revealed that tumor suppressor genes such as CADM1, CDK19, and PRKACB were upregulated in TRIM44-knockdown cells compared to control cells...
  8. Sigloch F, Burk U, Biniossek M, Brabletz T, Schilling O. miR-200c dampens cancer cell migration via regulation of protein kinase A subunits. Oncotarget. 2015;6:23874-89 pubmed
    ..We identify and confirm two subunits of the central cellular kinase protein kinase A (PKA), namely PRKAR1A and PRKACB, to be directly regulated by miR-200c...
  9. Falch C, Sundaram A, Øystese K, Normann K, Lekva T, Silamikelis I, et al. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow-growing non-functioning gonadotroph pituitary adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2018;178:295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..i>PCDH18, UNC5D, EMCN, MYO1B, GPM6A and six EMT-related genes (SPAG9, SKIL, MTDH, HOOK1, CNOT6L and PRKACB)...
  10. Correa R, Salpea P, Stratakis C. Carney complex: an update. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015;173:M85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with defects of other PKA subunits, such as the catalytic subunits PRKACA (adrenal hyperplasia) and PRKACB (pigmented spots, myxomas, pituitary adenomas)...
  11. Rizvi S, Gores G. Emerging molecular therapeutic targets for cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol. 2017;67:632-644 pubmed publisher
    ..isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1/2 in iCCA, protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) or beta (PRKACB) gene fusions in pCCA, and ELF3 mutations in dCCA/ampullary carcinoma...
  12. Shelton R, Hal Manier D, Lewis D. Protein kinases A and C in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from persons with major depression and normal controls. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:1223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data continue to support the significance of abnormalities of these two key kinases, and suggest linkages between molecular endophenotypes and specific clinical phenotypes. ..
  13. Louiset E, Stratakis C, Perraudin V, Griffin K, Libe R, Cabrol S, et al. The paradoxical increase in cortisol secretion induced by dexamethasone in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease involves a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effect of dexamethasone on protein kinase A catalytic subunits. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, in human PPNAD tissues, dexamethasone paradoxically stimulates cortisol release through a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effect on PKA catalytic subunits. ..
  14. Chung S, Furihata M, Tamura K, Uemura M, Daigo Y, Nasu Y, et al. Overexpressing PKIB in prostate cancer promotes its aggressiveness by linking between PKA and Akt pathways. Oncogene. 2009;28:2849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that PKIB and PKA-C kinase can have critical functions of aggressive phenotype of PCs through Akt phosphorylation and that they should be a promising molecular target for PC treatment. ..
  15. Desimmie B, Delviks Frankenberrry K, Burdick R, Qi D, Izumi T, Pathak V. Multiple APOBEC3 restriction factors for HIV-1 and one Vif to rule them all. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1220-45 pubmed publisher
  16. Li S, Bozzo L, Wu Z, Lu W, Romerio F. The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 activates the transcription factors c-Myc and CREB in human B cells. New Microbiol. 2010;33:13-24 pubmed
    ..As both CREB and c-Myc are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, our findings might suggest a potential mechanism of B cell lymphomagenesis during HIV-1 infection. ..
  17. Levesque D, Veilleux S, Caron N, Boissonneault G. Architectural DNA-binding properties of the spermatidal transition proteins 1 and 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;252:602-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the major transition proteins represent architectural factors able to stabilize DNA in a nonsupercoiled state, thereby promoting DNA condensation. ..
  18. Hanamoto T, Ozaki T, Furuya K, Hosoda M, Hayashi S, Nakanishi M, et al. Identification of protein kinase A catalytic subunit beta as a novel binding partner of p73 and regulation of p73 function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16665-75 pubmed
    ..Using a yeast two-hybrid screening based on the Sos recruitment system, we identified protein kinase A catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) as a novel binding partner of p73...
  19. Taylor S, Buechler J, Yonemoto W. cAMP-dependent protein kinase: framework for a diverse family of regulatory enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1990;59:971-1005 pubmed
  20. Ekokoski E, Aitio O, Törnquist K, Yli Kauhaluoma J, Tuominen R. HIV-1 Tat-peptide inhibits protein kinase C and protein kinase A through substrate competition. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010;40:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the Tat-peptide(48-60) is a potent inhibitor which binds to the substrate binding site of the basophilic kinase domain. ..
  21. Lignitto L, Carlucci A, Sepe M, Stefan E, Cuomo O, Nistico R, et al. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Praja2 is required for efficient nuclear cAMP signalling and for PKA-mediated long-term memory. Thus, praja2 regulates the total concentration of R subunits, tuning the strength and duration of PKA signal output in response to cAMP. ..
  22. Kvissel A, Ramberg H, Eide T, Svindland A, Skålhegg B, Taskén K. Androgen dependent regulation of protein kinase A subunits in prostate cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2007;19:401-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it seems that the Cbeta isoforms play different roles in proliferation and differentiation and could therefore be potential markers for prostate cancer progression. ..
  23. Chen Y, Xie X. Podophyllotoxin induces CREB phosphorylation and CRE-driven gene expression via PKA but not MAPKs. Mol Cells. 2010;29:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Podophyllotoxin itself did not alter intracellular cAMP level. Taken together, podophyllotoxin induces CREB activation and CRE-driven gene expression via PKA activation by a cAMP-independent mechanism. ..
  24. Bjørgo E, Solheim S, Abrahamsen H, Baillie G, Brown K, Berge T, et al. Cross talk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase a signaling pathways at the level of a protein kinase B/beta-arrestin/cAMP phosphodiesterase 4 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1660-72 pubmed publisher
  25. Liu Y, Guo Y, Zhang L, Pei Y, Yu N, Yu P, et al. Biological pathway-based genome-wide association analysis identified the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) pathway important for obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:2339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also highlights the importance of pathway-based GWA analysis in identification of additional genes/variants for complex human diseases. ..
  26. Tzitzivacos D, Tiemessen C, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Viral genetic determinants of nonprogressive HIV type 1 subtype C infection in antiretroviral drug-naive children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, LT46 Nef is unable to bind AP-1 and AP-2 and therefore is inactive on CD4 endocytosis. The biological relevance of these findings requires further investigation. ..
  27. Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PKA activity during HIV-1 infection abrogates Vpr cell cycle arrest. These findings provide new insight into the signaling event that activates Vpr cell cycle arrest, ultimately leading to the death of infected T cells. ..
  28. Gassel M, Breitenlechner C, Rüger P, Jucknischke U, Schneider T, Huber R, et al. Mutants of protein kinase A that mimic the ATP-binding site of protein kinase B (AKT). J Mol Biol. 2003;329:1021-34 pubmed
    ..Further, the phenomenon of Q181 shows how crystallographic analysis should accompany mutant studies to monitor possible spurious structural effects. ..
  29. Moen L, Ramberg H, Zhao S, Grytli H, Sveen A, Berge V, et al. Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, Cβ2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness. Urol Oncol. 2017;35:111.e1-111.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..031), adjusted for risk group and age. We suggest that Cβ2 mRNA expression may be used as a biomarker together with established prognostic markers to more precisely predict aggressiveness in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. ..
  30. Simard J, Berube D, Sandberg M, Grzeschik K, Gagne R, Hansson V, et al. Assignment of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit C beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the p36 band on chromosome 1. Hum Genet. 1992;88:653-7 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization to metaphase chromosome confirmed the somatic cell hybrid data and regionally mapped the C beta gene of PKA to the p36 band on chromosome 1. ..
  31. Moen L, Şener Z, Volchenkov R, Svarstad A, Eriksen A, Holen H, et al. Ablation of the C?2 subunit of PKA in immune cells leads to increased susceptibility to systemic inflammation in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1880-1889 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two major catalytic subunit genes, PRKACA and PRKACB encoding the catalytic subunits C? and C?...
  32. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Baldwin R, Insixiengmay P, Nel A, Fahey J. HIV inhibits the early steps of lymphocyte activation, including initiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. J Immunol. 1990;145:3699-705 pubmed
    ..Reduced availability of DAG presumably interferes with pkC activation and leads to decreased expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin and impaired proliferation. ..
  33. Schultess J, Danielewski O, Smolenski A. Rap1GAP2 is a new GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 expressed in human platelets. Blood. 2005;105:3185-92 pubmed
    ..Rap1GAP2 is the first GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 found in platelets and is likely to have an important regulatory role in platelet aggregation. ..
  34. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey J. Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6676-80 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the HIV-induced augmentation of cAMP/PKA activity may be a key part of the mechanism responsible for all or part of the HIV-induced anergy of T lymphocytes. ..
  35. Yoon C, Korade Z, Carter B. Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB promotes Schwann cell differentiation into a myelinating phenotype. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3738-46 pubmed publisher
  36. Fenne I, Hoang T, Hauglid M, Sagen J, Lien E, Mellgren G. Recruitment of coactivator glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 to an estrogen receptor transcription complex is regulated by the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial stimulation of GRIP1 coactivator function is followed by an increased turnover and subsequent degradation of GRIP1 protein. ..
  37. Rom S, Pacifici M, Passiatore G, Aprea S, Waligórska A, Del Valle L, et al. HIV-1 Tat binds to SH3 domains: cellular and viral outcome of Tat/Grb2 interaction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1836-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tat/Grb2 interaction affects also viral function by inhibiting the Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR and viral replication in infected primary microglia. ..
  38. Reber L, Vermeulen L, Haegeman G, Frossard N. Ser276 phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 by MSK1 controls SCF expression in inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4393 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides therefore a direct link between MSK1-mediated phosphorylation of Ser276 p65 of NF-kappaB, allowing its binding to the SCF intronic enhancer, and pathophysiological SCF expression in inflammation. ..
  39. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  40. Steichen J, Iyer G, Li S, Saldanha S, Deal M, Woods V, et al. Global consequences of activation loop phosphorylation on protein kinase A. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3825-32 pubmed publisher
  41. Irwandi R, Khonsuphap P, Limlawan P, Vacharaksa A. MiR-302a-3p Regulates RANKL Expression in Human Mandibular Osteoblast-like Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-302a-3p was predicted to target PRKACB mRNA encoding the catalytic subunit in cAMP/PKA pathway...
  42. Gullingsrud J, Kim C, Taylor S, McCammon J. Dynamic binding of PKA regulatory subunit RI alpha. Structure. 2006;14:141-9 pubmed
    ..The model structure is consistent with available experimental data. ..
  43. Chun H, Hao W, Honghai Z, Ning L, Yasong W, Chen D. CCL3L1 prevents gp120-induced neuron death via the CREB cell signaling pathway. Brain Res. 2009;1257:75-88 pubmed publisher
  44. Zidovetzki R, Wang J, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Hofman F. Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:825-33 pubmed
    ..Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia. ..
  45. Marx S, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N, et al. PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts. Cell. 2000;101:365-76 pubmed
    ..6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein, mAKAP. In failing human hearts, RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation. ..
  46. Susuki Miyata S, Miyata M, Lee B, Xu H, Kai H, Yan C, et al. Cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 mediates synergistic induction of PDE4B by roflumilast and NTHi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E1800-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Swingler S, Gallay P, Camaur D, Song J, Abo A, Trono D. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix. J Virol. 1997;71:4372-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant p21-activated kinase hPAK65, a recently proposed relative of the Nef-associated kinase, achieved a comparable result. Taken together, these data suggest that MA is a target of the Nef-associated serine kinase. ..
  48. Masci A, Galgani M, Cassano S, De Simone S, Gallo A, De Rosa V, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces anergy in naive T lymphocytes through CD4-independent protein kinase-A-mediated signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:1117-24 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which HIVenv may modulate the processes of clonal expansion, homeostatic proliferation, and terminal differentiation of the naive T lymphocyte subset. ..
  49. Dwivedi Y, Rizavi H, Shukla P, Lyons J, Faludi G, Palkovits M, et al. Protein kinase A in postmortem brain of depressed suicide victims: altered expression of specific regulatory and catalytic subunits. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:234-43 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities in PKA may be critical in the pathophysiology of depression. ..
  50. Kuvardina O, Herkt S, Meyer A, Schneider L, Yillah J, Kohrs N, et al. Hematopoietic transcription factors and differential cofactor binding regulate PRKACB isoform expression. Oncotarget. 2017;8:71685-71698 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we analysed the regulation of one of these genes, the catalytic subunit beta of protein kinase A (PRKACB), during megakaryopoiesis of K562 and primary human CD34+ stem cell/progenitor cells...
  51. Scarpetta M, Uhler M. Evidence for two additional isoforms of the endogenous protein kinase inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:10927-31 pubmed
    ..The skeletal muscle isoform has been designated PKI alpha, while the testicular isoform is PKI beta. We propose to designate the two testicular isoforms described here PKI beta 1 and PKI beta 2. ..
  52. Griger Z, Páyer E, Kovacs I, Toth B, Kovacs L, Sipka S, et al. Protein kinase C-beta and -delta isoenzymes promote arachidonic acid production and proliferation of MonoMac-6 cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:1031-42 pubmed
  53. Wu K, Mattioli M, Morse H, Dalla Favera R. c-MYC activates protein kinase A (PKA) by direct transcriptional activation of the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) gene. Oncogene. 2002;21:7872-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, by activating PKA, c-MYC can provide endogenous activation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway independently of extracellular signals. ..
  54. Orr N, Lemnrau A, Cooke R, Fletcher O, Tomczyk K, Jones M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant in RAD51B associated with male breast cancer risk. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1182-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A SNP in RAD51B at 14q24.1 was significantly associated with male breast cancer risk (P = 3.02 × 10(-13); odds ratio (OR) = 1.57). We also refine association at 16q12.1 to a SNP within TOX3 (P = 3.87 × 10(-15); OR = 1.50). ..
  55. Erlbruch A, Hung C, Seidler J, Borrmann K, Gesellchen F, Konig N, et al. Uncoupling of bait-protein expression from the prey protein environment adds versatility for cell and tissue interaction proteomics and reveals a complex of CARP-1 and the PKA Cbeta1 subunit. Proteomics. 2010;10:2890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The uncoupled tandem affinity purification procedure presented here expands the application range of the in vivo TAP assay and may serve as a simple strategy for identifying cell- and tissue-specific protein complexes. ..
  56. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Fan J, Nguyen T, Fahey J. HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro. AIDS. 1994;8:1016-7 pubmed
  57. Li P, Wang T, Buckley K, Chenine A, Popov S, Ruprecht R. Phosphorylation of HIV Nef by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Virology. 2005;331:367-74 pubmed
    ..As this mutation played a major role in abrogating the Nef effect on HIV replication in unstimulated primary cells, we postulate that Nef phosphorylation by PKA is an important step in the viral life cycle in resting cells. ..
  58. Wu J, Lu X, Wang Z, Shangguan S, Chang S, Li R, et al. Association between PKA gene polymorphism and NTDs in high risk Chinese population in Shanxi. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:2968-74 pubmed
    ..Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the SNP sites rs12132032 in PRKACB and NTDs...
  59. Aksaas A, Larsen A, Rogne M, Rosendal K, Kvissel A, Skålhegg B. G-patch domain and KOW motifs-containing protein, GPKOW; a nuclear RNA-binding protein regulated by protein kinase A. J Mol Signal. 2011;6:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with our previous results demonstrating that PKA regulates pre-mRNA splicing, our results suggest that PKA phosphorylation is involved in regulating RNA processing at several steps. ..
  60. Yum J, Jeong H, Kim S, Seo J, Han Y, Lee K, et al. PKA-mediated stabilization of FoxH1 negatively regulates ERalpha activity. Mol Cells. 2009;28:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in MCF7 cells, FoxH1 knockdown increased the PKA-induced and estradiol-induced activation of the ERE. These results suggest that PKA can negatively regulate ERalpha, at least in part, through FoxH1. ..
  61. Veech R. A humble hexose monophosphate pathway metabolite regulates short- and long-term control of lipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5578-80 pubmed
  62. Bosco Schamun M, Correa R, Graffigna P, De Miguel V, Fainstein Day P. Carney complex review: Genetic features. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr. 2018;65:52-59 pubmed publisher
    ..identified as the main cause of the disease, although since 2015 other disease-related genes, including PRKACA and PRKACB activating mutations, have also been related with Carney complex...
  63. Rabbi M, Al Harthi L, Saifuddin M, Roebuck K. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C-beta pathways synergistically interact to activate HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Virology. 1998;245:257-69 pubmed
  64. Cartier C, Hémonnot B, Gay B, Bardy M, Sanchiz C, Devaux C, et al. Active cAMP-dependent protein kinase incorporated within highly purified HIV-1 particles is required for viral infectivity and interacts with viral capsid protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35211-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether our results indicate that virus-associated C-PKA regulates HIV-1 infectivity, possibly by catalyzing phosphorylation of the viral CAp24gag protein. ..
  65. Mertens J, Rizvi S, Gores G. Targeting cholangiocarcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018;1864:1454-1460 pubmed publisher
    ..and constitutively active FGFR2 fusion genes are predominantly identified in iCCA, whereas KRAS mutations and PRKACB fusions genes are identified in pCCA and dCCA...
  66. Wu S, Wu F, Jiang Z. Identification of hub genes, key miRNAs and potential molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:2043-2050 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of eight genes were identified as biomarkers, including CAD, ITGA2, E2F3, BCL2, PRKACB, IGF1, SGK1 and NR3C1...
  67. Liapi C, Takahashi N, Raynaud F, Evain Brion D, Anderson W. Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal and psoriatic human fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:332-7 pubmed
  68. Gamm D, Baude E, Uhler M. The major catalytic subunit isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinase have distinct biochemical properties in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15736-42 pubmed
  69. Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Yokoyama M, Izumi T, Matsui M, Io K, et al. Phosphorylation of APOBEC3G by protein kinase A regulates its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of A3G can regulate the interaction between A3G and Vif. ..