poly ADP ribose glycohydrolase


Gene Symbol: poly ADP ribose glycohydrolase
Description: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
Alias: PARG99, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 60 kDa isoform
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Lin W, Ame J, Aboul Ela N, Jacobson E, Jacobson M. Isolation and characterization of the cDNA encoding bovine poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11895-901 pubmed
    ..The availability of cDNA clones for PARG should facilitate structure-function studies of the enzyme and its involvement in cellular responses to genomic damage. ..
  2. Affar E, Germain M, Winstall E, Vodenicharov M, Shah R, Salvesen G, et al. Caspase-3-mediated processing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2935-42 pubmed
    ..The early cleavage of both PARP-1 and PARG by caspases during apoptosis suggests an important function for poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism regulation during this cell death process. ..
  3. Meyer Ficca M, Meyer R, Coyle D, Jacobson E, Jacobson M. Human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is expressed in alternative splice variants yielding isoforms that localize to different cell compartments. Exp Cell Res. 2004;297:521-32 pubmed
    ..The predominantly cytoplasmic location of cellular PARG is intriguing as most known cellular PARPs have a nuclear localization. ..
  4. Bonicalzi M, Haince J, Droit A, Poirier G. Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase: where and when?. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62:739-50 pubmed
    ..We also examine the possible biological roles of PARG in modulating chromatin structure, transcription, DNA repair and apoptosis. ..
  5. Keil C, Gröbe T, Oei S. MNNG-induced cell death is controlled by interactions between PARP-1, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, and XRCC1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34394-405 pubmed
    ..In XRCC1-deficient cells, the same MNNG treatment caused non-apoptotic cell death without accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose). Thus, XRCC1 seems to be involved in regulating a poly(ADP-ribose)-mediated apoptotic cell death. ..
  6. Meyer R, Meyer Ficca M, Whatcott C, Jacobson E, Jacobson M. Two small enzyme isoforms mediate mammalian mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activity. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2920-36 pubmed
  7. Fisher A, Hochegger H, Takeda S, Caldecott K. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 accelerates single-strand break repair in concert with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5597-605 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we identify PARG as a novel and critical component of SSBR that accelerates this process in concert with PARP-1. ..
  8. Uchiumi F, Sakakibara G, Sato J, Tanuma S. Characterization of the promoter region of the human PARG gene and its response to PU.1 during differentiation of HL-60 cells. Genes Cells. 2008;13:1229-47 pubmed publisher
    ..1 expression plasmid and pPARG-Luc indicated that PU.1 down-regulate the PARG promoter. These results suggest that PARG gene expression is modulated by PU.1 during TPA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. ..
  9. Fathers C, Drayton R, Solovieva S, Bryant H. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) specifically kills BRCA2-deficient tumor cells. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:990-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data raise the exciting possibility that PARG inhibitors may be used to specifically kill BRCA2 and other homologous recombination-deficient tumors. ..

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Feng X, Zhou Y, Proctor A, Hopkins M, Liu M, Koh D. Silencing of Apoptosis-Inducing factor and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase reveals novel roles in breast cancer cell death after chemotherapy. Mol Cancer. 2012;11:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the induction of cell death by PAR/AIF may represent a novel strategy to optimize the eradication of breast tumors by activating an alternative cell death pathway. ..
  2. Ohashi S, Kanai M, Hanai S, Uchiumi F, Maruta H, Tanuma S, et al. Subcellular localization of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;307:915-21 pubmed
  3. Meyer R, Meyer Ficca M, Jacobson E, Jacobson M. Human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene and the common promoter sequence it shares with inner mitochondrial membrane translocase 23 (TIM23). Gene. 2003;314:181-90 pubmed
    ..The activity of the promoter was found to be 3.7 fold higher for TIM23 than for PARG, indicating that the two genes are expressed at different levels, although coregulation of the two genes remains an interesting possibility. ..
  4. Blenn C, Althaus F, Malanga M. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase silencing protects against H2O2-induced cell death. Biochem J. 2006;396:419-29 pubmed
    ..No difference was observed in response to the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, suggesting a specific involvement of PARG in the cellular response to oxidative DNA damage. ..
  5. Whatcott C, Meyer Ficca M, Meyer R, Jacobson M. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of a PARG isoform as a component of the mitochondrial matrix raises several interesting possibilities concerning mechanisms of nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk involved in regulation of cell death pathways. ..
  6. Ame J, Fouquerel E, Gauthier L, Biard D, Boussin F, Dantzer F, et al. Radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe in PARG-deficient cells. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1990-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PARG could be a novel potential therapeutic target for radiotherapy. ..
  7. Erdélyi K, Bai P, Kovacs I, Szabo E, Mocsár G, Kakuk A, et al. Dual role of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in the regulation of cell death in oxidatively stressed A549 cells. FASEB J. 2009;23:3553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that PARG is a survival factor at mild oxidative damage but contributes to the apoptosis-necrosis switch in severely damaged cells. ..
  8. Frizzell K, Gamble M, Berrocal J, Zhang T, Krishnakumar R, Cen Y, et al. Global analysis of transcriptional regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33926-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that PARP-1 and PARG, nuclear enzymes with opposing enzymatic activities, localize to target promoters and act in a similar, rather than antagonistic, manner to regulate gene expression. ..
  9. Kim I, Kiefer J, Ho C, Stegeman R, Classen S, Tainer J, et al. Structure of mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase reveals a flexible tyrosine clasp as a substrate-binding element. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:653-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report crystal structures of mammalian PARG and its complex with a substrate mimic that reveal an open substrate-binding site and a unique 'tyrosine clasp' enabling endoglycosidic cleavage of branched PAR chains. ..
  10. Li X, Cai J, Zhuang Z, Liu J, Xia B, Hu G, et al. [Investigation of the action mechanisms of poly-ADP-ribosylation in hexavalent chromium induced cell damage]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;48:720-5 pubmed
  11. Feng B, Liu C, de Oliveira M, Intorne A, Li B, Babilonia K, et al. Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates arabidopsis immune gene expression and defense responses. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004936 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks. ..
  12. Montalvo Ortiz J, Cheng Z, Kranzler H, Zhang H, Gelernter J. Genomewide Study of Epigenetic Biomarkers of Opioid Dependence in European- American Women. Sci Rep. 2019;9:4660 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate epigenetic mechanisms in OD and, if replicated, identify possible novel peripheral biomarkers of OD that could inform the prevention and treatment of the disorder. ..
  13. Suskiewicz M, Hajdusits B, Beveridge R, Heuck A, Vu L, Kurzbauer R, et al. Structure of McsB, a protein kinase for regulated arginine phosphorylation. Nat Chem Biol. 2019;15:510-518 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of distinct pArg reader domains in this study points to a remarkably complex signaling system, thus challenging simplistic views of bacterial protein phosphorylation. ..
  14. Pillay N, Tighe A, Nelson L, Littler S, Coulson Gilmer C, Bah N, et al. DNA Replication Vulnerabilities Render Ovarian Cancer Cells Sensitive to Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Inhibitors. Cancer Cell. 2019;35:519-533.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because PARG and PARP inhibitor sensitivity are mutually exclusive, our observations demonstrate that PARG inhibitors have therapeutic potential to complement PARP inhibitor strategies in the treatment of ovarian cancer. ..
  15. Fuhrmann J, Subramanian V, Thompson P. Synthesis and Use of a Phosphonate Amidine to Generate an Anti-Phosphoarginine-Specific Antibody. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015;54:14715-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the chemistry reported here will facilitate the generation of pArg mimetics as highly potent inhibitors of the enzymes that catalyze arginine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. ..
  16. Marques M, Jangal M, Wang L, Kazanets A, da Silva S, Zhao T, et al. Oncogenic activity of poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Oncogene. 2019;38:2177-2191 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study underscores the oncogenic impact of aberrant protein PARylation and highlights the therapeutic potential of PARG inhibition in breast cancer. ..
  17. Ruttala H, Ramasamy T, Shin B, Choi H, Yong C, Kim J. Layer-by-layer assembly of hierarchical nanoarchitectures to enhance the systemic performance of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Int J Pharm. 2017;519:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We report for the first time the application of LbL functional architectures for improving the systemic performance of nab-PTX with a view toward its clinical translation for cancer therapy. ..
  18. Ke Y, Wang K, Xu H, Wang C, Zhang J, Zeng X, et al. The establishment of methods for free PAR generation and PAR reader detection. Mol Cell Probes. 2018;39:57-60 pubmed publisher
  19. Breton T, Kenter L, Greenlaw K, Montgomery J, Goetz G, Berlinsky D, et al. Initiation of sex change and gonadal gene expression in black sea bass (Centropristis striata) exposed to exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2019;228:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research will be needed to understand these processes in black sea bass, using isolated ovarian follicles and multiple stages of sex change. ..
  20. Blenn C, Wyrsch P, Althaus F. The ups and downs of tannins as inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase. Molecules. 2011;16:1854-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This review deals with the in vitro and in vivo effects of tannins on PAR metabolism and their downstream actions in DNA damage signaling. ..
  21. Drown B, Shirai T, Rack J, Ahel I, Hergenrother P. Monitoring Poly(ADP-ribosyl)glycohydrolase Activity with a Continuous Fluorescent Substrate. Cell Chem Biol. 2018;25:1562-1570.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..TFMU-ADPr and TFMU-IDPr are versatile tools for assessing small-molecule inhibitors in vitro and probing the regulation of ADP-ribosyl catabolic enzymes. ..
  22. Barrenschee M, Lex D, Uhlig S. Effects of the TLR2 agonists MALP-2 and Pam3Cys in isolated mouse lungs. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13889 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Slpi, tenascin C, Parg and Traf1. In addition, the MALP-2 dependent induction of Tnc may indicate the existence of TLR2/6-specific pathways. ..
  23. Pascal J, Ellenberger T. The rise and fall of poly(ADP-ribose): An enzymatic perspective. DNA Repair (Amst). 2015;32:10-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this perspective, we focus on recent structural and mechanistic insights into the enzymes involved in poly(ADP-ribose) production and turnover, and we highlight important questions that remain to be answered. ..
  24. Santalices I, Torres D, Lozano M, Arroyo Jiménez M, Alonso M, Santander Ortega M. Influence of the surface properties of nanocapsules on their interaction with intestinal barriers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2018;133:203-213 pubmed publisher
    ..More interestingly, according to our observations, the shell components of the nanosystems may have either synergic or disruptive effects on their capacity to overcome the intestinal barriers. ..
  25. Song J, Keppler B, Wise R, Bent A. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005200 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. ..
  26. Ida C, Yamashita S, Tsukada M, Sato T, Eguchi T, Tanaka M, et al. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based system for determining the physiological level of poly(ADP-ribose) in cultured cells. Anal Biochem. 2016;494:76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This ELISA can be used to analyze the biological functions of polyADP-ribosylation under various physiological conditions in cultured cells. ..
  27. Sharifi R, Morra R, Appel C, Tallis M, Chioza B, Jankevicius G, et al. Deficiency of terminal ADP-ribose protein glycohydrolase TARG1/C6orf130 in neurodegenerative disease. EMBO J. 2013;32:1225-37 pubmed publisher
  28. Chand S, Zarei M, Schiewer M, Kamath A, Romeo C, Lal S, et al. Posttranscriptional Regulation of PARG mRNA by HuR Facilitates DNA Repair and Resistance to PARP Inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2017;77:5011-5025 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the HuR-PARG axis as an opportunity to enhance PARPi-based therapies. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5011-25. ©2017 AACR. ..
  29. Bu X, Kato J, Moss J. Emerging roles of ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARHs) in tumorigenesis and cell death pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, research on ARH1-regulated tumorigenesis and cell death pathways that are enhanced by ARH3 deficiency are discussed. ..
  30. Alemasova E, Moor N, Naumenko K, Kutuzov M, Sukhanova M, Pestryakov P, et al. Y-box-binding protein 1 as a non-canonical factor of base excision repair. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1864:1631-1640 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, YB-1 is shown to stimulate AP lyase activity of NEIL1 and to inhibit dRP lyase activity of pol β on model DNA duplex structure. We also demonstrate for the first time YB-1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the presence of RNA. ..
  31. Brosey C, Ahmed Z, Lees Miller S, Tainer J. What Combined Measurements From Structures and Imaging Tell Us About DNA Damage Responses. Methods Enzymol. 2017;592:417-455 pubmed publisher
  32. Tucker J, Bennett N, Brassington C, Durant S, Hassall G, Holdgate G, et al. Structures of the human poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase catalytic domain confirm catalytic mechanism and explain inhibition by ADP-HPD derivatives. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50889 pubmed publisher
  33. Huang H, Hu G, Cai J, Xia B, Liu J, Li X, et al. Role of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase silencing in DNA hypomethylation induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452:708-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, Dnmt1 is PARylated in PARG-null cells after BaP exposure. The results show a role for PARG silencing in DNA hypomethylation induced by BaP that may provide new clue for cancer therapy. ..
  34. Bourganis V, Karamanidou T, Samaridou E, Karidi K, Kammona O, Kiparissides C. On the synthesis of mucus permeating nanocarriers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015;97:239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..e., up to 30 wt% of 4MBA was released in 45 min). 4MBA loaded liposomes were found to exhibit increased mucus permeability depending on the composition of the phospholipid bilayer. ..
  35. Narcís J, Tapia O, Tarabal O, Piedrafita L, Caldero J, Berciano M, et al. Accumulation of poly(A) RNA in nuclear granules enriched in Sam68 in motor neurons from the SMN?7 mouse model of SMA. Sci Rep. 2018;8:9646 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the SMN-dependent abnormal accumulation of polyadenylated mRNAs and Sam68 in PARGs reflects a severe dysfunction of both mRNA processing and translation, which could contribute to SMA pathogenesis. ..
  36. Ghosh S, Becker K, Huang H, Dixon Salazar T, Chai G, Salpietro V, et al. Biallelic Mutations in ADPRHL2, Encoding ADP-Ribosylhydrolase 3, Lead to a Degenerative Pediatric Stress-Induced Epileptic Ataxia Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;103:431-439 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of PARP also rescued the phenotype, suggesting the possibility of postnatal treatment for this genetic condition. ..
  37. Talhaoui I, Lebedeva N, Zarkovic G, Saint Pierre C, Kutuzov M, Sukhanova M, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases covalently modify strand break termini in DNA fragments in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:9279-9295 pubmed
    ..This new type of post-replicative modification of DNA provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying biological phenomena of ADP-ribosylation mediated by PARPs. ..
  38. Gogola E, Duarte A, de Ruiter J, Wiegant W, Schmid J, de Bruijn R, et al. Selective Loss of PARG Restores PARylation and Counteracts PARP Inhibitor-Mediated Synthetic Lethality. Cancer Cell. 2018;33:1078-1093.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..PARG depletion restores PAR formation and partially rescues PARP1 signaling. Importantly, PARG inactivation exposes vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically. ..
  39. Mashimo M, Kato J, Moss J. Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases. DNA Repair (Amst). 2014;23:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos. ..
  40. Lafon Hughes L, Vilchez Larrea S, Kun A, Fernández Villamil S. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt. Peerj. 2014;2:e617 pubmed publisher
    ..Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. ..
  41. Lomova M, Brichkina A, Kiryukhin M, Vasina E, Pavlov A, Gorin D, et al. Multilayer Capsules of Bovine Serum Albumin and Tannic Acid for Controlled Release by Enzymatic Degradation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015;7:11732-40 pubmed publisher
  42. Li X, Li X, Zhu Z, Huang P, Zhuang Z, Liu J, et al. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) Silencing Suppresses Benzo(a)pyrene Induced Cell Transformation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151172 pubmed publisher
    ..This was the first study that reported evidences to support an oncogenic role of PARG in BaP induced carcinogenesis, which provided a new perspective for our understanding in BaP exposure induced cancer. ..
  43. Nigatu A, Vupputuri S, Flynn N, Ramsey J. Effects of cell-penetrating peptides on transduction efficiency of PEGylated adenovirus. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;71:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..CPP-PEG-Ad particles efficiently deliver genes to cells that Ad alone would not efficiently infect, thereby extending potential gene therapy treatments to a much broader range of cell types and diseases. ..
  44. Liu W, Wang X, Bai K, Lin M, Sukhorukov G, Wang W. Microcapsules functionalized with neuraminidase can enter vascular endothelial cells in vitro. J R Soc Interface. 2014;11:20141027 pubmed publisher
  45. Schmier B, Shuman S. Deinococcus radiodurans HD-Pnk, a Nucleic Acid End-Healing Enzyme, Abets Resistance to Killing by Ionizing Radiation and Mitomycin C. J Bacteriol. 2018;200: pubmed publisher
    ..HD-Pnk also contributes to resistance to killing by mitomycin C. These findings are significant in that they establish a role for end-healing enzymes in bacterial DNA damage repair. ..
  46. Zeng Z, Liu H, Yuan J, Ren X, Deng Y, Dai W, et al. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase silencing-mediated maintenance of H2A and downregulation of H2AK9me protect human bronchial epithelial cells from benzo(a)pyrene-induced carcinogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2018;295:270-276 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vivo studies confirmed that PARG silencing decreased H2AK9me levels, thereby countering the carcinogenic teratogenic effects induced by BaP. ..
  47. Schlesinger M, Vilchez Larrea S, Haikarainen T, Narwal M, Venkannagari H, Flawiá M, et al. Disrupted ADP-ribose metabolism with nuclear Poly (ADP-ribose) accumulation leads to different cell death pathways in presence of hydrogen peroxide in procyclic Trypanosoma brucei. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:173 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the unusual localization of PARP and PARG would reveal a novel regulatory mechanism, making them invaluable model systems. ..
  48. Trushina D, Bukreeva T, Borodina T, Belova D, Belyakov S, Antipina M. Heat-driven size reduction of biodegradable polyelectrolyte multilayer hollow capsules assembled on CaCO3 template. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018;170:312-321 pubmed publisher
    ..The capsule response to heat is stable at ionic strengths of the continuous phase not exceeding 0.1 M NaCl. ..
  49. Saeed S, Jowitt T, Warwicker J, Hayes F. Breaking and restoring the hydrophobic core of a centromere-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:9273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions involved in assembling the ParG core may be highly malleable and suggest that RHH proteins are tractable platforms for the rational design of diverse DNA binding factors useful for synthetic biology and other purposes. ..
  50. Hasanzadeh M, Mokhtari F, Shadjou N, Eftekhari A, Mokhtarzadeh A, Jouyban Gharamaleki V, et al. Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots as a biocompatible and non-toxic nanocomposite: Layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and non-invasive malondialdehyde sensory application in exhaled breath condensate. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;75:247-258 pubmed publisher
    ..Further development can lead to monitoring of MDA or other exhaled breath biomarkers by GQDs functionalized poly amino acids in EBC using electrochemical methods. ..
  51. Bertran Vicente J, Schümann M, Schmieder P, Krause E, Hackenberger C. Direct access to site-specifically phosphorylated-lysine peptides from a solid-support. Org Biomol Chem. 2015;13:6839-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This straightforward and highly efficient approach facilitates the synthesis of various site-specific pLys-containing peptides and lays the groundwork for future studies about this elusive protein modification. ..
  52. Ji Y, Tulin A. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of hnRNP A1 Protein Controls Translational Repression in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2476-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Hrp38 represses Nanos translation, whereas its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation relieves the repression effect, allowing restricted Nanos expression in the posterior germ plasm during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. ..
  53. Tanuma S, Sato A, Oyama T, Yoshimori A, Abe H, Uchiumi F. New Insights into the Roles of NAD+-Poly(ADP-ribose) Metabolism and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;17:668-682 pubmed
  54. Wang M, An S, Wang D, Ji H, Geng M, Guo X, et al. Quantitative Proteomics Identify the Possible Tumor Suppressive Role of Protease-Activated Receptor-4 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the functions and molecular mechanisms of PAR4 in ESCC. ..
  55. Gao H, Goriacheva O, Tarakina N, Sukhorukov G. Intracellularly Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte/Silica Composite Microcapsules as Carriers for Small Molecules. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8:9651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..All the results demonstrated a new type of functional composite microcapsule with low permeability, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability for potential medical applications. ..
  56. Ali R, Rakha E, Madhusudan S, Bryant H. DNA damage repair in breast cancer and its therapeutic implications. Pathology. 2017;49:156-165 pubmed publisher
  57. Stowell A, James D, Waddell I, Bennett N, Truman C, Hardern I, et al. A high-throughput screening-compatible homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay measuring the glycohydrolase activity of human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Anal Biochem. 2016;503:58-64 pubmed publisher
  58. Long A, Park J, Klimova N, Fowler C, Loane D, Kristian T. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:283-293 pubmed publisher
  59. Cleret Buhot A, Zhang Y, Planas D, Goulet J, Monteiro P, Gosselin A, et al. Identification of novel HIV-1 dependency factors in primary CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells via a genome-wide transcriptional approach. Retrovirology. 2015;12:102 pubmed publisher
  60. Vainonen J, Shapiguzov A, Vaattovaara A, Kangasjärvi J. Plant PARPs, PARGs and PARP-like Proteins. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;17:713-723 pubmed
    ..Altogether current data imply that poly(ADP-ribos)ylation plays significant regulatory role in many aspects of plant biology. ..
  61. Mashimo M, Moss J. Functional Role of ADP-Ribosyl-Acceptor Hydrolase 3 in poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Response to Oxidative Stress. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;17:633-640 pubmed
    ..In addition, we describe the current knowledge of poly-ADP-ribosylation and cell death pathways regulated PARP1, PARG, and ARH3. ..
  62. Noll A, Illuzzi G, Ame J, Dantzer F, Schreiber V. PARG deficiency is neither synthetic lethal with BRCA1 nor PTEN deficiency. Cancer Cell Int. 2016;16:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PARG depletion cannot be considered as a strategy to kill tumours cells mutated in BRCA1 or PTEN. ..
  63. Sasaki Y, Hozumi M, Fujimori H, Murakami Y, Koizumi F, Inoue K, et al. PARG Inhibitors and Functional PARG Inhibition Models. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;17:641-653 pubmed
  64. González Paredes A, Torres D, Alonso M. Polyarginine nanocapsules: A versatile nanocarrier with potential in transmucosal drug delivery. Int J Pharm. 2017;529:474-485 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these properties suggest the capacity of polyarginine nanocapsules for enhancing the transport of peptides across epithelia. ..
  65. Margalef P, Kotsantis P, Borel V, Bellelli R, Panier S, Boulton S. Stabilization of Reversed Replication Forks by Telomerase Drives Telomere Catastrophe. Cell. 2018;172:439-453.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results lead us to propose that telomerase inappropriately binds to and inhibits restart of reversed replication forks within telomeres, which compromises replication and leads to critically short telomeres. ..
  66. Zhang H, Gu Z, Wu Q, Yang L, Liu C, Ma H, et al. Arabidopsis PARG1 is the key factor promoting cell survival among the enzymes regulating post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15892 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study determined the contribution of each PARP and PARG member in DNA repair and indicated that PARG1 plays a critical role in this process. ..
  67. Verdone L, La Fortezza M, Ciccarone F, Caiafa P, Zampieri M, Caserta M. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Affects Histone Acetylation and Transcription. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144287 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription. ..
  68. Ouyang H, Fu C, Fu S, Ji Z, Sun Y, Deng P, et al. Development of a stable phosphoarginine analog for producing phosphoarginine antibodies. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:1925-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides us an invaluable tool to unravel the mystery of the biological function of pArg. ..
  69. Ng K, Amin M, Katas H, Amjad M, Butt A, Kesharwani P, et al. pH-Responsive Triblock Copolymeric Micelles Decorated with a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Provide Efficient Doxorubicin Delivery. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2016;11:539 pubmed
    ..Graphical of CA-PEI-pArg polymeric micelles as a pH-responsive drug delivery system. ..
  70. Golovanov A, Barillà D, Golovanova M, Hayes F, Lian L. ParG, a protein required for active partition of bacterial plasmids, has a dimeric ribbon-helix-helix structure. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:1141-53 pubmed
  71. Dahl M, Maturi V, Lönn P, Papoutsoglou P, Zieba A, Vanlandewijck M, et al. Fine-tuning of Smad protein function by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase during transforming growth factor ? signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103651 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear Smad function is negatively regulated by PARP-1 that is assisted by PARP-2 and positively regulated by PARG during the course of TGF? signaling. ..
  72. Lollo G, González Paredes A, Garcia Fuentes M, Calvo P, Torres D, Alonso M. Polyarginine Nanocapsules as a Potential Oral Peptide Delivery Carrier. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106:611-618 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results underline the potential interest of PArg nanocapsules as carriers for the oral administration of peptide drugs. ..
  73. Michelena J, Altmeyer M. Cell Cycle Resolved Measurements of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Formation and DNA Damage Signaling by Quantitative Image-Based Cytometry. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1608:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the possibility to use any automated microscope for quantitative image-based cytometry, the presented method has widespread applicability in the area of PARP biology and beyond. ..
  74. Palazzo L, James D, Waddell I, Ahel I. Studying Catabolism of Protein ADP-Ribosylation. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1608:415-430 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe several basic methods used to study the enzymatic activity of de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes. ..
  75. Araiza Cervantes C, Meza Carmen V, Martínez Cadena G, Roncero M, Reyna López G, Franco B. Biochemical and genetic analysis of a unique poly(ADP-ribosyl) glycohydrolase (PARG) of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018;111:285-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate that the PARG protein of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is involved in DNA repair and does not act in pathogenicity as an effector. ..
  76. Gravells P, Neale J, Grant E, Nathubhai A, Smith K, James D, et al. Radiosensitization with an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase: A comparison with the PARP1/2/3 inhibitor olaparib. DNA Repair (Amst). 2018;61:25-36 pubmed publisher
  77. Uchida K, Suzuki H, Maruta H, Abe H, Aoki K, Miwa M, et al. Preferential degradation of protein-bound (ADP-ribose)n by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase from human placenta. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:3194-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase I may play an important role in regulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation levels on chromosomal proteins in nuclei. ..
  78. Dumitriu I, Voll R, Kolowos W, Gaipl U, Heyder P, Kalden J, et al. UV irradiation inhibits ABC transporters via generation of ADP-ribose by concerted action of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and glycohydrolase. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11:314-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, ADP-ribose molecules potently inhibited the activity of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein. Hence, poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism appears to play a novel role in the regulation of ABC transporters...
  79. Gagné J, Bonicalzi M, Gagne P, Ouellet M, Hendzel M, Poirier G. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is a component of the FMRP-associated messenger ribonucleoparticles. Biochem J. 2005;392:499-509 pubmed
    ..A functional link between poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation modulation and FMRP-associated ribonucleoparticle complexes are discussed in a context of translational regulation. ..
  80. Ray Chaudhuri A, Ahuja A, Herrador R, Lopes M. Poly(ADP-ribosyl) glycohydrolase prevents the accumulation of unusual replication structures during unperturbed S phase. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:856-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that fork remodeling and restarting are surprisingly frequent in unperturbed cells and provide a molecular rationale to explore PARG inhibition in cancer chemotherapy. ..
  81. McLeod B, Allison Gamble G, Barge M, Tonthat N, Schumacher M, Hayes F, et al. A three-dimensional ParF meshwork assembles through the nucleoid to mediate plasmid segregation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:3158-3171 pubmed publisher
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    ..It also summarizes why our understanding of phosphorylation is still largely restricted to the acid stable phosphoproteome, and highlights the study of NM23 histidine kinase as an entrée into the world of histidine phosphorylation. ..
  83. Dölle C, Ziegler M. ADP-ribosylation of DNA moving into focus. FEBS J. 2017;284:3999-4001 pubmed publisher
    ..They demonstrate a selective ADP-ribosylation of the 5'-phosphate group on DNA ends and show that the modification can be reversed by several known ADP-ribosylhydrolases including PARG...
  84. Bernardi R, Rossi L, Poirier G, Scovassi A. Analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in nuclear extracts from mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1338:60-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a precise regulation of ADP-ribosylation process during cell death by apoptosis. ..
  85. Keil C, Petermann E, Oei S. Tannins elevate the level of poly(ADP-ribose) in HeLa cell extracts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;425:115-21 pubmed
    ..Recombinant PARG was immobilized using an affinity column composed of tannins covalently linked to Sepharose beads. Finally, an interaction between immobilized PARG and endogenous PARP-1 from HeLa cell extracts is demonstrated. ..
  86. Emanuele M, Ciccia A, Elia A, Elledge S. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated KIAA0101/PAF15 protein is a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome substrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PAF15 is an APC/C-regulated protein involved in both cell cycle progression and the DNA damage response. ..
  87. Niere M, Mashimo M, Agledal L, Dölle C, Kasamatsu A, Kato J, et al. ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3), not poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) isoforms, is responsible for degradation of mitochondrial matrix-associated poly(ADP-ribose). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16088-102 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, embryonic fibroblasts from ARH3(-/-) mice lack most of the mitochondrial PAR degrading activity detected in wild-type cells, demonstrating a potential involvement of ARH3 in PAR metabolism. ..
  88. Watanabe Y, Papoutsoglou P, Maturi V, Tsubakihara Y, Hottiger M, Heldin C, et al. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12706-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. ..
  89. Ame J, Héberlé E, Camuzeaux B, Dantzer F, Schreiber V. Purification of Recombinant Human PARG and Activity Assays. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1608:395-413 pubmed publisher
    ..As described in the protocol, more than 500 ?g of highly active human PARG can be obtained from 1.5 L of E. coli culture. ..
  90. Munnur D, Ahel I. Reversible mono-ADP-ribosylation of DNA breaks. FEBS J. 2017;284:4002-4016 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that mono ADP-ribosylated DNA adducts can be efficiently removed in cells by several mechanisms. ..
  91. Abplanalp J, Leutert M, Frugier E, Nowak K, Feurer R, Kato J, et al. Proteomic analyses identify ARH3 as a serine mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase. Nat Commun. 2017;8:2055 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results establish ARH3 as a serine mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase and as an important regulator of the basal and stress-induced ADP-ribosylome. ..
  92. Putt K, Hergenrother P. A nonradiometric, high-throughput assay for poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG): application to inhibitor identification and evaluation. Anal Biochem. 2004;333:256-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, this high-throughput, nonradioactive PARG assay should find widespread use in experiments directed toward identification of novel PARG inhibitors. ..