Gene Symbol: PPP1CC
Description: protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma
Alias: PP-1G, PP1C, PPP1G, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit, protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isoform, protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme, protein phosphatase 1C catalytic subunit, serine/threonine phosphatase 1 gamma
Species: human
Products:     PPP1CC

Top Publications

  1. MacKintosh R, Dalby K, Campbell D, Cohen P, Cohen P, Mackintosh C. The cyanobacterial toxin microcystin binds covalently to cysteine-273 on protein phosphatase 1. FEBS Lett. 1995;371:236-40 pubmed
    ..The covalent binding of MC to protein serine/threonine phosphatases explains the failure to detect this toxin post-mortem in suspected cases of MC poisoning. ..
  2. Trinkle Mulcahy L, Sleeman J, Lamond A. Dynamic targeting of protein phosphatase 1 within the nuclei of living mammalian cells. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4219-28 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PP1 isoforms are highly mobile in cells and can be dynamically (re)localized through direct interaction with targeting subunits. ..
  3. Mitsuhashi S, Shima H, Tanuma N, Matsuura N, Takekawa M, Urano T, et al. Usage of tautomycetin, a novel inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), reveals that PP1 is a positive regulator of Raf-1 in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:82-8 pubmed
    ..To examine the role of PP1 in regulation of Raf-1, we overexpressed the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1C) in COS-7 cells and found that PP1C enhanced activation of Raf-1 activity, whereas phosphatase-dead PP1C blocked ..
  4. Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Voloshin Y, Ray P, Kumar A, et al. Nuclear protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32189-94 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that PP1 might be a host cell factor that is required for HIV-1 viral transcription. Therefore, nuclear PP1 may represent a novel target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. ..
  5. Huang Z, Myers K, Khatra B, Vijayaraghavan S. Protein 14-3-3zeta binds to protein phosphatase PP1gamma2 in bovine epididymal spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:177-84 pubmed
    ..Together, these results provide conclusive evidence that protein 14-3-3 is present in mature spermatozoa and that PP1gamma2 is one of its binding partners. ..
  6. Bharucha D, Zhou M, Nekhai S, Brady J, Shukla R, Kumar A. A protein phosphatase from human T cells augments tat transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-terminal repeat. Virology. 2002;296:6-16 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a unique role of the Tat-associated phosphatase which regulates viral transcription by target-specific dephosphorylation of RNAPII during the early stages of elongation. ..
  7. Shimada M, Haruta M, Niida H, Sawamoto K, Nakanishi M. Protein phosphatase 1? is responsible for dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr 11 after DNA damage. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the ataxia telangiectasia, mutated and Rad3-related-Chk1 axis regulates H3-pThr 11 dephosphorylation on DNA damage, at least in part by the activation of PP1? through Chk1-dependent inhibition of Cdks. ..
  8. Schmutz I, Wendt S, Schnell A, Kramer A, Mansuy I, Albrecht U. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a post-translational regulator of the mammalian circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21325 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, PP1, may reduce PER2 phosphorylation thereby influencing nuclear localization of this protein. This may at least partially influence period and phase shifting properties of the mammalian circadian clock. ..
  9. Ammosova T, Washington K, Debebe Z, Brady J, Nekhai S. Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription. Retrovirology. 2005;2:47 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that although PP2A dephosphorylates autophosphorylated CDK9 in vitro, in cultured cells PP1 is likely to dephosphorylate CDK9 and contribute to the regulation of activated HIV-1 transcription. ..

More Information


  1. Browne G, Fardilha M, Oxenham S, Wu W, Helps N, da Cruz e Silva O, et al. SARP, a new alternatively spliced protein phosphatase 1 and DNA interacting protein. Biochem J. 2007;402:187-96 pubmed
    ..The presence of a leucine zipper near the C-terminus of SARP1 and SARP2, and the binding of mammalian DNA to SARP2, suggests that SARP1 and SARP2 may be transcription factors or DNA-associated proteins that modulate gene expression. ..
  2. Mardin B, Agircan F, Lange C, Schiebel E. Plk1 controls the Nek2A-PP1? antagonism in centrosome disjunction. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that centrosome disjunction is regulated by Plk1, providing a well-balanced control between the counteracting Nek2A and PP1? activities on the centrosome linker. ..
  3. Andreassen P, Lacroix F, Villa Moruzzi E, Margolis R. Differential subcellular localization of protein phosphatase-1 alpha, gamma1, and delta isoforms during both interphase and mitosis in mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:1207-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PP-1 isoforms are targeted to strikingly distinct and independent sites in the cell, permitting unique and independent roles for each of the isoforms in regulating discrete cellular processes. ..
  4. Helps N, Barker H, Elledge S, Cohen P. Protein phosphatase 1 interacts with p53BP2, a protein which binds to the tumour suppressor p53. FEBS Lett. 1995;377:295-300 pubmed
    ..The phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1 was inhibited by p53BP2 at nanomolar concentrations. These results suggest that PP1 may be involved in dephosphorylation and regulation of p53 through interaction with p53BP2. ..
  5. Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Lesage B, Jackson A, Kashanchi F, et al. Nuclear targeting of protein phosphatase-1 by HIV-1 Tat protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36364-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Tat might function as a nuclear regulator of PP1 and that interaction of Tat with PP1 is critical for activation of HIV-1 transcription by Tat. ..
  6. Barker H, Craig S, Spurr N, Cohen P. Sequence of human protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 gamma and localization of the gene (PPP1CC) encoding it to chromosome bands 12q24.1-q24.2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1178:228-33 pubmed
    ..The gene for human PP1 gamma (PPP1CC) was localized to chromosome 12 by analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA and mapped to bands q24.1-q24...
  7. Wies E, Wang M, Maharaj N, Chen K, Zhou S, Finberg R, et al. Dephosphorylation of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 by the phosphatase PP1 is essential for innate immune signaling. Immunity. 2013;38:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies PP1? and PP1? as regulators of antiviral innate immune responses to various RNA viruses, including influenza virus, paramyxovirus, dengue virus, and picornavirus. ..
  8. Helps N, Street A, Elledge S, Cohen P. Cloning of the complete coding region for human protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 using the two hybrid system and expression of inhibitor 2 in E. coli. FEBS Lett. 1994;340:93-8 pubmed
    ..A gene or pseudogene for inhibitor 2 may be present near the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. ..
  9. Beullens M, Vulsteke V, Van Eynde A, Jagiello I, Stalmans W, Bollen M. The C-terminus of NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1) contains a novel binding site for protein phosphatase-1 that is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation and RNA binding. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 3:651-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are in agreement with a shared-site model for the interaction of PP1(C) with its regulatory subunits. ..
  10. Silva J, Freitas M, Fardilha M. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 complexes in spermatogenesis. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2014;7:136-46 pubmed
    ..Three genes, PPP1CA, PPP1CB and PPP1CC, encode four PPP1C isoforms, PPP1CA, PPP1CB, PPP1CC1, and PPP1CC2...
  11. Quevedo C, Salinas M, Alcazar A. Initiation factor 2B activity is regulated by protein phosphatase 1, which is activated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway in insulin-like growth factor 1-stimulated neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16579-86 pubmed
    ..Endogenous protein phosphatase 1 and 2A catalytic subunits (PP1C and PP2AC, respectively) were co-immunoprecipitated with ERK1 and -2, and the association of ERK with PP1C was ..
  12. Rivera J, Abrams C, Hernaez B, Alcazar A, Escribano J, Dixon L, et al. The MyD116 African swine fever virus homologue interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and activates its phosphatase activity. J Virol. 2007;81:2923-9 pubmed
    ..ICP34.5 recruits PP1 to dephosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2 (also known as eIF-2alpha); possibly the ASFV DP71L protein has a similar function. ..
  13. Chen P, Li C, Wang D, Luo Z, Fu S, Li X, et al. PP-1? and PP-1? display antagonism and differential roles in tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:220-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that PP-1? and PP-1? not only antagonize each other in lung cancer cells, but also display differential functions in tumorigenicity. ..
  14. Llorian M, Beullens M, Andrés I, Ortiz J, Bollen M. SIPP1, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor and interactor of protein phosphatase-1. Biochem J. 2004;378:229-38 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that SIPP1 is also a component of the spliceosomes and that a SIPP1-fragment inhibits splicing catalysis by nuclear extracts independent of its ability to interact with PP1. ..
  15. Gunawardena S, Ruis B, Meyer J, Kapoor M, Conklin K. NOM1 targets protein phosphatase I to the nucleolus. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:398-404 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that NOM1 is a PP1 nucleolar targeting subunit, the first identified in eukaryotic cells. ..
  16. Wei C, Wang H, Liu G, Wu M, Cao J, Liu Z, et al. Genome-wide analysis reveals population structure and selection in Chinese indigenous sheep breeds. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:194 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected three strong selection windows involving three functional genes: RXFP2, PPP1CC and PDGFD...
  17. Tanji C, Yamamoto H, Yorioka N, Kohno N, Kikuchi K, Kikuchi A. A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of GSK-3beta. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36955-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PKA and PP1 regulate the activity of GSK-3beta efficiently by forming a complex with AKAP220. ..
  18. Ceulemans H, Vulsteke V, De Maeyer M, Tatchell K, Stalmans W, Bollen M. Binding of the concave surface of the Sds22 superhelix to the alpha 4/alpha 5/alpha 6-triangle of protein phosphatase-1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47331-7 pubmed
    ..Our data also show that well known regulatory binding sites of PP1, such as the RVXF-binding channel, the beta12/beta13-loop, and the acidic groove, are not essential for the interaction with Sds22. ..
  19. Chamousset D, De Wever V, Moorhead G, Chen Y, Boisvert F, Lamond A, et al. RRP1B targets PP1 to mammalian cell nucleoli and is associated with Pre-60S ribosomal subunits. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4212-26 pubmed publisher
  20. Tan S, Tareen S, Melville M, Blakely C, Katze M. The direct binding of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 to the PKR protein kinase is necessary but not sufficient for inactivation and disruption of enzyme dimer formation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36109-17 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that PP1(C) modulates PKR activity via protein dephosphorylation and subsequent disruption of PKR dimers. ..
  21. Alrehani N, Pradhan S, Khatlani T, Kailasam L, Vijayan K. Distinct roles for the ? , ? and ?1 isoforms of protein phosphatase 1 in the outside-in ?IIb?3 integrin signalling-dependent functions. Thromb Haemost. 2013;109:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..IIb?3 signalling, whether integrin functions are regulated by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1c)isoforms are unclear...
  22. Liu L, Xie N, Rennie P, Challis J, Gleave M, Lye S, et al. Consensus PP1 binding motifs regulate transcriptional corepression and alternative RNA splicing activities of the steroid receptor coregulators, p54nrb and PSF. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the RVxF motifs play an important role in controlling the multifunctional properties of p54nrb and PSF in the regulation of gene transcription. ..
  23. Schillace R, Scott J. Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220. Curr Biol. 1999;9:321-4 pubmed
    ..whereas a diverse family of phosphatase-targeting subunits directs the location of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) [3] [4]...
  24. Seiki T, Nagasaka K, Kranjec C, Kawana K, Maeda D, Nakamura H, et al. HPV-16 impairs the subcellular distribution and levels of expression of protein phosphatase 1γ in cervical malignancy. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:230 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that PP1γ may be a novel target of the HPV-16 oncoproteins and indicate that it might be a potential novel biomarker for HPV-16 induced malignancy. ..
  25. Chu Y, Williams N, Hengge A. Transition States and Control of Substrate Preference in the Promiscuous Phosphatase PP1. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3923-3933 pubmed publisher
  26. Liu R, Correll R, Davis J, Vagnozzi R, York A, Sargent M, et al. Cardiac-specific deletion of protein phosphatase 1β promotes increased myofilament protein phosphorylation and contractile alterations. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;87:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Ppp1ca-loxP, Ppp1cb-loxP and Ppp1cc-loxP alleles were crossed with either an Nkx2...
  27. LeMaire S, Raghuram V, Grady C, Pickering C, Chou C, Umejiego E, et al. Serine/threonine phosphatases and aquaporin-2 regulation in renal collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;312:F84-F95 pubmed publisher
    ..parentheses) were: Ppp1cb (PP1-?), Ppm1g (PP2C), Ppp1ca (PP1-?), Ppp3ca (PP2-B or calcineurin), Ppp2ca (PP2A-?), Ppp1cc (PP1-?), Ppp2cb (PP2A-?), Ppp6c (PP6C), and Ppp5c (PP5)...
  28. Silva J, Yoon S, De Bock P, Goltsev A, Gevaert K, Mendes J, et al. Construction and analysis of a human testis/sperm-enriched interaction network: Unraveling the PPP1CC2 interactome. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:375-385 pubmed publisher
    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1CC tissue-specific alternative splice restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa, is essential for spermatogenesis and spermatozoa motility...
  29. Opaluch A, Schneider M, Chiang C, Nguyen Q, Maestre A, Mulder L, et al. Positive regulation of TRAF6-dependent innate immune responses by protein phosphatase PP1-γ. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89284 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that PP1-γ phosphatase activity regulates overall TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase function and promotes NF-κB-mediated innate signaling responses. ..
  30. Windelinckx A, De Mars G, Huygens W, Peeters M, Vincent B, Wijmenga C, et al. Identification and prioritization of NUAK1 and PPP1CC as positional candidate loci for skeletal muscle strength phenotypes. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:981-92 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase, 1 (NUAK1; rs10861553 and rs3741886), and the protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isoform (PPP1CC; rs1050587 and rs7901769) genes and knee torque production (P values up to 0.00092)...
  31. Gao J, Siddoway B, Huang Q, Xia H. Inactivation of CREB mediated gene transcription by HDAC8 bound protein phosphatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus elucidated that more than one class-I HDAC family members can regulate the duration of CREB mediated gene transcription. ..
  32. Neves de Oliveira B, Dalmaz C, Zeidán Chuliá F. Network-Based Identification of Altered Stem Cell Pluripotency and Calcium Signaling Pathways in Metastatic Melanoma. Med Sci (Basel). 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..From those representative genes, CTNNB1, GNAQ, GSK3B, GSTP1, MAPK3, PPP1CC, PRKACA, and SMAD4 showed equal up- or downregulation (corrected p-value < 0...
  33. Grallert A, Boke E, Hagting A, Hodgson B, Connolly Y, Griffiths J, et al. A PP1-PP2A phosphatase relay controls mitotic progression. Nature. 2015;517:94-98 pubmed publisher
    ..PP1 recruitment to human, mitotic PP2A-B56 holoenzymes and the sequences of these conserved PP1-docking motifs suggest that PP1 regulates PP2A-B55 and PP2A-B56 activities in a variety of signalling contexts throughout eukaryotes. ..
  34. Burén S, Gomes A, Teijeiro A, Fawal M, Yilmaz M, Tummala K, et al. Regulation of OGT by URI in Response to Glucose Confers c-MYC-Dependent Survival Mechanisms. Cancer Cell. 2016;30:290-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work uncovers that URI-regulated OGT confers c-MYC-dependent survival functions in response to glucose fluctuations. ..
  35. Smith F, Oxford G, Milgram S. Association of the D2 dopamine receptor third cytoplasmic loop with spinophilin, a protein phosphatase-1-interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19894-900 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that spinophilin is important for establishing a signaling complex for dopaminergic neurotransmission through D2 receptors by linking receptors to downstream signaling molecules and the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  36. Rogne M, Stokka A, Tasken K, Collas P, Küntziger T. Mutually exclusive binding of PP1 and RNA to AKAP149 affects the mitochondrial network. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:978-87 pubmed publisher
    ..A collapse of the mitochondrial network is observed upon introduction of RNA-binding deficient mutants of AKAP149, pointing to the importance of RNA tethering to the mitochondrial membrane by AKAP149 for mitochondrial distribution. ..
  37. Lee J, You J, Dobrota E, Skalnik D. Identification and characterization of a novel human PP1 phosphatase complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24466-76 pubmed publisher
  38. Jones J, Rawles R, Hannun Y. Identification of a novel phosphatidic acid binding domain in protein phosphatase-1. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13235-45 pubmed
    ..and noncompetitive tight-binding inhibitor of the catalytic subunit (gamma isoform) of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1c gamma) in vitro...
  39. Armstrong C, Browne G, Cohen P, Cohen P. PPP1R6, a novel member of the family of glycogen-targetting subunits of protein phosphatase 1. FEBS Lett. 1997;418:210-4 pubmed
    ..The PPP1R6 is associated with glycogen in muscle but is not subject to the same modes of covalent and allosteric regulation as G(M) and G(L). ..
  40. Skene Arnold T, Luu H, Uhrig R, De Wever V, Nimick M, Maynes J, et al. Molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of protein phosphatase-1c with ASPP proteins. Biochem J. 2013;449:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we provide the first direct evidence for PP-1c binding via its C-terminus to an SH3 protein domain. ..
  41. Chen C, Tian F, Lu L, Wang Y, Xiao Z, Yu C, et al. Characterization of Cep85 - a new antagonist of Nek2A that is involved in the regulation of centrosome disjunction. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3290-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Nek2A-binding partner that surrounds the proximal ends of centrioles where it cooperates with PP1γ (also known as PPP1CC) to antagonize Nek2A activity in order to maintain the centrosome integrity in interphase in mammalian cells.
  42. Van Eynde A, Wera S, Beullens M, Torrekens S, Van Leuven F, Stalmans W, et al. Molecular cloning of NIPP-1, a nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, reveals homology with polypeptides involved in RNA processing. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28068-74 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis revealed a single transcript of 2.2 kilobases in bovine thymus and of 2.4 kilobases in various human tissues. ..
  43. Ferreira Fernandes E, Esteves S, Korrodi Gregório L, Lüers G, Afreixo V, Fardilha M, et al. Synphilin-1A is a phosphoprotein phosphatase 1-interacting protein and affects PPP1 sorting to subcellular compartments. J Mol Neurosci. 2015;55:385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrarily, in physiological conditions, Sph1 isoforms are pointed as putative participants in vesicle dynamics with implications in neurotransmission and spermiogenesis. ..
  44. Kuzmin A, Jarvi K, Lo K, Spencer L, Chow G, Macleod G, et al. Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the novel mutations were in a heterozygous configuration, suggesting that they may be de novo mutations with dominant negative properties. ..
  45. Liu X, Huang S, Liu C, Liu X, Shen Y, Cui Z. PPP1CC is associated with astrocyte and microglia proliferation after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:1355-1364 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
  46. Wu D, Tkachuck D, Roberson R, Schubach W. The human SNF5/INI1 protein facilitates the function of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) and modulates GADD34-bound protein phosphatase-1 activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27706-15 pubmed
    ..These results implicate hSNF5/INI1 in the function of GADD34 and suggest that hSNF5/INI1 may regulate PP1 activity in vivo. ..
  47. Connor J, Weiser D, Li S, Hallenbeck J, Shenolikar S. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 assembles a novel signaling complex containing protein phosphatase 1 and inhibitor 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6841-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggested that modification of the I-1/GADD34/PP1 signaling complex regulates the initiation of protein translation in mammalian tissues...
  48. Li X, Lin H, Chen H, Xu X, Shih H, Ann D. SUMOylation of the transcriptional co-repressor KAP1 is regulated by the serine and threonine phosphatase PP1. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra32 pubmed publisher
  49. Sakashita G, Shima H, Komatsu M, Urano T, Kikuchi A, Kikuchi K. Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells. J Biochem. 2003;133:165-71 pubmed
    ..It is noteworthy that co-expression of Myc-PP1C significantly increased co-precipitation of HA-GSK-3beta with I-2-FLAG, showing a complex formation of HA-GSK-3beta/..
  50. Brush M, Guardiola A, Connor J, Yao T, Shenolikar S. Deactylase inhibitors disrupt cellular complexes containing protein phosphatases and deacetylases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7685-91 pubmed
  51. Ammosova T, Platonov M, Yedavalli V, Obukhov Y, Gordeuk V, Jeang K, et al. Small molecules targeted to a non-catalytic "RVxF" binding site of protein phosphatase-1 inhibit HIV-1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39481 pubmed publisher
    ..This proof-of-principle study can serve as a starting point for the development of novel antiviral drugs that target the interface of HIV-1 viral proteins with their host partners. ..
  52. Takagi M, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi A, Imamoto N. Ki67 antigen contributes to the timely accumulation of protein phosphatase 1? on anaphase chromosomes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no obvious defects in the progression of mitosis were observed, the timing of dephosphorylation of the mutant Ki67 in anaphase was delayed, indicating that Ki67 itself is one of the substrates of PP1?-Ki67. ..
  53. Marchesini N, Jones J, Hannun Y. Confluence induced threonine41/serine45 phospho-beta-catenin dephosphorylation via ceramide-mediated activation of PP1cgamma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1418-28 pubmed
    ..Finally, evidence is provided for a role for this pathway in regulating cell motility during confluence. ..
  54. Comerford K, Leonard M, Cummins E, Fitzgerald K, Beullens M, Bollen M, et al. Regulation of protein phosphatase 1gamma activity in hypoxia through increased interaction with NIPP1: implications for cellular metabolism. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:211-8 pubmed
  55. Wurzenberger C, Held M, Lampson M, Poser I, Hyman A, Gerlich D. Sds22 and Repo-Man stabilize chromosome segregation by counteracting Aurora B on anaphase kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study identifies PP1-targeting subunits that regulate the microtubule-kinetochore interface during anaphase for faithful chromosome segregation...
  56. Cid C, Garcia Bonilla L, Camafeita E, Burda J, Salinas M, Alcazar A. Proteomic characterization of protein phosphatase 1 complexes in ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic tolerance. Proteomics. 2007;7:3207-18 pubmed
    ..It supports a potential role of PP1 in IR stress and as a target of the endogenous protective mechanisms induced by IT. ..
  57. Jones J, Hannun Y. Tight binding inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by phosphatidic acid. Specificity of inhibition by the phospholipid. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15530-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identify the gamma isoform of the human protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c gamma) as a high affinity in vitro target of PA. PA inhibited the enzyme dose-dependently with an IC(50) of 15 nm...
  58. Yang J, Hurley T, DePaoli Roach A. Interaction of inhibitor-2 with the catalytic subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase. Identification of a sequence analogous to the consensus type 1 protein phosphatase-binding motif. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22635-44 pubmed
    ..A model is presented in which multiple "anchoring interactions" serve to position a segment of I-2 such that it sterically occludes the catalytic pocket but need not make high affinity contacts itself. ..
  59. Renvoisé B, Quérol G, Verrier E, Burlet P, Lefebvre S. A role for protein phosphatase PP1? in SMN complex formation and subnuclear localization to Cajal bodies. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2862-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a role of PP1? in the formation of the SMN complex and the maintenance of CB integrity. Finally, we propose Gemin8 interaction with PP1? as a target for therapeutic intervention in SMA. ..
  60. Rotem S, Katz C, Benyamini H, Lebendiker M, Veprintsev D, Rudiger S, et al. The structure and interactions of the proline-rich domain of ASPP2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18990-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results, we propose a model in which the interaction between the ASPP2 domains regulates the intermolecular interactions of ASPP2 with its partner proteins. ..
  61. Nekhai S, Jerebtsova M, Jackson A, Southerland W. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription by protein phosphatase 1. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5:3-9 pubmed
    ..We also present a computer model of Tat-PP1 complex that might be useful for future drug design in anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. ..
  62. Llanos S, Royer C, Lu M, Bergamaschi D, Lee W, Lu X. Inhibitory member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of the p53 family (iASPP) interacts with protein phosphatase 1 via a noncanonical binding motif. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43039-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies iASPP as a new binding partner of PP1, interacting through a noncanonical PP1 binding motif. ..
  63. Wang J, Liu X. [Action of protein phosphatase-1 on Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcription and its related inhibitors]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009;44:1343-7 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the action of PP1 in Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription and related to PP1 inhibitors. ..
  64. Hermanson O, Jepsen K, Rosenfeld M. N-CoR controls differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes. Nature. 2002;419:934-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that repression by N-CoR, modulated by opposing enzymatic activities, is a critical mechanism in neural stem cells that underlies the inhibition of glial differentiation. ..
  65. Marx S, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N, et al. PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts. Cell. 2000;101:365-76 pubmed
    ..6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein, mAKAP. In failing human hearts, RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation. ..
  66. Huang C, Cao W, Liao R, Wang J, Wang Y, Tong L, et al. PP1? functionally augments the alternative splicing of CaMKII? through interaction with ASF. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;306:C167-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that PP1? promotes the alternative splicing of CaMKII? through its interacting with ASF, exacerbating OGD/R-triggered apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. ..
  67. Djouder N, Metzler S, Schmidt A, Wirbelauer C, Gstaiger M, Aebersold R, et al. S6K1-mediated disassembly of mitochondrial URI/PP1gamma complexes activates a negative feedback program that counters S6K1 survival signaling. Mol Cell. 2007;28:28-40 pubmed
  68. Maynes J, Luu H, Cherney M, Andersen R, Williams D, Holmes C, et al. Crystal structures of protein phosphatase-1 bound to motuporin and dihydromicrocystin-LA: elucidation of the mechanism of enzyme inhibition by cyanobacterial toxins. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:111-20 pubmed
  69. Katayama H, Zhou H, Li Q, Tatsuka M, Sen S. Interaction and feedback regulation between STK15/BTAK/Aurora-A kinase and protein phosphatase 1 through mitotic cell division cycle. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46219-24 pubmed
    ..Deregulation of this balance may contribute to anomalous segregation of chromosomes during mitotic progression of cancer cells. ..
  70. Egloff M, Cohen P, Reinemer P, Barford D. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human protein phosphatase 1 and its complex with tungstate. J Mol Biol. 1995;254:942-59 pubmed
  71. Korrodi Gregório L, Vieira S, Esteves S, Silva J, Freitas M, Brauns A, et al. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network. Biol Open. 2013;2:453-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present...
  72. Wallach T, Schellenberg K, Maier B, Kalathur R, Porras P, Wanker E, et al. Dynamic circadian protein-protein interaction networks predict temporal organization of cellular functions. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003398 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we predict that circadian PPIs dynamically connect many important cellular processes (signal transduction, cell cycle, etc.) contributing to temporal organization of cellular physiology in an unprecedented manner. ..
  73. Lu Z, Wan G, Guo H, Zhang X, Lu X. Protein phosphatase 1 inhibits p53 signaling by dephosphorylating and stabilizing Mdmx. Cell Signal. 2013;25:796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The dephosphorylation of Mdmx increases its stability and thereby inhibits p53 activity. Our results suggest that PP1 is a crucial component in the ATM-Chk2-p53 signaling pathway. ..
  74. Canettieri G, Morantte I, Guzman E, Asahara H, Herzig S, Anderson S, et al. Attenuation of a phosphorylation-dependent activator by an HDAC-PP1 complex. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:175-81 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a novel mechanism by which signaling and chromatin-modifying activities act coordinately to repress the activity of a phosphorylation-dependent activator. ..
  75. Helps N, Luo X, Barker H, Cohen P. NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein phosphatase 1. Biochem J. 2000;349:509-18 pubmed
    ..The implications of kinase-phosphatase complex formation involving Nek2 and PP1 are discussed in terms of the coordination of centrosome separation with cell cycle progression. ..
  76. Winter S, Bosnoyan Collins L, Pinnaduwage D, Andrulis I. The interaction of PP1 with BRCA1 and analysis of their expression in breast tumors. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:85 pubmed
    ..Alterations in the expression of genes, particularly phosphatases that operate in association with BRCA1, could negatively affect the function of BRCA1 or BRCA1 associated proteins, contributing to the development of breast cancer. ..
  77. Kawabe T, Muslin A, Korsmeyer S. HOX11 interacts with protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 and disrupts a G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint. Nature. 1997;385:454-8 pubmed
    ..with protein serine-threonine phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), as well as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C) in mammalian cells...
  78. An B, Tavera Mendoza L, Dimitrov V, Wang X, Calderon M, Wang H, et al. Stimulation of Sirt1-regulated FoxO protein function by the ligand-bound vitamin D receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies link 1,25D signaling through the VDR directly to Sirt1 and FoxO function and provide a molecular basis for the cancer chemopreventive actions of 1,25D. ..
  79. Valin A, Ouyang J, Gill G. Transcription factor Sp3 represses expression of p21CIP¹ via inhibition of productive elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1582-93 pubmed publisher
  80. Ajuh P, Browne G, Hawkes N, Cohen P, Roberts S, Lamond A. Association of a protein phosphatase 1 activity with the human factor C1 (HCF) complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:678-86 pubmed
    ..The data suggest novel roles for HCF and PP1, which may be relevant to their functions in transcription and cell cycle progression. ..
  81. Saadat M, Nomoto K, Mizuno Y, Kikuchi K, Yoshida M. Assignment of the gene encoding type 1 gamma protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PPP1CC) on human, rat, and mouse chromosomes. Jpn J Hum Genet. 1996;41:159-65 pubmed
    ..in situ hybridization (FISH) method, a gene encoding the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 gamma (PPP1CC) was mapped to human 12q24.1-q24.2, rat 7 q22, and mouse 10C...
  82. Kok B, Skene Arnold T, Ling J, Benesch M, Dewald J, Harris T, et al. Conserved residues in the N terminus of lipin-1 are required for binding to protein phosphatase-1c, nuclear translocation, and phosphatidate phosphatase activity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:10876-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we provide novel evidence of the importance of the lipin-1 N-terminal domain for its catalytic activity, nuclear localization, and binding to PP-1cγ. ..
  83. Ammosova T, Platonov M, Ivanov A, Kont Y, Kumari N, Kehn Hall K, et al. 1E7-03, a low MW compound targeting host protein phosphatase-1, inhibits HIV-1 transcription. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:5059-75 pubmed publisher
    ..1E7-03 bound to PP1 in vitro and prevented shuttling of PP1 into the nucleus. Our study shows that low MW compounds that functionally mimic the PP1-binding RVxF peptide can inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating PP1. ..
  84. Kumar G, Gokhan E, De Munter S, Bollen M, Vagnarelli P, Peti W, et al. The Ki-67 and RepoMan mitotic phosphatases assemble via an identical, yet novel mechanism. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
  85. Tchivilev I, Madamanchi N, Vendrov A, Niu X, Runge M. Identification of a protective role for protein phosphatase 1cgamma1 against oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that PP1cgamma1 overexpression promotes VSMC survival by interfering with JNK1 and p53 phosphorylation cascades involved in apoptosis. ..