PPAR

Summary

Gene Symbol: PPAR
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha
Alias: NR1C1, PPAR, PPARalpha, hPPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPAR-alpha, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 1, peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor alpha variant 3
Species: human
Products:     PPAR

Top Publications

  1. Morimura K, Cheung C, Ward J, Reddy J, Gonzalez F. Differential susceptibility of mice humanized for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to Wy-14,643-induced liver tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1074-80 pubmed
    ..such as lipid-lowering fibrate drugs, are agonists for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Sustained activation of PPARalpha leads to the development of liver tumors in rodents...
  2. Ahmetov I, Mozhayskaya I, Flavell D, Astratenkova I, Komkova A, Lyubaeva E, et al. PPARalpha gene variation and physical performance in Russian athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:103-8 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates genes responsible for skeletal and heart muscle fatty acid oxidation...
  3. Lacquemant C, Lepretre F, Pineda Torra I, Manraj M, Charpentier G, Ruiz J, et al. Mutation screening of the PPARalpha gene in type 2 diabetes associated with coronary heart disease. Diabetes Metab. 2000;26:393-401 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily...
  4. Prieur X, Coste H, Rodriguez J. The human apolipoprotein AV gene is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and contains a novel farnesoid X-activated receptor response element. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25468-80 pubmed
    ..Since the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and the farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) have been shown to modulate the expression of genes involved in ..
  5. Zhou J, Zhang S, Xue J, Avery J, Wu J, Lind S, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) suppresses hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) signaling in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35161-9 pubmed publisher
    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, yet the mechanisms behind these actions remain to be characterized...
  6. Naito H, Yamanoshita O, Kamijima M, Katoh T, Matsunaga T, Lee C, et al. Association of V227A PPARalpha polymorphism with altered serum biochemistry and alcohol drinking in Japanese men. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006;16:569-77 pubmed
    ..The two-fold objective of our study was to determine the presence of PPARalpha polymorphisms and their frequencies in Japanese populations and then to evaluate the effects of any alleles on ..
  7. Costet P, Legendre C, More J, Edgar A, Galtier P, Pineau T. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform deficiency leads to progressive dyslipidemia with sexually dimorphic obesity and steatosis. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29577-85 pubmed
    The alpha-isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARalpha) is a nuclear transcription factor activated by structurally diverse chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators...
  8. Chen E, Mazzotti D, Furuya T, Cendoroglo M, Ramos L, Araujo L, et al. Association of PPARalpha gene polymorphisms and lipid serum levels in a Brazilian elderly population. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;88:197-201 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear transcription factor strictly involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolisms...
  9. Sher T, Yi H, McBride O, Gonzalez F. cDNA cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional characterization of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor. Biochemistry. 1993;32:5598-604 pubmed
    The human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (hPPAR) was cloned from a human liver cDNA library. The cDNA exhibited 85% and 91% DNA and deduced amino acid sequence identity with mouse PPAR (mPPAR), respectively...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Evans D, Aberle J, Wendt D, Wolf A, Beisiegel U, Mann W. A polymorphism, L162V, in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) gene is associated with lower body mass index in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Mol Med (Berl). 2001;79:198-204 pubmed
    ..The frequency of the L162V polymorphism in the PPARalpha gene was determined in 370 morbidly obese patients who underwent gastric banding surgery, 154 patients attending ..
  2. Yue L, Ye F, Xu X, Shen J, Chen K, Shen X, et al. The conserved residue Phe273(282) of PPARalpha(gamma), beyond the ligand-binding site, functions in binding affinity through solvation effect. Biochimie. 2005;87:539-50 pubmed
    ..Residue Phe282 in PPARgamma (Phe273 in PPARalpha), beyond the ligand-binding site, is a conserved amino acid across several nuclear receptors and in all PPAR ..
  3. Jamshidi Y, Montgomery H, Hense H, Myerson S, Torra I, Staels B, et al. Peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor alpha gene regulates left ventricular growth in response to exercise and hypertension. Circulation. 2002;105:950-5 pubmed
    ..Peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates genes responsible for myocardial fatty acid oxidation and is downregulated during cardiac hypertrophy,..
  4. Ribet C, Montastier E, Valle C, Bezaire V, Mazzucotelli A, Mairal A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha control of lipid and glucose metabolism in human white adipocytes. Endocrinology. 2010;151:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)alpha in human white adipocyte metabolism and at comparing PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma actions in these cells...
  5. Mandard S, Muller M, Kersten S. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:393-416 pubmed
    ..Here we review the involvement of PPARalpha in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, microsomal fatty acid hydroxylation, lipoprotein, bile ..
  6. Lefebvre P, Chinetti G, Fruchart J, Staels B. Sorting out the roles of PPAR alpha in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:571-80 pubmed
    b>PPARalpha is a nuclear receptor that regulates liver and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis...
  7. Akhmetov I, Astratenkova I, Druzhevskaia A, Komkova A, Liubaeva E, Tarakin P, et al. [The association of gene polymorphisms with the muscle fiber type composition]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2006;92:883-8 pubmed
    ..DNA was obtained from mouthwash samples by alkaline extraction. Polymorphism determination of PPARalpha, ACE and ACTN3 genes was performed using polymerase chain raction. Muscle fiber typing from m...
  8. Leone T, Weinheimer C, Kelly D. A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARalpha-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:7473-8 pubmed
    ..that the lipid-activated transcription factor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), plays a pivotal role in the cellular metabolic response to fasting...
  9. Bosse Y, Despres J, Bouchard C, Perusse L, Vohl M. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha L162V mutation is associated with reduced adiposity. Obes Res. 2003;11:809-16 pubmed
    To determine the contribution of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) L162V mutation to the variation of several indexes of body fatness obtained from healthy adults who participated in the Quebec Family Study...
  10. Yong E, Li J, Liu M. Single gene contributions: genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (isoforms alpha, beta/delta and gamma) and mechanisms of dyslipidemias. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide attractive targets for gene-environment interventions to reduce the burden of metabolic disease. ..
  11. Ng V, Huang Y, Reddy L, Falck J, Lin E, Kroetz D. Cytochrome P450 eicosanoids are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:1126-34 pubmed
    ..acids (DHETs), are induced upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) by fatty acids and fibrates...
  12. Xu H, Lambert M, Montana V, Plunket K, Moore L, Collins J, et al. Structural determinants of ligand binding selectivity between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13919-24 pubmed
    ..We report the x-ray crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of PPAR alpha (NR1C1) as a complex with the agonist ligand GW409544 and a coactivator motif from the steroid receptor ..
  13. Foucher C, Rattier S, Flavell D, Talmud P, Humphries S, Kastelein J, et al. Response to micronized fenofibrate treatment is associated with the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors alpha G/C intron7 polymorphism in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Pharmacogenetics. 2004;14:823-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that elevated baseline TG levels and PPARA gene intron 7 G/G genotype were associated with TG reduction > 30% after fenofibrate treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
  14. Sparsø T, Hussain M, Andersen G, Hainerova I, Borch Johnsen K, Jørgensen T, et al. Relationships between the functional PPARalpha Leu162Val polymorphism and obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and related quantitative traits in studies of 5799 middle-aged white people. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;90:205-9 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor capable of regulating the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways...
  15. Pineda Torra I, Jamshidi Y, Flavell D, Fruchart J, Staels B. Characterization of the human PPARalpha promoter: identification of a functional nuclear receptor response element. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1013-28 pubmed
    b>PPARalpha is a nuclear receptor that controls lipid and glucose metabolism and exerts antiinflammatory activities. The factors regulating human PPARalpha (hPPARalpha) gene expression remain largely unexplored...
  16. Chen S, Tsybouleva N, Ballantyne C, Gotto A, Marian A. Effects of PPARalpha, gamma and delta haplotypes on plasma levels of lipids, severity and progression of coronary atherosclerosis and response to statin therapy in the lipoprotein coronary atherosclerosis study. Pharmacogenetics. 2004;14:61-71 pubmed
    ..372 Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study subjects for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PPARalpha (-35 089A>C, 484C>G), delta (-4401C>T, 294T>C) and gamma (34C>G, 25 506C>T, 161C>T) by ..
  17. Brisson D, Ledoux K, Bosse Y, St Pierre J, Julien P, Perron P, et al. Effect of apolipoprotein E, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and lipoprotein lipase gene mutations on the ability of fenofibrate to improve lipid profiles and reach clinical guideline targets among hypertriglyceridemic patients. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:313-20 pubmed
    Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist which regulates the transcription of genes encoding proteins involved in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) metabolism...
  18. Tugwood J, Aldridge T, Lambe K, Macdonald N, Woodyatt N. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: structures and function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996;804:252-65 pubmed
    ..There is a wealth of data to implicate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) in mediating these effects in rodent species; PPAR alpha is expressed in tissues that show physiological ..
  19. Flavell D, Jamshidi Y, Hawe E, Pineda Torra I, Taskinen M, Frick M, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene variants influence progression of coronary atherosclerosis and risk of coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2002;105:1440-5 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, making it a candidate gene for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease (IHD)...
  20. Xu H, Stanley T, Montana V, Lambert M, Shearer B, Cobb J, et al. Structural basis for antagonist-mediated recruitment of nuclear co-repressors by PPARalpha. Nature. 2002;415:813-7 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analyses and structure-based mutagenesis indicate that this mode of co-repressor binding is highly conserved across nuclear receptors. ..
  21. Eynon N, Meckel Y, Yamin C, Amir R, Sagiv M, Goldhammer E, et al. Do PPARGC1A and PPARalpha polymorphisms influence sprint or endurance phenotypes?. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:e145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor gamma coactivator1 (PPARGC1A) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) genes, respectively, have been associated with mRNA and protein activity...
  22. Dowell P, Ishmael J, Avram D, Peterson V, Nevrivy D, Leid M. Identification of nuclear receptor corepressor as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15901-7 pubmed
    ..corepressor (NCoR) was demonstrated to interact strongly with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), and PPARalpha ligands suppressed this interaction...
  23. Tai E, Demissie S, Cupples L, Corella D, Wilson P, Schaefer E, et al. Association between the PPARA L162V polymorphism and plasma lipid levels: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:805-10 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates key proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, extracellular lipid metabolism, hemostasis, and inflammation...
  24. Chan E, Tan C, Deurenberg Yap M, Chia K, Chew S, Tai E. The V227A polymorphism at the PPARA locus is associated with serum lipid concentrations and modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentrations in Chinese women. Atherosclerosis. 2006;187:309-15 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the transcription of several proteins involved in human lipoprotein metabolism...
  25. Enquobahrie D, Smith N, Bis J, Carty C, Rice K, Lumley T, et al. Cholesterol ester transfer protein, interleukin-8, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha, and Toll-like receptor 4 genetic variations and risk of incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101:1683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..77 to 0.99). No within-gene or gene-gene interaction was associated with MI or ischemic stroke risk. In conclusion, potential SNP-disease associations identified in the present study are novel and need further investigation. ..
  26. Cresci S, Jones P, Sucharov C, Marsh S, Lanfear D, Garsa A, et al. Interaction between PPARA genotype and beta-blocker treatment influences clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndromes. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:1403-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ischemia and BB influence metabolic processes regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), we hypothesized that interactions between polymorphisms of the PPARalpha gene (PPARA) and BB treatment would ..
  27. Fruchart J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha): at the crossroads of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a member of this nuclear receptor family, has emerged as an important player in this scenario, with evidence ..
  28. Delerive P, De Bosscher K, Besnard S, Vanden Berghe W, Peters J, Gonzalez F, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha negatively regulates the vascular inflammatory gene response by negative cross-talk with transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:32048-54 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ligands (fibrates) lower elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 in patients with atherosclerosis and inhibit IL-..
  29. Flavell D, Ireland H, Stephens J, Hawe E, Acharya J, Mather H, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene variation influences age of onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2005;54:582-6 pubmed
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha is a master regulator of fatty acid catabolism, and PPARalpha activators delay the onset of type 2 diabetes...
  30. Klein K, Thomas M, Winter S, Nussler A, Niemi M, Schwab M, et al. PPARA: a novel genetic determinant of CYP3A4 in vitro and in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91:1044-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygous carriers expressed significantly less PPAR-? protein in the liver...
  31. Villard P, Caverni S, Baanannou A, Khalil A, Martin P, Penel C, et al. PPARalpha transcriptionally induces AhR expression in Caco-2, but represses AhR pro-inflammatory effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:896-901 pubmed
    In this work we demonstrate that Caco-2 cell treatment with WY-14643 (a potent PPARalpha agonist) causes an increase in AhR expression...
  32. Pyper S, Viswakarma N, Yu S, Reddy J. PPARalpha: energy combustion, hypolipidemia, inflammation and cancer. Nucl Recept Signal. 2010;8:e002 pubmed publisher
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha, or NR1C1) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a structurally diverse array of synthetic chemicals known as peroxisome proliferators...
  33. Paradis A, Fontaine Bisson B, Bosse Y, Robitaille J, Lemieux S, Jacques H, et al. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha Leu162Val polymorphism influences the metabolic response to a dietary intervention altering fatty acid proportions in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:523-30 pubmed
    ..to saturated fatty acids (P:S) is influenced by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) Leu162Val polymorphism in healthy men...
  34. Juge Aubry C, Hammar E, Siegrist Kaiser C, Pernin A, Takeshita A, Chin W, et al. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by phosphorylation of a ligand-independent trans-activating domain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:10505-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, they are subject to phosphorylation by insulin, resulting in the activation of PPARalpha, while inhibiting PPARgamma under certain conditions...
  35. Gu S, Liu M, Guo Z, Wu M, Chen Q, Zhou Z, et al. Gene-gene interactions among PPAR?/?/? polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. Gene. 2013;515:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and multilocus interactions among genetic variants in Chinese Han individuals to test the hypothesis that PPAR-?/?/? polymorphisms may contribute to the etiology of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or through such ..
  36. Ellinghaus P, Wolfrum C, Assmann G, Spener F, Seedorf U. Phytanic acid activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in sterol carrier protein 2-/ sterol carrier protein x-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:2766-72 pubmed
    ..been demonstrated to be transcriptionally regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)...
  37. Vega R, Huss J, Kelly D. The coactivator PGC-1 cooperates with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1868-76 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays a key role in the transcriptional control of genes encoding mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) enzymes...
  38. Tai E, Corella D, Demissie S, Cupples L, Coltell O, Schaefer E, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids interact with the PPARA-L162V polymorphism to affect plasma triglyceride and apolipoprotein C-III concentrations in the Framingham Heart Study. J Nutr. 2005;135:397-403 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear transcription factor regulating multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism...
  39. Chinetti G, Griglio S, Antonucci M, Torra I, Delerive P, Majd Z, et al. Activation of proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma induces apoptosis of human monocyte-derived macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25573-80 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the PPARalpha and PPARgamma forms are expressed in differentiated human monocyte-derived macrophages, which participate in ..
  40. Reinhard W, Stark K, Sedlacek K, Fischer M, Baessler A, Neureuther K, et al. Association between PPARalpha gene polymorphisms and myocardial infarction. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008;115:301-8 pubmed publisher
    b>PPARalpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha) regulates the expression of genes that are involved in lipid metabolism, tissue homoeostasis and inflammation...
  41. Shin M, Kanaya A, Krauss R. Polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha gene are associated with levels of apolipoprotein CIII and triglyceride in African-Americans but not Caucasians. Atherosclerosis. 2008;198:313-9 pubmed
    We tested whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARalpha gene (PPARA) are associated with variations in levels of plasma apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) levels, as well as other lipids and lipoproteins, in African-..
  42. Surapureddi S, Yu S, Bu H, Hashimoto T, Yeldandi A, Kashireddy P, et al. Identification of a transcriptionally active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha -interacting cofactor complex in rat liver and characterization of PRIC285 as a coactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11836-41 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) plays a central role in the cell-specific pleiotropic responses induced by structurally diverse synthetic chemicals designated as peroxisome proliferators...
  43. Rakhshandehroo M, Hooiveld G, Muller M, Kersten S. Comparative analysis of gene regulation by the transcription factor PPARalpha between mouse and human. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6796 pubmed publisher
    Studies in mice have shown that PPARalpha is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and the acute phase response. However, little information is available on the role of PPARalpha in human liver...
  44. Chen S, Li Y, Li S, Yu C. A Val227Ala substitution in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) gene associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and decreased waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1415-8 pubmed publisher
    This study analyzes the effect of the val227ala variant of the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
  45. Suchanek K, May F, Robinson J, Lee W, Holman N, Monteith G, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Mol Carcinog. 2002;34:165-71 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested that PPARalpha mRNA expression levels are an important determinant of rodent hepatic tumorigenicity...
  46. Doney A, Fischer B, Lee S, Morris A, Leese G, Palmer C. Association of common variation in the PPARA gene with incident myocardial infarction in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a Go-DARTS study. Nucl Recept. 2005;3:4 pubmed
    ..This genotype associated risk appears to be independent of the effect of these genotypes on lipid profiles and age of diagnosis with diabetes. ..
  47. Blanquart C, Mansouri R, Paumelle R, Fruchart J, Staels B, Glineur C. The protein kinase C signaling pathway regulates a molecular switch between transactivation and transrepression activity of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1906-18 pubmed
    ..b>PPARalpha is activated by natural fatty acids and synthetic compounds like fibrates...
  48. Kliewer S, Sundseth S, Jones S, Brown P, Wisely G, Koble C, et al. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4318-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a novel fibrate, designated GW2331, that is a high-affinity ligand for both PPARalpha and PPARgamma...
  49. Inoue I, Shino K, Noji S, Awata T, Katayama S. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) in primary cultures of human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;246:370-4 pubmed
    ..Three types of PPARs have been described in humans: PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma...
  50. Mazzotti D, Singulane C, Ota V, Rodrigues T, Furuya T, de Souza F, et al. PPAR? polymorphisms as risk factors for dyslipidemia in a Brazilian population. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;102:189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..044). These results may help to clarify the role of PPAR? gene in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and the evaluation of its polymorphisms and haplotypes as being ..
  51. Berger J, Moller D. The mechanisms of action of PPARs. Annu Rev Med. 2002;53:409-35 pubmed
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPAR gamma, PPAR alpha, and PPAR delta, encoded by different genes...
  52. Gouni Berthold I, Giannakidou E, Muller Wieland D, Faust M, Kotzka J, Berthold H, et al. Association between the PPARalpha L162V polymorphism, plasma lipoprotein levels, and atherosclerotic disease in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and in nondiabetic controls. Am Heart J. 2004;147:1117-24 pubmed
    b>Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and inflammation...
  53. Akhmetov I, Popov D, Mozhaĭskaia I, Missina S, Astratenkova I, Vinogradova O, et al. [Association of regulatory genes polymorphisms with aerobic and anaerobic performance of athletes]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2007;93:837-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, PPARA G, PPARG Ala, PPARD C and PGCIA Gly alleles can be considered as genetic markers associated with enhanced physical performance. ..
  54. Loiodice F, Pochetti G. Structural insight into the crucial role of ligand chirality in the activation of PPARs by crystallographic methods. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:819-39 pubmed
    ..This review provides an overview of most papers reporting the influence of stereochemistry on PPAR activation...
  55. Maciejewska A, Sawczuk M, Cięszczyk P. Variation in the PPAR? gene in Polish rowers. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14:58-64 pubmed publisher
    The PPAR? gene code for transcriptional factor that is a central regulator of expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and is believed to be a one of the genes of health-related fitness phenotype...
  56. Huss J, Torra I, Staels B, Giguere V, Kelly D. Estrogen-related receptor alpha directs peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling in the transcriptional control of energy metabolism in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9079-91 pubmed
    ..Many of the genes regulated by ERRalpha are known targets for the nuclear receptor PPARalpha, and therefore, the interaction between these regulatory pathways was explored...
  57. Tachibana K, Anzai N, Ueda C, Katayama T, Kirino T, Takahashi R, et al. Analysis of PPAR alpha function in human kidney cell line using siRNA. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2006;:257-8 pubmed
    ..b>PPARalpha is mainly expressed in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle...
  58. Mei C, He P, Cheng B, Liu W, Wang Y, Wan J. Chlamydia pneumoniae induces macrophage-derived foam cell formation via PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma-dependent pathways. Cell Biol Int. 2009;33:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore investigated the role that PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma may play a role in C. pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation...
  59. Jamshidi Y, Flavell D, Hawe E, MacCallum P, Meade T, Humphries S. Genetic determinants of the response to bezafibrate treatment in the lower extremity arterial disease event reduction (LEADER) trial. Atherosclerosis. 2002;163:183-92 pubmed
    ..Three polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) gene were investigated (L162V, G>A in intron 2 and G>C in intron 7), two in ..
  60. Chew C, Samian M, Najimudin N, Tengku Muhammad T. Molecular characterisation of six alternatively spliced variants and a novel promoter in human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:235-43 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that governs many biological processes, including lipid metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis...
  61. Ahmetov I, Williams A, Popov D, Lyubaeva E, Hakimullina A, Fedotovskaya O, et al. The combined impact of metabolic gene polymorphisms on elite endurance athlete status and related phenotypes. Hum Genet. 2009;126:751-61 pubmed publisher
    ..46; P = 7.0 × 10(-4)). These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming an elite endurance athlete depends on the carriage of a high number of endurance-related alleles. ..
  62. Seree E, Villard P, Pascussi J, Pineau T, Maurel P, Nguyen Q, et al. Evidence for a new human CYP1A1 regulation pathway involving PPAR-alpha and 2 PPRE sites. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:1436-45 pubmed
  63. Maggiora M, Oraldi M, Muzio G, Canuto R. Involvement of PPAR? and PPAR? in apoptosis and proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among peroxisome proliferators, fibrate derivatives are considered specific ligands for PPAR?, whereas eicosanoids, such as PGJ2, for PPAR?...
  64. Robitaille J, Brouillette C, Houde A, Lemieux S, Perusse L, Tchernof A, et al. Association between the PPARalpha-L162V polymorphism and components of the metabolic syndrome. J Hum Genet. 2004;49:482-9 pubmed
    ..The PPARalpha-L162V genotype was determined in a sample of 632 men by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction length ..
  65. Michalik L, Zoete V, Krey G, Grosdidier A, Gelman L, Chodanowski P, et al. Combined simulation and mutagenesis analyses reveal the involvement of key residues for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha helix 12 dynamic behavior. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9666-77 pubmed
    ..well as the involvement of individual residues with regard to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) constitutive and ligand-dependent transcriptional activity...
  66. Zak I, Balcerzyk A, Sarecka B, Niemiec P, Ciemniewski Z, Dylag S. Contemporaneous carrier-state of two or three "proatherosclerotic" variants of APOE, ICAM1, PPARA and PAI-1 genes differentiate CAD patients from healthy individuals. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;362:110-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, contemporaneous carrier-state of two or three polymorphic variants within analyzed genes is associated with CAD. ..
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