Gene Symbol: PON1
Description: paraoxonase 1
Alias: ESA, MVCD5, PON, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, A-esterase 1, K-45, PON 1, aromatic esterase 1, arylesterase 1, arylesterase B-type, esterase A, paraoxonase B-type, serum aryldiakylphosphatase, serum aryldialkylphosphatase 1
Species: human
Products:     PON1

Top Publications

  1. Balcerzyk A, Zak I, Krauze J. Protective effect of R allele of PON1 gene on the coronary artery disease in the presence of specific genetic background. Dis Markers. 2008;24:81-8 pubmed
    ..Participation of single polymorphic variants is relatively small, however its significance may increase in the presence of specific genetic or environmental background...
  2. Boehm D, Krzystek Korpacka M, Neubauer K, Matusiewicz M, Berdowska I, Zielinski B, et al. Paraoxonase-1 status in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:93-9 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an extracellular enzyme, which in the gastrointestinal tract may act as a local detoxifier, antioxidant, immunomodulator, and/or quorum-quenching factor. There are no data on PON1 activity in Crohn's disease (CD)...
  3. Zengi O, Karakas A, Ergun U, Senes M, Inan L, Yucel D. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level and plasma paraoxonase 1 activity with Alzheimer's disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;50:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a biomarker indicating oxidative DNA damage. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated antioxidant enzyme and prevents especially oxidation of low-density ..
  4. Ji G, Gu A, Wang Y, Huang C, Hu F, Zhou Y, et al. Genetic variants in antioxidant genes are associated with sperm DNA damage and risk of male infertility in a Chinese population. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..damage and male infertility, we examined 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from six antioxidant genes (GPX1, CAT, PON1, NQO1, SOD2/MnSOD, and SOD3) in 580 infertility cases and 580 controls from a Chinese population-based case-control ..
  5. Kappelle P, Bijzet J, Hazenberg B, Dullaart R. Lower serum paraoxonase-1 activity is related to higher serum amyloid a levels in metabolic syndrome. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:219-25 pubmed publisher
    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection...
  6. Camps J, Marsillach J, Rull A, Alonso Villaverde C, Joven J. Interrelationships between paraoxonase-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the regulation of hepatic inflammation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:5-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The current review summarises experiments suggesting how paraoxonase-1 activity and expression are altered in liver diseases, and their relationships with the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inflammation. ..
  7. Dahabreh I, Kitsios G, Kent D, Trikalinos T. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms and ischemic stroke risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Genet Med. 2010;12:606-15 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for coronary artery disease, but the results of genetic association studies on the related phenotype of ischemic stroke are inconclusive...
  8. Vakili L, Hama S, Kim J, Tien D, Safarpoor S, Ly N, et al. The effect of HDL mimetic peptide 4F on PON1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:167-72 pubmed publisher
    Several lines of evidence indicate that serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) acts as an important guardian against cellular damage from oxidized lipids in plasma membrane, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), against bacterial endotoxin and against ..
  9. Martinelli N, Micaglio R, Consoli L, Guarini P, Grison E, Pizzolo F, et al. Low levels of serum paraoxonase activities are characteristic of metabolic syndrome and may influence the metabolic-syndrome-related risk of coronary artery disease. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:231502 pubmed publisher
    ..The antioxidant ability of HDLs is, at least in part, attributable to pleiotropic serum paraoxonase (PON1)...

More Information


  1. Zhao Y, Ma Y, Fang Y, Liu L, Wu S, Fu D, et al. Association between PON1 activity and coronary heart disease risk: a meta-analysis based on 43 studies. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;105:141-8 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties...
  2. Mendonça M, dos Reis R, Freitas A, Pereira A, Sousa A, Freitas S, et al. Interaction of paraoxonase-192 polymorphism with low HDL-cholesterol in coronary artery disease risk. Rev Port Cardiol. 2010;29:571-80 pubmed
    ..Increased lipid peroxidation is associated with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme bound to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which protects against lipid peroxidation and ..
  3. Mackness B, Mackness M. Anti-inflammatory properties of paraoxonase-1 in atherosclerosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophage cholesterol efflux through the action of several of its associated proteins, particularly paraoxonase-1 (PON1), reduces the inflammation associated with atherosclerosis...
  4. Bobin Dubigeon C, Jaffre I, Joalland M, Classe J, Campone M, Hervé M, et al. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as a marker of short term death in breast cancer recurrence. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:1503-5 pubmed publisher
    To relate paraoxonase (PON1) activity to survival time and short term death in breast cancer recurrence...
  5. Wang M, Lang X, Zou L, Huang S, Xu Z. Four genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis based on 88 case-control studies. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a meta-analysis of 88 studies on 4 PON polymorphisms [Q192R, L55M, and T(-107)C in the PON1 and the S311C in the PON2] published before August 2010, including a total of 24,702 CHD cases and 38,232 controls...
  6. Richter R, Jarvik G, Furlong C. Paraoxonase 1 status as a risk factor for disease or exposure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:29-35 pubmed publisher
    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has broad substrate specificity and has been shown to protect against exposure to some organophosphorus (OP) insecticides due to its ability to hydrolyze toxic metabolites of some organophosphorothioate ..
  7. Furlong C, Suzuki S, Stevens R, Marsillach J, Richter R, Jarvik G, et al. Human PON1, a biomarker of risk of disease and exposure. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;187:355-61 pubmed publisher
    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated serum enzyme that exhibits a broad substrate specificity...
  8. Bouman H, Schömig E, van Werkum J, Velder J, Hackeng C, Hirschhäuser C, et al. Paraoxonase-1 is a major determinant of clopidogrel efficacy. Nat Med. 2011;17:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in vitro metabolomic profiling techniques, we identified paraoxonase-1 (PON1) as the crucial enzyme for clopidogrel bioactivation, with its common Q192R polymorphism determining the rate of ..
  9. Veiga L, Silva Nunes J, Melão A, Oliveira A, Duarte L, Brito M. Q192R polymorphism of the paraoxonase-1 gene as a risk factor for obesity in Portuguese women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:213-8 pubmed publisher
    Obesity became a major public health problem as a result of its increasing prevalence worldwide. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an esterase able to protect membranes and lipoproteins from oxidative modifications...
  10. Bayrak A, Bayrak T, Tokgozoglu S, Volkan Salanci B, Deniz A, Yavuz B, et al. Serum PON-1 activity but not Q192R polymorphism is related to the extent of atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:376-84 pubmed
    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme located in high density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1 was defined as a protective factor against atherosclerosis...
  11. Huen K, Barcellos L, Beckman K, Rose S, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Effects of PON polymorphisms and haplotypes on molecular phenotype in Mexican-American mothers and children. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2011;52:105-16 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) prevents oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and inactivates toxic oxon derivatives of organophosphate pesticides (OPs)...
  12. Banerjee I. Relationship between Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of stroke: a meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25:449-58 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) were implicated in stroke susceptibility in several case-control association studies...
  13. Mackness B, Beltran Debon R, Aragones G, Joven J, Camps J, Mackness M. Human tissue distribution of paraoxonases 1 and 2 mRNA. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:480-2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PON1 mRNA was restricted to adult kidney, liver, and colon as well as fetal liver, whereas PON2 mRNA was more widely ..
  14. Seres I, Bajnok L, Harangi M, Sztanek F, Koncsos P, Paragh G. Alteration of PON1 activity in adult and childhood obesity and its relation to adipokine levels. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In our recent work, we studied the alteration in human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and adipokine levels; furthermore, we also aimed at identifying the potential correlation between these ..
  15. Reny J, Combescure C, Daali Y, Fontana P. Influence of the paraoxonase-1 Q192R genetic variant on clopidogrel responsiveness and recurrent cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:1242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme activity is modulated by the PON1-Q192R variant (rs662) and was recently suggested to be strongly involved ..
  16. Likidlilid A, Akrawinthawong K, Poldee S, Sriratanasathavorn C. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms as the risk factor of coronary heart disease in a Thai population. Acta Cardiol. 2010;65:681-91 pubmed
    Two common polymorphisms of the paraoxonase (PON1) gene, L55M and Q192R, were proven to mitigate atherosclerosis pathogenesis by protecting lipoproteins against peroxidation...
  17. Sibbing D, Koch W, Massberg S, Byrne R, Mehilli J, Schulz S, et al. No association of paraoxonase-1 Q192R genotypes with platelet response to clopidogrel and risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..published findings showed a highly significant impact of a common polymorphism (Q192R) within the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene on clopidogrel treatment efficacy but no influence of the CYP2C19*2 genetic variant as previously ..
  18. Sans T, Rull A, Luna J, Mackness B, Mackness M, Joven J, et al. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and paraoxonase-1 and 3 levels in patients with sepsis treated in an intensive care unit: a preliminary report. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012;50:1409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In all the patients we measured serum PON1 and PON3 concentrations, PON1 paraoxonase and lactonase activities, serum MCP-1 concentrations, and several ..
  19. Gugliucci A, Kinugasa E, Kotani K, Caccavello R, Kimura S. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) lactonase activity is lower in end-stage renal disease patients than in healthy control subjects and increases after hemodialysis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:61-7 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) atheroprotective remains elusive. The lactonizing/lactonase activity of PON1 is gaining favor as the most significant in physiology...
  20. Wang M, Lang X, Cui S, Zou L, Cao J, Wang S, et al. Quantitative assessment of the influence of paraoxonase 1 activity and coronary heart disease risk. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:975-82 pubmed publisher
    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent high-density lipoprotein associated ester hydrolase that has attracted considerable attention as a candidate factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) based on its function as a key factor ..
  21. Gbandjaba N, Ghalim N, Hassar M, Berrougui H, Labrazi H, Taki H, et al. Paraoxonase activity in healthy, diabetic, and hemodialysis patients. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:470-4 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is mainly complexed to HDL and is responsible, at least in part, for their antioxidant properties...
  22. Hashemi M, Moazeni Roodi A, Fazaeli A, Sandoughi M, Bardestani G, Kordi Tamandani D, et al. Lack of association between paraoxonase-1 Q192R polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis in southeast Iran. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:333-9 pubmed publisher
    Decreased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. There are two polymorphisms in serum PON1; one differs in the amino acid at position 192 (Q192R) and the other one differs at position 55 (L55M)...
  23. Conesa Zamora P, Ruiz Cosano J, Torres Moreno D, Español I, Gutiérrez Meca M, Trujillo Santos J, et al. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes (EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1) in lymphoma susceptibility: a case control study. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:228 pubmed publisher
    ..EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1 are three genes encoding proteins directly involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens.
  24. Jakubowski H. The role of paraoxonase 1 in the detoxification of homocysteine thiolactone. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:113-27 pubmed publisher
    ..One such mechanism involves paraoxonase 1 (PON1), which has the ability to hydrolyze Hcy-thiolactone...
  25. Yaghmaei M, Hashemi M, Azarian A, Moazeni Roodi A, Mokhtari M, Naghavai A, et al. Association of L55M and Q192R polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 gene with preeclampsia. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme, which exhibits antioxidative and antiatherogenic activities...
  26. Rajković M, Rumora L, Juretić D, Grubisić T, Flegar Meštrić Z, Vrkic N, et al. Effect of non-genetic factors on paraoxonase 1 activity in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:1375-80 pubmed publisher
    Hemodialyzed patients have lower paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Higher mortality risk from cardiovascular disease observed in these patients could be due to the low antiathetrogenic activity of PON1...
  27. Precourt L, Amre D, Denis M, Lavoie J, Delvin E, Seidman E, et al. The three-gene paraoxonase family: physiologic roles, actions and regulation. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:20-36 pubmed publisher
    The paraoxonase (PON) gene family is composed of three members (PON1, PON2, PON3) that share considerable structural homology and are located adjacently on chromosome 7 in humans...
  28. Ribeiro S, do Sameiro Faria M, Mascarenhas Melo F, Freitas I, Mendonça M, Nascimento H, et al. Main determinants of PON1 activity in hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol. 2012;36:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients present reduced paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity that depends on genetic and non-genetic factors; however, how these factors influence PON1 activity in HD ..
  29. Park K, Park J, Kang J, Jeon K, Kang S, Han J, et al. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52779 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR), and analyzed lipid profiles...
  30. Henning B, Holzhausen H, Tepel M. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients. Ther Apher Dial. 2010;14:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to hemodialysis patients with PON 1, patients with PON 2 or 3 showed higher conversion rates for 4-nitrophenylacetate...
  31. Eom S, Kim Y, Lee C, Lee C, Kim Y, Kim H. Effects of intronic and exonic polymorphisms of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene on serum PON1 activity in a Korean population. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:720-5 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) hydrolyzes a number of toxic organophosphorous compounds and reduces lipid peroxide accumulation, and PON1 genetic polymorphisms in the coding region modulate serum PON1 activity...
  32. Huang Y, Wu Z, Riwanto M, Gao S, Levison B, Gu X, et al. Myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1, and HDL form a functional ternary complex. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3815-28 pubmed publisher
    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein-associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis...
  33. Andersen H, Wohlfahrt Veje C, Dalgård C, Christiansen L, Main K, Nellemann C, et al. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36830 pubmed publisher
    ..The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis...
  34. Tavori H, Vaya J, Aviram M. Paraoxonase 1 attenuates human plaque atherogenicity: relevance to the enzyme lactonase activity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:99-111 pubmed publisher
    ..These atherogenic properties of the plaque's lipid fraction are associated with the inhibition of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) lactonase activity...
  35. Liu H, Xia P, Liu M, Ji X, Sun H, Tao L, et al. PON gene polymorphisms and ischaemic stroke: a systematic review and meta analysis. Int J Stroke. 2013;8:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies with larger sample sizes will be necessary to confirm the present results. ..
  36. Fang D, Fan C, Ji Q, Qi B, Li J, Wang L. Differential effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms on cancer risk: evidence from 25 published studies. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PON1 activity varies widely among individuals, which is in part related to two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the ..
  37. Saadat M. Paraoxonase 1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36:e101-3 pubmed publisher
    The paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1, MIN: 168820) is a member of the multifactorial antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase family (EC
  38. Duysen E, Parikh K, Aleti V, Manne V, Lockridge O, Chilukuri N. Adenovirus-mediated human paraoxonase1 gene transfer to provide protection against the toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide toxicant diazoxon. Gene Ther. 2011;18:250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether PON1 gene transfer using adenovirus provides protection against the toxicity of the OP diazoxon...
  39. Wang H, Li L, Ding L, Zhang Z, Pu C. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the paraoxonase 1 gene with the risk and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese Han population. J Investig Med. 2012;60:592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene, encoding PON1 protein, plays an important role as an endogenous free-radical scavenging molecule...
  40. Tang W, Hartiala J, Fan Y, Wu Y, Stewart A, Erdmann J, et al. Clinical and genetic association of serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities with cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2803-12 pubmed publisher
    Diminished serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (measures of paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] function) in humans have been linked to heightened systemic oxidative stress and atherosclerosis risk...
  41. Draganov D, Teiber J, Watson C, Bisgaier C, Nemzek J, Remick D, et al. PON1 and oxidative stress in human sepsis and an animal model of sepsis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress is a major promoter and mediator of the systemic inflammatory response. Serum PON1 has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and animal studies to protect against oxidative stress, but also to ..
  42. James R, Deakin S. The contribution of high density lipoprotein apolipoproteins and derivatives to serum paraoxonase-1 activity and function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:173-81 pubmed publisher
    High density lipoproteins (HDL) not only provide a serum transport vector for paraoxonase-1 (PON1) but also contribute to enzyme activity, stability and, consequently, function...
  43. Bajaj P, Tripathy R, Aggarwal G, Pande A. Characterization of human paraoxonase 1 variants suggest that His residues at 115 and 134 positions are not always needed for the lactonase/arylesterase activities of the enzyme. Protein Sci. 2013;22:1799-807 pubmed publisher
    Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) hydrolyzes variety of substrates and the hydrolytic activities of enzyme can be broadly grouped into three categories; arylesterase, phosphotriesterase, and lactonase...
  44. Zhou C, Cao J, Shang L, Tong C, Hu H, Wang H, et al. Reduced paraoxonase 1 activity as a marker for severe coronary artery disease. Dis Markers. 2013;35:97-103 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), a high-density-lipoprotein- (HDL-) associated enzyme, has the potential to protect against atherogenesis...
  45. Harley K, Huen K, Aguilar Schall R, Holland N, Bradman A, Barr D, et al. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23923 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored whether paraoxonase (PON1), a key enzyme involved in detoxification of OPs, could be an effect modifier in this association...
  46. Aksoy Sagirli P, Cakmakoglu B, Isbir T, Kaytan Sağlam E, Kizir A, Topuz E, et al. Paraoxonase-1 192/55 polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer in a Turkish population. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:2225-9 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible association of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) 192/55 polymorphisms with lung cancer (LC) risk in a Turkish population...
  47. Simon T, Steg P, Becquemont L, Verstuyft C, Kotti S, Schiele F, et al. Effect of paraoxonase-1 polymorphism on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel after an acute myocardial infarction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90:561-7 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) Q192R polymorphism was recently suggested to determine per se clopidogrel response on major cardiovascular events (MACEs)...
  48. Demirdöğen B, Demirkaya S, Türkanoğlu A, Bek S, Arinç E, Adali O. Analysis of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genetic polymorphisms and activities as risk factors for ischemic stroke in Turkish population. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:558-67 pubmed publisher
    Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is protective against the development of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for ischemic stroke...
  49. Ozkok E, Aydin M, Babalik E, Ozbek Z, Ince N, Kara I. Combined impact of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and paraoxonase 1 55/192 gene variants on coronary artery disease in Turkish patients. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR536-42 pubmed
    We investigated the association of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) 55/192 polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the number of diseased vessels in patients with CAD...
  50. Araki S, Makita Y, Canani L, Ng D, Warram J, Krolewski A. Polymorphisms of human paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) and susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2000;43:1540-3 pubmed
    ..We show that this genetically determined component of the antioxidant capacity of HDL does not play a critical part in the development of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  51. Chen Q, Reis S, Kammerer C, McNamara D, Holubkov R, Sharaf B, et al. Association between the severity of angiographic coronary artery disease and paraoxonase gene polymorphisms in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:13-22 pubmed
    ..Three polymorphisms in the PON1 (Leu55Met and Gln192Arg) and PON2 (Ser311Cys) genes have been shown to be associated with the risk of CAD in ..
  52. Paragh G, Seres I, Harangi M, Pocsai Z, Asztalos L, Locsey L, et al. Discordance in human paraoxonase-1 gene between phenotypes and genotypes in chronic kidney disease. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;113:c46-53 pubmed publisher
    Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated ester hydrolase which can inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and has an antiatherogenic effect...
  53. Humbert R, Adler D, Disteche C, Hassett C, Omiecinski C, Furlong C. The molecular basis of the human serum paraoxonase activity polymorphism. Nat Genet. 1993;3:73-6 pubmed
    ..A genetic polymorphism of paraoxonase (PON) activity which determines high versus low paraoxon hydrolysis in human populations, may determine sensitivity to ..
  54. Jarvik G, Rozek L, Brophy V, Hatsukami T, Richter R, Schellenberg G, et al. Paraoxonase (PON1) phenotype is a better predictor of vascular disease than is PON1(192) or PON1(55) genotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:2441-7 pubmed
    The paraoxonase (PON1) PON1-Q192R and PON1-L55M polymorphisms have been inconsistently associated with vascular disease...
  55. Adkins S, Gan K, Mody M, La Du B. Molecular basis for the polymorphic forms of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase: glutamine or arginine at position 191, for the respective A or B allozymes. Am J Hum Genet. 1993;52:598-608 pubmed
    ..Pedigree analysis showed both polymorphisms to be inherited in the expected Mendelian manner and confirmed that only the 191 polymorphism showed concordance with the serum paraoxonase/arylesterase phenotypes. ..
  56. Kao Y, Donaghue K, Chan A, Knight J, Silink M. A variant of paraoxonase (PON1) gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy in IDDM. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:2589-92 pubmed
    ..57%, p < 0.001). The genotype L/L was strongly associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.001), but a similar association was not found with Gln-Arg 192. Leucine 54 is a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. ..
  57. Srinivasan S, Li S, Chen W, Tang R, Bond M, Boerwinkle E, et al. Q192R polymorphism of the paraoxanase 1 gene and its association with serum lipoprotein variables and carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults from a biracial community. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2004;177:167-74 pubmed
    Paraoxanase (PON 1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme, exerts an antiatherogenic effect by protecting low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation...
  58. Davis K, Crow J, Chambers H, Meek E, Chambers J. Racial differences in paraoxonase-1 (PON1): a factor in the health of southerners?. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein particles, participates both in the hydrolysis of oxidized ..
  59. Wang X, Huang J, Fan Z, Su S, Zhao J, Shen Y, et al. Genetic and environmental factors associated with plasma paraoxonase activity in healthy Chinese. Int J Mol Med. 2004;13:445-50 pubmed
    To characterize factors associated with plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in healthy Chinese Han population, we carried out the present study, not only taking into account the total set of frequent polymorphisms present in PON1 gene in ..
  60. Erlich P, Lunetta K, Cupples L, Huyck M, Green R, Baldwin C, et al. Polymorphisms in the PON gene cluster are associated with Alzheimer disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:77-85 pubmed
    ..We tested the association of 29 SNPs in PON1, PON2 and PON3 with AD in 730 Caucasian and 467 African American participants of the MIRAGE Study, an ongoing multi-..
  61. Morahan J, Yu B, Trent R, Pamphlett R. A gene-environment study of the paraoxonase 1 gene and pesticides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:532-40 pubmed
    ..The enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates and the efficacy of this enzyme varies with polymorphisms in the PON1 gene...