Gene Symbol: PPARgamma
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
Alias: CIMT1, GLM1, NR1C3, PPARG1, PPARG2, PPARgamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1
Species: human
Products:     PPARgamma

Top Publications

  1. Pancione M, Forte N, Sabatino L, Tomaselli E, Parente D, Febbraro A, et al. Reduced beta-catenin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression levels are associated with colorectal cancer metastatic progression: correlation with tumor-associated macrophages, cyclooxygenase 2, and patient outcome. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:714-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may provide a relevant prognostic tool and contribute to early identification of patients at high risk of mortality. ..
  2. Lee G, Elwood F, McNally J, Weiszmann J, Lindstrom M, Amaral K, et al. T0070907, a selective ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, functions as an antagonist of biochemical and cellular activities. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19649-57 pubmed
    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma (NR1C3)) plays a central role in adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs...
  3. Szatmari I, Pap A, Rühl R, Ma J, Illarionov P, Besra G, et al. PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2351-62 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that PPARgamma, turns on retinoic acid synthesis by inducing the expression of retinol and retinal metabolizing enzymes such as ..
  4. Haraguchi G, Kobayashi Y, Brown M, Tanaka A, Isobe M, Gianturco S, et al. PPAR(alpha) and PPAR(gamma) activators suppress the monocyte-macrophage apoB-48 receptor. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1224-31 pubmed
    ..real-time PCR, Northern, Western, and functional cellular lipid accumulation assays, we show that PPARalpha and PPARgamma activators significantly suppress the expression of apoB-48R mRNA in human THP-1 and blood-borne monocyte-..
  5. Argmann C, Sawyez C, McNeil C, Hegele R, Huff M. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor results in net depletion of cellular cholesteryl esters in macrophages exposed to oxidized lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:475-82 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has pleiotropic effects, including regulation of macrophage differentiation and lipid homeostasis...
  6. Shrestha U, Karimi O, Crusius J, Zhou F, Wang Z, Chen Z, et al. Distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma polymorphisms in Chinese and Dutch patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding was not replicated in the Dutch population. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional implication of the PPAR-gamma C161T polymorphism in Chinese UC patients. ..
  7. Xita N, Lazaros L, Georgiou I, Tsatsoulis A. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:267-72 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene is not involved in the pathogenesis or the phenotypic expression of PCOS. ..
  8. Cho Y, Hong S, Jin Q, Wang L, Lee J, Gavrilova O, et al. Histone methylation regulator PTIP is required for PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression and adipogenesis. Cell Metab. 2009;10:27-39 pubmed publisher
    b>PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha cooperate to control preadipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis). However, the factors that regulate PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression during adipogenesis remain largely unclear...
  9. Zhang H, Zhu S, Chen J, Tang Y, Hu H, Mohan V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? polymorphism Pro12Ala Is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: evidence from meta-analysis of 18 studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the polymorphism and DN risk has also been widely studied recently, but no consensus was available up to now...

More Information

Publications221 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hung Y, Lee N, Lin S, Chang H, Wu C, Chang C, et al. Effects of PPAR? and RBP4 gene variants on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49102 pubmed publisher
    ..The impacts of PPAR? C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms on metabolism in HIV-infected patients are not significant. RBP4 -803GA polymorphism has increased risk of insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients with anti-retroviral therapy. ..
  2. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The C161T polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene (PPAR?) is associated with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:3101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..11, P = 0.913). Taken together, our results revealed the PPAR? C161T polymorphism might play a moderate protective effect on developing CAD among Chinese, but not among Caucasians. ..
  3. Curti M, Rogero M, Baltar V, Barros C, Siqueira Catania A, Ferreira S. FTO T/A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? Pro12Ala polymorphisms but not ApoA1 -75 are associated with better response to lifestyle intervention in Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data did not support benefits of the variant allele of ApoA1 -75G/A polymorphism. Further studies are needed to direct lifestyle intervention to subsets of individuals at cardiometabolic risk. ..
  4. Wang X, Sun Y, Wong J, Conklin D. PPAR? maintains ERBB2-positive breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, GW9662 pre-treatment inhibits the tumor-seeding ability of BT474 cells. Together, these results show that the PPAR? pathway is critical for the cancer stem cell properties of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. ..
  5. Pei Q, Huang Q, Yang G, Zhao Y, Yin J, Song M, et al. PPAR-?2 and PTPRD gene polymorphisms influence type 2 diabetes patients' response to pioglitazone in China. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes risk alleles in PPAR-?2 (rs1801282) and PTPRD (rs17584499) are associated with pioglitazone therapeutic efficacy. ..
  6. Wang X, Liu J, Ouyang Y, Fang M, Gao H, Liu L. The association between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71985 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.030). Our results suggested that the presence of the Ala allele may contribute to improved insulin secretory capacity and may confer protection from type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Chinese population. ..
  7. Zhang R, Wang J, Yang R, Sun J, Chen R, Luo H, et al. Effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene on metabolic syndrome risk: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2014;535:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Pro12Ala may affect the single component of metabolic syndrome. A large, well designed study is required to more adequately assess the role for Pro12Ala polymorphism on metabolic syndrome. ..
  8. Yang J, Gong H, Liu W, Tao T. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene with the metabolic characteristics in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:1894-902 pubmed
    ..The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 PPAR?2) gene that account for metabolic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive...
  9. Trombetta M, Bonetti S, Boselli M, Miccoli R, Trabetti E, Malerba G, et al. PPARG2 Pro12Ala and ADAMTS9 rs4607103 as "insulin resistance loci" and "insulin secretion loci" in Italian individuals. The GENFIEV study and the Verona Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Study (VNDS) 4. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:401-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated cross-sectionally whether the type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk alleles of rs1801282 (PPARG2) and rs4607103 (ADAMTS9) were associated with T2DM and/or insulin sensitivity (IS) and beta cell function (βF) in Italians without and ..
  10. Domenici F, Brochado M, Martinelli A, Zucoloto S, da Cunha S, Vannucchi H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma2 polymorphisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a study in Brazilian patients. Gene. 2013;529:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also documented more advanced fibrosis in the Leu162Val SNP. The obtained data suggest that Pro12Ala SNP may result in protection against liver injury and that Leu162Val SNP may be involved in the progression of NAFLD. ..
  11. D az Gandarilla J, Osorio Trujillo C, Hern ndez Ram rez V, Talam s Rohana P. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA?-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:215283 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  12. Bhatt S, Nigam P, Misra A, Guleria R, Luthra K, Pandey R, et al. Association of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? gene with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Indians residing in north India. Gene. 2013;512:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..64 (95% CI: 1.09-2.45, p=0.05)]. Asian Indians in north India carrying the alleles Ala and T of PPAR? (Pro12Ala and C161T) polymorphisms are predisposed to develop NAFLD. ..
  13. Bhatt S, Misra A, Sharma M, Luthra K, Guleria R, Pandey R, et al. Ala/Ala genotype of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 gene is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14:828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.9) and IR (OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4). The Ala/Ala genotype of the PPAR-?2 gene is associated with obesity and IR in Asian Indians without diabetes living in north India. ..
  14. Arnaiz Villena A, Fernández Honrado M, Areces C, Enriquez de Salamanca M, Abd El Fatah Khalil S, Coca C, et al. Amerindians show no association of PPAR-?2 gene Ala12 allele and obesity: an "unthrifty" variant population genetics. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This may suggest that appearance of Ala12 allele occurred after populations adapted to an agricultural feeding. ..
  15. Gu S, Liu M, Guo Z, Wu M, Chen Q, Zhou Z, et al. Gene-gene interactions among PPAR?/?/? polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. Gene. 2013;515:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), which indicated a potential gene-gene interaction among PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms. The results suggest that PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or in an interactive manner. ..
  16. Szalárdy L, Zadori D, Tánczos E, Simu M, Bencsik K, Vecsei L, et al. Elevated levels of PPAR-gamma in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2013;554:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Corroborating with prior experimental findings, these results may contribute to our understanding about the role of PPAR? in MS, and may implicate this protein as a potential CSF biomarker of the disease. ..
  17. Jahrling J, Hernandez C, Denner L, Dineley K. PPAR? recruitment to active ERK during memory consolidation is required for Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive enhancement. J Neurosci. 2014;34:4054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate a previously unidentified PPAR?-pERK complex that provides a molecular mechanism for the convergence of these pathways during cognitive enhancement, thereby offering new targets for therapeutic development in AD. ..
  18. Zhang M, Rego D, Moshkova M, Kebir H, Chruscinski A, Nguyen H, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and -? regulate IFN? and IL-17A production by human T cells in a sex-specific way. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our observations indicate that human T cells exhibit a sex difference in the production of IFN? and IL-17A that may be driven by expressions of PPAR? and PPAR?. ..
  19. Wu Z, Lou Y, Jin W, Liu Y, Lu L, Lu G. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPAR?2) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53105 pubmed publisher
    ..12, P = 0.91). Our results demonstrated that the PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians. ..
  20. Lu X, Bijli K, Ramirez A, Murphy T, Kleinhenz J, Hart C. Hypoxia downregulates PPAR? via an ERK1/2-NF-?B-Nox4-dependent mechanism in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;63:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also indicate that restoration of PPAR? activity with pharmacological ligands may provide a novel therapeutic approach in selected forms of PH. ..
  21. Paracchini V, Pedotti P, Taioli E. Genetics of leptin and obesity: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:101-14 pubmed
  22. Laakso S, Utriainen P, Laakso M, Voutilainen R, Jääskeläinen J. Polymorphism Pro12Ala of PPARG in prepubertal children with premature adrenarche and its association with growth in healthy children. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;74:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The Pro12Ala genotype of PPARG was not associated with PA. The minor Ala12 variant was associated with lower height SDS in healthy prepubertal children indicating its possible effects on growth. ..
  23. Tontonoz P, Nagy L, Alvarez J, Thomazy V, Evans R. PPARgamma promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL. Cell. 1998;93:241-52 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that the nuclear receptor PPARgamma is induced in human monocytes following exposure to oxLDL and is expressed at high levels in the foam cells of ..
  24. Siezen C, van Leeuwen A, Kram N, Luken M, van Kranen H, Kampman E. Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:449-57 pubmed
    ..A protective effect on colorectal adenomas was found for the CT genotype of SNP H477H in PPARgamma and the GC genotype of SNP V102V in COX-2 (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0...
  25. Cauchi S, Nead K, Choquet H, Horber F, Potoczna N, Balkau B, et al. The genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes may be modulated by obesity status: implications for association studies. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:45 pubmed publisher
  26. Mousavinasab F, Tähtinen T, Jokelainen J, Koskela P, Vanhala M, Oikarinen J, et al. Common polymorphisms in the PPARgamma2 and IRS-1 genes and their interaction influence serum adiponectin concentration in young Finnish men. Mol Genet Metab. 2005;84:344-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the Ala12Ala genotype of PPARgamma2 is associated with elevated adiponectin level, and that the PPARgamma2 and IRS-1 genes have a possible interaction in their effects on adiponectin concentration. ..
  27. Nagy L, Tontonoz P, Alvarez J, Chen H, Evans R. Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPARgamma. Cell. 1998;93:229-40 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that oxLDL activates PPARgamma-dependent transcription through a novel signaling pathway involving scavenger receptor-mediated particle uptake...
  28. Baratta R, Di Paola R, Spampinato D, Fini G, Marucci A, Coco A, et al. Evidence for genetic epistasis in human insulin resistance: the combined effect of PC-1 (K121Q) and PPARgamma2 (P12A) polymorphisms. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003;81:718-23 pubmed
    ..e., insulin sensitivity index and M value) and insulin secretion (i.e., HOMA-B%) indexes. ..
  29. Nassar B, Rockwood K, Kirkland S, Ransom T, Darvesh S, MacPherson K, et al. Improved prediction of early-onset coronary artery disease using APOE epsilon4, BChE-K, PPARgamma2 Pro12 and ENOS T-786C in a polygenic model. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:109-14 pubmed
    ..7), in combination, the likelihood of early-onset CAD increased to 2.78 with four mutations. The genetics of early-onset CAD appear to be multifactorial, requiring polygenic models to elucidate risk. ..
  30. Gouni Berthold I, Giannakidou E, Muller Wieland D, Faust M, Kotzka J, Berthold H, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-4a/b gene polymorphisms are not associated with hypertension in diabetes mellitus type 2. J Hypertens. 2005;23:301-8 pubmed
    The Pro12Ala and the 4a/b polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and the endothelial nitric oxide-synthase (eNOS) genes, respectively, have been associated with hypertension in some but not all ..
  31. Andrulionyte L, Zacharova J, Chiasson J, Laakso M. Common polymorphisms of the PPAR-gamma2 (Pro12Ala) and PGC-1alpha (Gly482Ser) genes are associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in the STOP-NIDDM trial. Diabetologia. 2004;47:2176-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the Pro12Pro genotype of the PPAR-gamma2 gene and the 482Ser allele of the PGC-1alpha gene are associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in the STOP-NIDDM trial. ..
  32. Wang J, Lv X, Shi J, Hu X, Du Y. Troglitazone induced apoptosis via PPAR? activated POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from this study showed that troglitazone-induced apoptosis was mediated by POX-induced ROS formation, at least partly, via PPAR? activation. ..
  33. Stefanski A, Majkowska L, Ciechanowicz A, Frankow M, Safranow K, Parczewski M, et al. Association between the Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene and increased 24-h diastolic blood pressure in obese patients with type II diabetes. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:684-92 pubmed
    ..Different reaction for antihypertensive medication depending on a variant of the PPAR-gamma2 gene should also be considered as a possible cause of the presented results. ..
  34. Agostini M, Gurnell M, Savage D, Wood E, Smith A, Rajanayagam O, et al. Tyrosine agonists reverse the molecular defects associated with dominant-negative mutations in human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1527-38 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the ligand-binding domain of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are associated with a novel syndrome characterized by partial lipodystrophy and severe insulin resistance...
  35. Aydogan H, Kucukhuseyin O, Tekeli A, Isbir T. Associations of receptor for advanced glycation end products -374 T/A and Gly82 Ser and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Pro12Ala polymorphisms in Turkish coronary artery disease patients. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:134-7 pubmed publisher
  36. Adamo K, Dent R, Langefeld C, Cox M, Williams K, Carrick K, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 and acyl-CoA synthetase 5 polymorphisms influence diet response. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1068-75 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its response gene, Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5), which has an important role in fatty acid metabolism, may affect weight loss in response to caloric restriction...
  37. Venkatachalam G, Kumar A, Yue L, Pervaiz S, Clement M, Sakharkar M. Computational identification and experimental validation of PPRE motifs in NHE1 and MnSOD genes of human. BMC Genomics. 2009;10 Suppl 3:S5 pubmed publisher
    ..We experimentally confirmed the true motifs and their regulation by PPAR. Our results suggest that both NHE1 and MnSOD have PPRE binding motif in their upstream/promoter region and hence are regulated by PPAR upon ligand binding. ..
  38. Chang Quan H, Hui W, Qing Xiu L, Gang C. Association of serum lipid/lipoprotein with Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-?2 among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:613-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of serum lipid/lipoprotein were not associated with the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-?2 among Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians, which was different from the general population. ..
  39. Ristow M, Muller Wieland D, Pfeiffer A, Krone W, Kahn C. Obesity associated with a mutation in a genetic regulator of adipocyte differentiation. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:953-9 pubmed
    ..These effects were similar to those of an in vitro mutation created directly at the Ser114 phosphorylation site. A Pro115Gln mutation in PPARgamma2 accelerates the differentiation of adipocytes and may cause obesity. ..
  40. Ebdrup S, Pettersson I, Rasmussen H, Deussen H, Frost Jensen A, Mortensen S, et al. Synthesis and biological and structural characterization of the dual-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist ragaglitazar. J Med Chem. 2003;46:1306-17 pubmed
  41. Malecki M, Cyganek K, Mirkiewicz Sieradzka B, Wolkow P, Wanic K, Skupien J, et al. Alanine variant of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma gene might be associated with decreased risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80:139-45 pubmed
    ..To search for association between the PPARgamma, calpain 10, PTPN1 genes and DR in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  42. Puigserver P, Spiegelman B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha): transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator. Endocr Rev. 2003;24:78-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, PGC-1 alpha's control of energy homeostasis suggests that it could be a target for anti-obesity or diabetes drugs. ..
  43. Reddy R, Narala V, Keshamouni V, Milam J, Newstead M, Standiford T. Sepsis-induced inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis is mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. Blood. 2008;112:4250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that PPAR-gamma activation is involved in PMN chemotactic responses in vitro and may play a role in the migration of these cells in vivo. ..
  44. Klotz L, Burgdorf S, Dani I, Saijo K, Flossdorf J, Hucke S, et al. The nuclear receptor PPAR gamma selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation in a T cell-intrinsic fashion and suppresses CNS autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) as a key negative regulator of human and mouse Th17 differentiation...
  45. Gampe R, Montana V, Lambert M, Miller A, Bledsoe R, Milburn M, et al. Asymmetry in the PPARgamma/RXRalpha crystal structure reveals the molecular basis of heterodimerization among nuclear receptors. Mol Cell. 2000;5:545-55 pubmed
    The nuclear receptor PPARgamma/RXRalpha heterodimer regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis and is the target for the antidiabetic drugs GI262570 and the thiazolidinediones (TZDs)...
  46. Babbar N, Ignatenko N, Casero R, Gerner E. Cyclooxygenase-independent induction of apoptosis by sulindac sulfone is mediated by polyamines in colon cancer. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47762-75 pubmed
    ..transcription start site, is required for the induction of SSAT by sulindac sulfone and is specifically bound by PPAR gamma in the Caco-2 cells as shown by transfection and gel shift experiments...
  47. Ludovico O, Pellegrini F, Di Paola R, Minenna A, Mastroianno S, Cardellini M, et al. Heterogeneous effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 Ala12 variant on type 2 diabetes risk. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1076-81 pubmed
    ..It is greater in Asia than in Europe and, among Europeans, it is higher in Northern Europe, barely significant in Central Europe, and nonexistent in Southern Europe. ..
  48. Puigserver P, Adelmant G, Wu Z, Fan M, Xu J, O MALLEY B, et al. Activation of PPARgamma coactivator-1 through transcription factor docking. Science. 1999;286:1368-71 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) promotes transcription through the assembly of a complex that includes the histone ..
  49. Stumvoll M, Haring H. Reduced lipolysis as possible cause for greater weight gain in subjects with the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma2?. Diabetologia. 2002;45:152-3 pubmed
  50. Zhang Y, Yang X, Kong Q, Zhang Y, Chen W, Dong X, et al. Effect of 15d-PGJ2 on the expression of CD40 and RANTES induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Am J Nephrol. 2006;26:356-62 pubmed
    ..These results point to PPAR-gamma as a remarkable new target in the prevention of tubular inflammatory injury associated with renal disease. ..
  51. Lango H, Palmer C, Morris A, Zeggini E, Hattersley A, McCarthy M, et al. Assessing the combined impact of 18 common genetic variants of modest effect sizes on type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes. 2008;57:3129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to assess whether individuals with extreme numbers of risk alleles may benefit from genetic testing. ..
  52. Atug O, Tahan V, Eren F, Tiftikci A, Imeryuz N, Hamzaoglu H, et al. Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene in inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2008;17:433-7 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma gene relates neither to the risk of the development of inflammatory bowel disease nor to the clinical subtypes of CD in the Turkish population. ..
  53. Barroso I, Gurnell M, Crowley V, Agostini M, Schwabe J, Soos M, et al. Dominant negative mutations in human PPARgamma associated with severe insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Nature. 1999;402:880-3 pubmed
    ..these agents can bind and activate an orphan nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), there is no direct evidence to conclusively implicate this receptor in the regulation of mammalian glucose ..
  54. Golledge J, Norman P. Relationship between two sequence variations in the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and plasma homocysteine concentration. Health in men study. Hum Genet. 2008;123:35-40 pubmed
    ..005). Our findings demonstrate a new genotypic association with plasma homocysteine. Replication will be required in other cohorts. ..
  55. Zanone Poma B, Riva A, Nasi M, Cicconi P, Broggini V, Lepri A, et al. Genetic polymorphisms differently influencing the emergence of atrophy and fat accumulation in HIV-related lipodystrophy. AIDS. 2008;22:1769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of Fas -670 AG polymorphism, ApoC3 -455 CT and -482 CT polymorphisms, C161T silent substitution in the PPAR gamma gene, the Adrenergic beta3 Receptor (ARbeta3) codon 64 TC variant, and two polymorphisms in the Adrenergic beta2 ..
  56. Vaccaro O, Lapice E, Monticelli A, Giacchetti M, Castaldo I, Galasso R, et al. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 locus modulates the relationship between energy intake and body weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1156-61 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence of a differential susceptibility to fat accumulation, and, hence, weight gain, in response to habitual high energy intake for Ala carriers compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. ..
  57. Shrivastav S, Kino T, Cunningham T, Ichijo T, Schubert U, Heinklein P, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral protein R suppresses transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} and inhibits adipocyte differentiation: implications for HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:234-47 pubmed
    ..protein viral protein R (Vpr) on the activity of the peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and tissue insulin sensitivity...
  58. Dallongeville J, Iribarren C, Ferrieres J, Lyon L, Evans A, Go A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphisms and coronary heart disease. PPAR Res. 2009;2009:543746 pubmed publisher
    ..67], P = .06) that became significant when considering men only (OR = 1.73 [1.20-2.48], P = .003). In conclusion, the PPARG Ala12Ala genotype might be associated with a higher CHD risk in men but further confirmation studies are needed. ..
  59. Falcetti E, Hall S, Phillips P, Patel J, Morrell N, Haworth S, et al. Smooth muscle proliferation and role of the prostacyclin (IP) receptor in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:1161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR? may represent a previously unrecognized pathway by which these agents inhibit smooth muscle proliferation. ..
  60. Thomas A, Davies N, Moir H, Watkeys L, Ruffino J, Isa S, et al. Exercise-associated generation of PPAR? ligands activates PPAR? signaling events and upregulates genes related to lipid metabolism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, exercise-triggered monocyte PPAR? activation may constitute an additional rationale for prescribing exercise to type 2 diabetes patients...
  61. Herrmann S, Ringel J, Wang J, Staessen J, Brand E. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 polymorphism Pro12Ala is associated with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The Berlin Diabetes Mellitus (BeDiaM) Study. Diabetes. 2002;51:2653-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a protective effect of the Ala12 allele in relation to diabetic nephropathy. ..
  62. Vogels N, Mariman E, Bouwman F, Kester A, Diepvens K, Westerterp Plantenga M. Relation of weight maintenance and dietary restraint to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, glucocorticoid receptor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:740-6 pubmed
  63. Bennett A, Sovio U, Ruokonen A, Martikainen H, Pouta A, Hartikainen A, et al. No evidence that established type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants in the PPARG and KCNJ11 genes have pleiotropic effects on early growth. Diabetologia. 2008;51:82-5 pubmed
    ..These findings do not support the notion that there are shared genetic determinants of low birthweight and adult diabetes. ..
  64. Wei J, Ghosh A, Sargent J, Komura K, Wu M, Huang Q, et al. PPAR? downregulation by TGFß in fibroblast and impaired expression and function in systemic sclerosis: a novel mechanism for progressive fibrogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13778 pubmed publisher
  65. Razquin C, Marti A, Martinez J. Evidences on three relevant obesogenes: MC4R, FTO and PPAR?. Approaches for personalized nutrition. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:136-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The advances in this field are expected to open new ways in genome-customized diets for obesity prevention and therapy following personalized approaches. ..
  66. Liu H, Zang C, Fenner M, Possinger K, Elstner E. PPARgamma ligands and ATRA inhibit the invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;79:63-74 pubmed
    ..One of the nuclear hormone receptors (NHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis ..
  67. Rodríguez Esparragón F, Rodriguez Perez J, Macías Reyes A, Alamo Santana F. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2-Pro12Ala and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-4a/bgene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1649-55 pubmed
    ..This effect manifested only in those subjects with normal homocysteine plasma values. Our findings suggest complex genotype-environmental interactions on hypertensive risk. ..
  68. Barz T, Hoffmann A, Panhuysen M, Spengler D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is a Zac target gene mediating Zac antiproliferation. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11975-82 pubmed
    ..Here, applying genome-wide expression analysis, we identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as a new bona fide Zac target gene, which is induced by direct Zac binding to the proximal PPARgamma1 promoter...
  69. Reddy R. Immunomodulatory role of PPAR-gamma in alveolar macrophages. J Investig Med. 2008;56:522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these observations point to PPAR-gamma in the context of the alveolar macrophage as a crucial factor in limiting excessive and possibly injurious inflammation in the lung. ..
  70. Chistiakov D, Potapov V, Khodirev D, Shamkhalova M, Shestakova M, Nosikov V. The PPARgamma Pro12Ala variant is associated with insulin sensitivity in Russian normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010;7:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation strongly supports the implication of the PPARG Pro12Ala in insulin resistance and T2D in a Russian population. ..
  71. Huang X, Zhao J, Zhao T. Effects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma 2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism on fasting blood lipids: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our meta-analysis also supports that subjects with genotype AlaAla have lower blood TG than subjects with genotype ProPro in Caucasians. ..
  72. Ramakrishnan L, Sachdev H, Sharma M, Abraham R, Prakash S, Gupta D, et al. Relationship of APOA5, PPAR? and HL gene variants with serial changes in childhood body mass index and coronary artery disease risk factors in young adulthood. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:68 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort. ..
  73. Marx N, Kehrle B, Kohlhammer K, Grüb M, Koenig W, Hombach V, et al. PPAR activators as antiinflammatory mediators in human T lymphocytes: implications for atherosclerosis and transplantation-associated arteriosclerosis. Circ Res. 2002;90:703-10 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated whether activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARgamma, with their known antiinflammatory effects, might regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human ..
  74. Huguenin G, Rosa G. The Ala allele in the PPAR-gamma2 gene is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Caucasians and improved insulin sensitivity in overweight subjects. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:488-97 pubmed publisher
  75. Lei H, Chen M, Yang W, Chiu M, Chen M, Tai T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 Pro12Ala gene variant is strongly associated with larger body mass in the Taiwanese. Metabolism. 2000;49:1267-70 pubmed
    ..These results need to be confirmed in future studies, as a linkage disequilibrium of this variant with other mutations cannot be ruled out. ..
  76. Yan Z, Zhu Z, Shen C, Zhao Z, Ni Y, Zhong J, et al. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma C-161T polymorphism and carotid artery atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004;84:543-7 pubmed
    To assess the relationship between PPAR gamma C161-T polymorphism and Carotid Atherosclerosis in metabolic Syndrome (MS)...
  77. Rangwala S, Lazar M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in diabetes and metabolism. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:331-6 pubmed
    ..It might be possible to dissociate the anti-diabetic and adverse effects through selective modulation of PPAR-gamma activity. ..
  78. Vogel U, Christensen J, Dybdahl M, Friis S, Hansen R, Wallin H, et al. Prospective study of interaction between alcohol, NSAID use and polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Mutat Res. 2007;624:88-100 pubmed
    ..02). Moreover, an interaction between DLG5 R30Q and NSAID use was found (P for interaction=0.02). Our results do not suggest that inborn variations in the inflammatory response play any major role in risk of colorectal cancer. ..
  79. Ek J, Andersen G, Urhammer S, Hansen L, Carstensen B, Borch Johnsen K, et al. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1170-6 pubmed
    ..The Ala-allele of the PPAR-gamma2 polymorphism is associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity among Swedish Caucasians. ..
  80. Feige J, Gelman L, Rossi D, Zoete V, Métivier R, Tudor C, et al. The endocrine disruptor monoethyl-hexyl-phthalate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulator that promotes adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19152-66 pubmed
    ..structural and functional analyses that demonstrate how monoethyl-hexyl-phthalate (MEHP) directly activates PPARgamma and promotes adipogenesis, albeit to a lower extent than the full agonist rosiglitazone...
  81. Yong E, Li J, Liu M. Single gene contributions: genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (isoforms alpha, beta/delta and gamma) and mechanisms of dyslipidemias. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide attractive targets for gene-environment interventions to reduce the burden of metabolic disease. ..
  82. Guan H, Ishizuka T, Chui P, Lehrke M, Lazar M. Corepressors selectively control the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in adipocytes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:453-61 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the master regulator of adipogenesis as well as the target of thiazolidinedione (TZD) antidiabetic drugs...