PPARgamma

Summary

Gene Symbol: PPARgamma
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
Alias: CIMT1, GLM1, NR1C3, PPARG1, PPARG2, PPARgamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1
Species: human
Products:     PPARgamma

Top Publications

  1. Cho Y, Kim T, Lim S, Choi S, Shin H, Lee H, et al. Type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants discovered in the recent genome-wide association studies are related to gestational diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. Diabetologia. 2009;52:253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants that were discovered in the recent GWA studies are also associated with GDM in Koreans. ..
  2. Szatmari I, Pap A, Rühl R, Ma J, Illarionov P, Besra G, et al. PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2351-62 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that PPARgamma, turns on retinoic acid synthesis by inducing the expression of retinol and retinal metabolizing enzymes such as ..
  3. Hung Y, Lee N, Lin S, Chang H, Wu C, Chang C, et al. Effects of PPAR? and RBP4 gene variants on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49102 pubmed publisher
    ..The impacts of PPAR? C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms on metabolism in HIV-infected patients are not significant. RBP4 -803GA polymorphism has increased risk of insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. ..
  4. Zhang H, Zhu S, Chen J, Tang Y, Hu H, Mohan V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? polymorphism Pro12Ala Is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: evidence from meta-analysis of 18 studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the polymorphism and DN risk has also been widely studied recently, but no consensus was available up to now...
  5. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The C161T polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene (PPAR?) is associated with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:3101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..11, P = 0.913). Taken together, our results revealed the PPAR? C161T polymorphism might play a moderate protective effect on developing CAD among Chinese, but not among Caucasians. ..
  6. Curti M, Rogero M, Baltar V, Barros C, Siqueira Catania A, Ferreira S. FTO T/A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? Pro12Ala polymorphisms but not ApoA1 -75 are associated with better response to lifestyle intervention in Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data did not support benefits of the variant allele of ApoA1 -75G/A polymorphism. Further studies are needed to direct lifestyle intervention to subsets of individuals at cardiometabolic risk. ..
  7. Wang X, Sun Y, Wong J, Conklin D. PPAR? maintains ERBB2-positive breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, GW9662 pre-treatment inhibits the tumor-seeding ability of BT474 cells. Together, these results show that the PPAR? pathway is critical for the cancer stem cell properties of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. ..
  8. Pei Q, Huang Q, Yang G, Zhao Y, Yin J, Song M, et al. PPAR-?2 and PTPRD gene polymorphisms influence type 2 diabetes patients' response to pioglitazone in China. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes risk alleles in PPAR-?2 (rs1801282) and PTPRD (rs17584499) are associated with pioglitazone therapeutic efficacy. ..
  9. Wang X, Liu J, Ouyang Y, Fang M, Gao H, Liu L. The association between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71985 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.030). Our results suggested that the presence of the Ala allele may contribute to improved insulin secretory capacity and may confer protection from type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Chinese population. ..
  10. Zhang R, Wang J, Yang R, Sun J, Chen R, Luo H, et al. Effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene on metabolic syndrome risk: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2014;535:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Pro12Ala may affect the single component of metabolic syndrome. A large, well designed study is required to more adequately assess the role for Pro12Ala polymorphism on metabolic syndrome. ..

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. Cho Y, Kim T, Lim S, Choi S, Shin H, Lee H, et al. Type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants discovered in the recent genome-wide association studies are related to gestational diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. Diabetologia. 2009;52:253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants that were discovered in the recent GWA studies are also associated with GDM in Koreans. ..
  2. Szatmari I, Pap A, Rühl R, Ma J, Illarionov P, Besra G, et al. PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2351-62 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that PPARgamma, turns on retinoic acid synthesis by inducing the expression of retinol and retinal metabolizing enzymes such as ..
  3. Hung Y, Lee N, Lin S, Chang H, Wu C, Chang C, et al. Effects of PPAR? and RBP4 gene variants on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49102 pubmed publisher
    ..The impacts of PPAR? C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms on metabolism in HIV-infected patients are not significant. RBP4 -803GA polymorphism has increased risk of insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. ..
  4. Zhang H, Zhu S, Chen J, Tang Y, Hu H, Mohan V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? polymorphism Pro12Ala Is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: evidence from meta-analysis of 18 studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the polymorphism and DN risk has also been widely studied recently, but no consensus was available up to now...
  5. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The C161T polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene (PPAR?) is associated with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:3101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..11, P = 0.913). Taken together, our results revealed the PPAR? C161T polymorphism might play a moderate protective effect on developing CAD among Chinese, but not among Caucasians. ..
  6. Curti M, Rogero M, Baltar V, Barros C, Siqueira Catania A, Ferreira S. FTO T/A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? Pro12Ala polymorphisms but not ApoA1 -75 are associated with better response to lifestyle intervention in Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data did not support benefits of the variant allele of ApoA1 -75G/A polymorphism. Further studies are needed to direct lifestyle intervention to subsets of individuals at cardiometabolic risk. ..
  7. Wang X, Sun Y, Wong J, Conklin D. PPAR? maintains ERBB2-positive breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, GW9662 pre-treatment inhibits the tumor-seeding ability of BT474 cells. Together, these results show that the PPAR? pathway is critical for the cancer stem cell properties of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. ..
  8. Pei Q, Huang Q, Yang G, Zhao Y, Yin J, Song M, et al. PPAR-?2 and PTPRD gene polymorphisms influence type 2 diabetes patients' response to pioglitazone in China. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes risk alleles in PPAR-?2 (rs1801282) and PTPRD (rs17584499) are associated with pioglitazone therapeutic efficacy. ..
  9. Wang X, Liu J, Ouyang Y, Fang M, Gao H, Liu L. The association between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71985 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.030). Our results suggested that the presence of the Ala allele may contribute to improved insulin secretory capacity and may confer protection from type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Chinese population. ..
  10. Zhang R, Wang J, Yang R, Sun J, Chen R, Luo H, et al. Effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene on metabolic syndrome risk: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2014;535:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Pro12Ala may affect the single component of metabolic syndrome. A large, well designed study is required to more adequately assess the role for Pro12Ala polymorphism on metabolic syndrome. ..
  11. Yang J, Gong H, Liu W, Tao T. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene with the metabolic characteristics in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:1894-902 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 PPAR?2) gene that account for metabolic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive...
  12. Domenici F, Brochado M, Martinelli A, Zucoloto S, da Cunha S, Vannucchi H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma2 polymorphisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a study in Brazilian patients. Gene. 2013;529:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also documented more advanced fibrosis in the Leu162Val SNP. The obtained data suggest that Pro12Ala SNP may result in protection against liver injury and that Leu162Val SNP may be involved in the progression of NAFLD. ..
  13. Trombetta M, Bonetti S, Boselli M, Miccoli R, Trabetti E, Malerba G, et al. PPARG2 Pro12Ala and ADAMTS9 rs4607103 as "insulin resistance loci" and "insulin secretion loci" in Italian individuals. The GENFIEV study and the Verona Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Study (VNDS) 4. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:401-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated cross-sectionally whether the type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk alleles of rs1801282 (PPARG2) and rs4607103 (ADAMTS9) were associated with T2DM and/or insulin sensitivity (IS) and beta cell function (?F) in Italians without and ..
  14. D az Gandarilla J, Osorio Trujillo C, Hern ndez Ram rez V, Talam s Rohana P. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA?-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:215283 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  15. Bhatt S, Nigam P, Misra A, Guleria R, Luthra K, Pandey R, et al. Association of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? gene with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Indians residing in north India. Gene. 2013;512:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..64 (95% CI: 1.09-2.45, p=0.05)]. Asian Indians in north India carrying the alleles Ala and T of PPAR? (Pro12Ala and C161T) polymorphisms are predisposed to develop NAFLD. ..
  16. Arnaiz Villena A, Fernández Honrado M, Areces C, Enriquez de Salamanca M, Abd El Fatah Khalil S, Coca C, et al. Amerindians show no association of PPAR-?2 gene Ala12 allele and obesity: an "unthrifty" variant population genetics. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This may suggest that appearance of Ala12 allele occurred after populations adapted to an agricultural feeding. ..
  17. Haraguchi G, Kobayashi Y, Brown M, Tanaka A, Isobe M, Gianturco S, et al. PPAR(alpha) and PPAR(gamma) activators suppress the monocyte-macrophage apoB-48 receptor. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1224-31 pubmed
    ..real-time PCR, Northern, Western, and functional cellular lipid accumulation assays, we show that PPARalpha and PPARgamma activators significantly suppress the expression of apoB-48R mRNA in human THP-1 and blood-borne monocyte-..
  18. Argmann C, Sawyez C, McNeil C, Hegele R, Huff M. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor results in net depletion of cellular cholesteryl esters in macrophages exposed to oxidized lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:475-82 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has pleiotropic effects, including regulation of macrophage differentiation and lipid homeostasis...
  19. Bhatt S, Misra A, Sharma M, Luthra K, Guleria R, Pandey R, et al. Ala/Ala genotype of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14:828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.9) and IR (OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4). The Ala/Ala genotype of the PPAR-?2 gene is associated with obesity and IR in Asian Indians without diabetes living in north India. ..
  20. Jahrling J, Hernandez C, Denner L, Dineley K. PPAR? recruitment to active ERK during memory consolidation is required for Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive enhancement. J Neurosci. 2014;34:4054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate a previously unidentified PPAR?-pERK complex that provides a molecular mechanism for the convergence of these pathways during cognitive enhancement, thereby offering new targets for therapeutic development in AD. ..
  21. Gu S, Liu M, Guo Z, Wu M, Chen Q, Zhou Z, et al. Gene-gene interactions among PPAR?/?/? polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. Gene. 2013;515:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), which indicated a potential gene-gene interaction among PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms. The results suggest that PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or in an interactive manner. ..
  22. Szalárdy L, Zadori D, Tánczos E, Simu M, Bencsik K, Vecsei L, et al. Elevated levels of PPAR-gamma in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2013;554:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Corroborating with prior experimental findings, these results may contribute to our understanding about the role of PPAR? in MS, and may implicate this protein as a potential CSF biomarker of the disease. ..
  23. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPAR?2) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53105 pubmed publisher
    ..12, P = 0.91). Our results demonstrated that the PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians. ..
  24. Lu X, Bijli K, Ramirez A, Murphy T, Kleinhenz J, Hart C. Hypoxia downregulates PPAR? via an ERK1/2-NF-?B-Nox4-dependent mechanism in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;63:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also indicate that restoration of PPAR? activity with pharmacological ligands may provide a novel therapeutic approach in selected forms of PH. ..
  25. Zhang M, Rego D, Moshkova M, Kebir H, Chruscinski A, Nguyen H, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and -? regulate IFN? and IL-17A production by human T cells in a sex-specific way. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our observations indicate that human T cells exhibit a sex difference in the production of IFN? and IL-17A that may be driven by expressions of PPAR? and PPAR?. ..
  26. Landi S, Moreno V, Gioia Patricola L, Guino E, Navarro M, De Oca J, et al. Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3560-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that IL6, IL8, and PPARG genes are important in relation to inflammation-related risk of sporadic CRC. ..
  27. Vogel U, Christensen J, Nexø B, Wallin H, Friis S, Tjønneland A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated [corrected] receptor-gamma2 [corrected] Pro12Ala, interaction with alcohol intake and NSAID use, in relation to risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of Danes. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:427-34 pubmed
    ..We also observe interaction between NSAID, alcohol consumption and PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala genotype in relation to breast cancer risk. ..
  28. Xita N, Lazaros L, Georgiou I, Tsatsoulis A. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:267-72 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not involved in the pathogenesis or the phenotypic expression of PCOS. ..
  29. Lagou V, Scott R, Manios Y, Chen T, Wang G, Grammatikaki E, et al. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:913-8 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) are promising candidate genes for obesity...
  30. De Cosmo S, Motterlini N, Prudente S, Pellegrini F, Trevisan R, Bossi A, et al. Impact of the PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and ACE inhibitor therapy on new-onset microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: evidence from BENEDICT. Diabetes. 2009;58:2920-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluating Pro12Ala polymorphism may help identifying patients at risk who may benefit the most from early renoprotective therapy. ..
  31. Capparuccia L, Marzioni D, Giordano A, Fazioli F, De Nictolis M, Busso N, et al. PPARgamma expression in normal human placenta, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:574-9 pubmed
    ..b>PPARgamma plays a pivotal role in cellular differentiation...
  32. Berger J, Patel H, Woods J, Hayes N, Parent S, Clemas J, et al. A PPARgamma mutant serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of PPAR signaling and is localized in the nucleus. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;162:57-67 pubmed
    ..b>PPARgamma plays a critical role in regulating adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism...
  33. Dwight T, Thoppe S, Foukakis T, Lui W, Wallin G, Höög A, et al. Involvement of the PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma rearrangement in follicular thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4440-5 pubmed
    ..t(2; 3)(q13;p25), involving the fusion of PAX8 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) was suggested to arise only in follicular thyroid carcinomas...
  34. Zhu Y, Qi C, Jain S, Rao M, Reddy J. Isolation and characterization of PBP, a protein that interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25500-6 pubmed
    ..activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), we used a yeast two-hybrid system with Gal4-PPARgamma as bait to screen a mouse liver cDNA library and have identified steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) as a ..
  35. Ogino S, Shima K, Baba Y, Nosho K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. Colorectal cancer expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, PPARgamma) is associated with good prognosis. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1242-50 pubmed publisher
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates expression of mediators of lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response...
  36. Hsieh M, Lin K, Tien K, Tu S, Hsiao J, Chang S, et al. Common polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (Pro12Ala) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (Gly482Ser) and the response to pioglitazone in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2010;59:1139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be helpful for targeted treatment of diabetes by identifying patients who are likely to respond to pioglitazone. ..
  37. Jermendy A, Korner A, Kovacs M, Madacsy L, Cseh K. PPAR-gamma2 pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with post-challenge abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in children and adolescents with obesity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24:55-9 pubmed
  38. Ikeda Y, Sugawara A, Taniyama Y, Uruno A, Igarashi K, Arima S, et al. Suppression of rat thromboxane synthase gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in macrophages via an interaction with NRF2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33142-50 pubmed
    ..regulation of the rat thromboxane synthase (TXS) gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in macrophages. The transcription activity of a cloned 5'-flanking region (1...
  39. Szanto A, Balint B, Nagy Z, Barta E, Dezso B, Pap A, et al. STAT6 transcription factor is a facilitator of the nuclear receptor PPAR?-regulated gene expression in macrophages and dendritic cells. Immunity. 2010;33:699-712 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction, underpinning cell type-specific responses, represents a unique way of controlling nuclear receptor signaling by inflammatory molecules in immune cells. ..
  40. Sarraf P, Mueller E, Smith W, Wright H, Kum J, Aaltonen L, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in PPAR gamma associated with human colon cancer. Mol Cell. 1999;3:799-804 pubmed
    The gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, regulates adipocyte differentiation and has recently been shown to be expressed in neoplasia of the colon and other tissues...
  41. Lee J, Drakaki A, Iliopoulos D, Struhl K. MiR-27b targets PPAR? to inhibit growth, tumor progression and the inflammatory response in neuroblastoma cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:3818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the ability of PPAR? to promote or suppress tumor formation is linked to cell type-specific differences in regulation of NHE1 and other target genes. ..
  42. Weedon M, McCarthy M, Hitman G, Walker M, Groves C, Zeggini E, et al. Combining information from common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms improves disease prediction. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e374 pubmed
    ..This approach may have a role in future preventative measures for common, polygenic diseases. ..
  43. Zhu Y, Qi C, Calandra C, Rao M, Reddy J. Cloning and identification of mouse steroid receptor coactivator-1 (mSRC-1), as a coactivator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Gene Expr. 1996;6:185-95 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue...
  44. Luan J, Browne P, Harding A, Halsall D, O Rahilly S, Chatterjee V, et al. Evidence for gene-nutrient interaction at the PPARgamma locus. Diabetes. 2001;50:686-9 pubmed
    The importance of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in regulating insulin resistance and blood pressure has been demonstrated in families with loss of function mutations...
  45. Tan X, Dagher H, Hutton C, Bourke J. Effects of PPAR gamma ligands on TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells. Respir Res. 2010;11:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Since PPAR gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit fibroblast activation by TGF-beta1, we assessed the ability of the ..
  46. Jennewein C, Kuhn A, Schmidt M, Meilladec Jullig V, von Knethen A, Gonzalez F, et al. Sumoylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by apoptotic cells prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NCoR removal from kappaB binding sites mediating transrepression of proinflammatory cytokines. J Immunol. 2008;181:5646-52 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coordinates antiinflammatory responses following its activation by AC. Exposing murine RAW264...
  47. Doney A, Fischer B, Leese G, Morris A, Palmer C. Cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes is associated with variation at the PPARG locus: a Go-DARTS study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:2403-7 pubmed
    ..This study confirms the association of the Ala12 allele with reduced risk of myocardial infarction in a type 2 diabetic population and demonstrates that the T allele independently associates with an increased risk. ..
  48. Han S, Sidell N, Fisher P, Roman J. Up-regulation of p21 gene expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1911-9 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the family of nuclear receptors, has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation although the ..
  49. Mohamed M, Mtiraoui N, Ezzidi I, Chaieb M, Mahjoub T, Almawi W. Association of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala but not the C1431T gene variants with lower body mass index in Type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007;30:937-43 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation and regulation of insulin sensitivity, and is associated with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
  50. Yamashita D, Yamaguchi T, Shimizu M, Nakata N, Hirose F, Osumi T. The transactivating function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is negatively regulated by SUMO conjugation in the amino-terminal domain. Genes Cells. 2004;9:1017-29 pubmed
    ..These observations provide evidence that sumoylation is involved in negative regulation of the transactivating function of PPARgamma2. ..
  51. Akiyama T, Baumann C, Sakai S, Hager G, Gonzalez F. Selective intranuclear redistribution of PPAR isoforms by RXR alpha. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:707-21 pubmed
    ..of the GFP-PPARm gamma isoform characterized by a reticulated pattern of the green fluorescent label for PPAR gamma within the nucleus, but not in nucleoli, and a heightened concentration of the fluorescent label surrounding ..
  52. Memisoglu A, Hu F, Hankinson S, Manson J, De Vivo I, Willett W, et al. Interaction between a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism and dietary fat intake in relation to body mass. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2923-9 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a critical regulator of adipogenesis...
  53. Scott L, Mohlke K, Bonnycastle L, Willer C, Li Y, Duren W, et al. A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science. 2007;316:1341-5 pubmed
    ..This brings the number of T2D loci now confidently identified to at least 10. ..
  54. Johansson L, Danielsson P, Norgren S, Marcus C, Ridderstrale M. Interaction between PPARG Pro12Ala and ADIPOQ G276T concerning cholesterol levels in childhood obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants in candidate genes for insulin resistance are associated with cholesterol levels in obese children and adolescents, and may offer additional information in the risk assessment of obese children. ..
  55. Hansmann G, de Jesus Perez V, Alastalo T, Alvira C, Guignabert C, Bekker J, et al. An antiproliferative BMP-2/PPARgamma/apoE axis in human and murine SMCs and its role in pulmonary hypertension. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1846-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report an interplay between PPARgamma and its transcriptional target apoE downstream of BMP-2 signaling...
  56. Agarwal A, Garg A. A novel heterozygous mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene in a patient with familial partial lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:408-11 pubmed
    ..We studied peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene as a candidate gene in seven FPL patients who did not appear to have Dunnigan variety...
  57. Nakajima A, Tomimoto A, Fujita K, Sugiyama M, Takahashi H, Ikeda I, et al. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity suppresses pancreatic cancer cell motility. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1892-900 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that has been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progression of various solid tumors, including pancreatic carcinomas...
  58. Meirhaeghe A, Boreham C, Murray L, Richard F, Davey Smith G, Young I, et al. A possible role for the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism in preterm birth. Diabetes. 2007;56:494-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism might represent a genetic susceptibility factor for preterm birth and constitute a link between preterm birth and metabolic diseases later in life. ..
  59. Cronet P, Petersen J, Folmer R, Blomberg N, Sjoblom K, Karlsson U, et al. Structure of the PPARalpha and -gamma ligand binding domain in complex with AZ 242; ligand selectivity and agonist activation in the PPAR family. Structure. 2001;9:699-706 pubmed
    ..The roles of PPARalpha in fatty acid oxidation and PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage have been characterized extensively...
  60. Savage D, Agostini M, Barroso I, Gurnell M, Luan J, Meirhaeghe A, et al. Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. Nat Genet. 2002;31:379-84 pubmed
    ..to frameshift/premature stop mutations in two unlinked genes, PPARG and PPP1R3A these encode peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, which is highly expressed in adipocytes, and protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3, ..
  61. Wu Y, Chin W, Wang Y, Burris T. Ligand and coactivator identity determines the requirement of the charge clamp for coactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8637-44 pubmed
    ..We show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) coactivator-1 (PGC-1) requires both the intact AF-2 domain of PPARgamma and the LXXLL domain of PGC-1 ..
  62. Labayen I, Moreno L, Marti A, González Lamuño D, Warnberg J, Ortega F, et al. Effect of the Ala12 allele in the PPARgamma-2 gene on the relationship between birth weight and body composition in adolescents: the AVENA study. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:615-9 pubmed
    ..by Pro12Pro, Pro12Ala, and Ala12Ala genotypes of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARgamma-2) gene. The PPARgamma-2 gene polymorphism was genotyped in 273 adolescents aged 13-18...
  63. Zhang G, Ahmed N, Riley C, Oliva K, Barker G, Quinn M, et al. Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:113-9 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach...
  64. Fournier T, Pavan L, Tarrade A, Schoonjans K, Auwerx J, Rochette Egly C, et al. The role of PPAR-gamma/RXR-alpha heterodimers in the regulation of human trophoblast invasion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;973:26-30 pubmed
    ..Together these data underscore an important function of PPAR/RXR heterodimers in the modulation of trophoblast invasion. ..
  65. Herder C, Rathmann W, Strassburger K, Finner H, Grallert H, Huth C, et al. Variants of the PPARG, IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, HHEX, and TCF7L2 genes confer risk of type 2 diabetes independently of BMI in the German KORA studies. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:722-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that gene variants of CDKAL1, PPARG, IGF2BP2, HHEX, TCF7L2, and FTO predispose to type 2 diabetes in the German KORA 500 K study population. These associations appear to be independent of BMI. ..
  66. Sabatino L, Casamassimi A, Peluso G, Barone M, Capaccio D, Migliore C, et al. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform with dominant negative activity generated by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26517-25 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the isoform is dominant negative versus PPARgamma. Interestingly, gammaORF4 was expressed in vivo in a series of sporadic colorectal cancers...
  67. Hamuro Y, Coales S, Morrow J, Molnar K, Tuske S, Southern M, et al. Hydrogen/deuterium-exchange (H/D-Ex) of PPARgamma LBD in the presence of various modulators. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1883-92 pubmed
    A nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), is a ligand-dependent transcription factor involved in glucose homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation...
  68. Altshuler D, Hirschhorn J, Klannemark M, Lindgren C, Vohl M, Nemesh J, et al. The common PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2000;26:76-80 pubmed
    ..one association, that of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma(PPARgamma) with type 2 diabetes. By analysing over 3,000 individuals, we found a modest (1.25-fold) but significant (P=0...
  69. Tai E, Corella D, Deurenberg Yap M, Adiconis X, Chew S, Tan C, et al. Differential effects of the C1431T and Pro12Ala PPARgamma gene variants on plasma lipids and diabetes risk in an Asian population. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:674-85 pubmed
    ..the association of C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) locus with plasma lipids and insulin resistance-related variables, according to diabetes status, in a large and ..
  70. Ameshima S, Golpon H, Cool C, Chan D, Vandivier R, Gardai S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression is decreased in pulmonary hypertension and affects endothelial cell growth. Circ Res. 2003;92:1162-9 pubmed
    b>PPARgamma is a member of a family of nuclear receptors/ligand-dependent transcription factors, which bind to hormone response elements on target gene promoters...
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    ..Further studies on the correlation between Pro12Ala polymorphism and CAD should be carried out in a larger Korean population in the future. ..
  72. Lindi V, Sivenius K, Niskanen L, Laakso M, Uusitupa M. Effect of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma2 gene on long-term weight change in Finnish non-diabetic subjects. Diabetologia. 2001;44:925-6 pubmed
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    ..The present investigation highlights the importance of replication and validation of findings from genetic association studies. ..
  74. Li L, Cheng L, Nsenga R, He M, Wu T. Association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 and myocardial infarction in the Chinese Han population. Clin Cardiol. 2006;29:300-4 pubmed
    ..001). There was no relationship between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and waist circumference, weight, BMI, BP, or triglycerides (p > 0.05). Our study suggests that Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with increased risk of MI. ..
  75. Rhee E, Oh K, Lee W, Kim S, Oh E, Baek K, et al. Effects of two common polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene on metabolic syndrome. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:86-94 pubmed
    ..We investigated the frequencies of two common polymorphisms of PPARgamma gene, exon 6 C-->T substitution and exon B Pro12Ala in healthy subjects and analyzed the correlations between ..
  76. Yakeu G, Butcher L, Isa S, Webb R, Roberts A, Thomas A, et al. Low-intensity exercise enhances expression of markers of alternative activation in circulating leukocytes: roles of PPAR? and Th2 cytokines. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212:668-73 pubmed publisher
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    ..The present results suggest that telmisartan-induced inhibition of vasoconstriction in resistance arteries is mediated through a PPAR?-dependent increase in eNOS expression and activity that is unrelated to AT?R blockade. ..
  78. Hegele R, Cao H, Frankowski C, Mathews S, Leff T. PPARG F388L, a transactivation-deficient mutant, in familial partial lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2002;51:3586-90 pubmed
    ..Our findings are consistent with the idea that mutant PPARG can underlie the partial lipodystrophy phenotype. ..
  79. Yao Q, Nordfors L, Axelsson J, Heimburger O, Qureshi A, Barany P, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphisms affect systemic inflammation and survival in end-stage renal disease patients starting renal replacement therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2005;182:105-11 pubmed
  80. Limor R, Sharon O, Knoll E, Many A, Weisinger G, Stern N. Lipoxygenase-derived metabolites are regulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of this link in VSMC pathophysiology remain to be elucidated. ..
  81. Meirhaeghe A, Fajas L, Gouilleux F, Cottel D, Helbecque N, Auwerx J, et al. A functional polymorphism in a STAT5B site of the human PPAR gamma 3 gene promoter affects height and lipid metabolism in a French population. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:289-94 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization...
  82. Zhang H, Bi Y, Hu C, Lu W, Zhu D. Association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-? gene and the polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Gene. 2012;503:12-7 pubmed publisher
    ..29; 95%CI, -0.82-0.24; p=0.29). This meta-analysis supported that PPAR-?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism was capable of reducing polycystic ovary syndrome risk in Europeans, but not in Asians. ..