Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: POLR2K
Description: polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa
Alias: ABC10-alpha, RPABC4, RPB10alpha, RPB12, RPB7.0, hRPB7.0, hsRPB10a, DNA directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III 7.0 kda polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit K, DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4, RNA polymerase II 7.0 kDa subunit, RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit ABC4
- The archaeal RNA polymerase subunit P and the eukaryotic polymerase subunit Rpb12 are interchangeable in vivo and in vitroChristoph Reich
Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Mol Microbiol 71:989-1002. 2009The general subunit of all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases, Rpb12, and subunit P of the archaeal enzyme show sequence similarities in their N-terminal zinc ribbon and some highly conserved residues in the C-terminus...
- The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIBI Agostini
INSERM U372, Pathogénie des infections à lentivirus BP 178, Marseille, France
J Mol Biol 261:599-606. 1996..We demonstrated that the portion of Vpr ranging from amino acids 15 to 77 interacts specifically with the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Also, our data indicated that the N-terminal domain of TFIIB is required for the interaction...
- Involvement of multiple subunit-subunit contacts in the assembly of RNA polymerase IIM Kimura
Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
Nucleic Acids Res 28:952-9. 2000RNA polymerase II from the fission yeast Schizo-saccharomyces pombe consists of 12 species of subunits, Rpb1-Rpb12. We expressed these subunits, except Rpb4, simultaneously in cultured insect cells with baculovirus expression vectors...
- A bimolecular mechanism of HIV-1 Tat protein interaction with RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complexesChao Zhou
Chemical Biology Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605 2324, USA
J Mol Biol 320:925-42. 2002..These findings suggest that two Tat molecules are involved in performing various functions during a single round of HIV-1 mRNA synthesis...
- Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK9 is directly responsible for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-activated transcriptional elongationYoung Kyeung Kim
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Biol 22:4622-37. 2002..We conclude that phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II CTD by CDK9 enhances transcription elongation directly...
- HIV-1 Tat-associated RNA polymerase C-terminal domain kinase, CDK2, phosphorylates CDK7 and stimulates Tat-mediated transcriptionSergei Nekhai
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The George Washington University, School of Medicine, 2300 Eye Street N W, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Biochem J 364:649-57. 2002..They are also consistent with the observed cell-cycle-specific induction of viral gene transactivation...
- Spt5 cooperates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by preventing premature RNA release at terminator sequencesCyril F Bourgeois
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, England
Mol Cell Biol 22:1079-93. 2002..This novel biochemical function of Spt5 is analogous to the function of NusG, an elongation factor found in Escherichia coli that enhances RNA polymerase stability on templates and shows sequence similarity to Spt5...
- Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivatorA Marcello
Molecular Medicine Laboratory, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy
IUBMB Life 51:175-81. 2001....
- DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongationY H Ping
Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Molecular Biosciences Graduate Program at Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
J Biol Chem 276:12951-8. 2001..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter...
- Archaeal RNA polymerase subunits F and P are bona fide homologs of eukaryotic RPB4 and RPB12F Werner
Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AY, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 28:4299-305. 2000..the basis of localized sequence homologies, tentatively identified as archaeal versions of the eukaryotic RPB4 and RPB12 RNA polymerase subunits, respectively...
- CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNAM E Garber
Regulatory Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:6958-69. 2000..Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat-P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo...
- Cooperative interaction between HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Vpr modulates transcription of the viral genomeB E Sawaya
Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA
J Biol Chem 275:35209-14. 2000..Moreover identification of R73S mutant of Vpr provides a new therapeutic avenue for controlling HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in the infected cells...
- Tat modifies the activity of CDK9 to phosphorylate serine 5 of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptionM Zhou
Virus Tumor Biology Section, LRBGE, Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:5077-86. 2000..These studies suggest that the ability of Tat to increase transcriptional elongation may be due to its ability to modify the substrate specificity of the CDK9 complex...
- Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanismP Cramer
Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5126, USA
Science 288:640-9. 2000..A pore in the protein complex beneath the active center may allow entry of substrates for polymerization and exit of the transcript during proofreading and passage through pause sites in the DNA...
- Domains in the SPT5 protein that modulate its transcriptional regulatory propertiesD Ivanov
Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Harold Simmons Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 8594, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:2970-83. 2000..These results suggest that C-terminal repeats in SPT5, like those in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, are sites for P-TEFb phosphorylation and function in modulating its transcriptional elongation properties...
- BRCA1 interaction with RNA polymerase II reveals a role for hRPB2 and hRPB10alpha in activated transcriptionB P Schlegel
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3148-53. 2000..No other Pol II subunits tested inhibited activated transcription in these assays. Furthermore, hRPB10alpha, but not hRPB2, blocked Sp1-dependent activation...
- Intracellular contents and assembly states of all 12 subunits of the RNA polymerase II in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombeM Kimura
National Institute of Genetics, Department of Molecular Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan
Eur J Biochem 268:612-9. 2001..II (Pol II) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is composed of 12 different polypeptides, Rpb1 to Rpb12, of which five, Rpb5, Rpb6, Rpb8, Rpb10 and Rpb12, are shared among three forms of the RNA polymerase...
- TIP30 has an intrinsic kinase activity required for up-regulation of a subset of apoptotic genesH Xiao
Laboratory of Biochemistry, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
EMBO J 19:956-63. 2000..These data demonstrate a molecular mechanism for TIP30/CC3 function and suggest a novel pathway for regulating apoptosis...
- RNA polymerase II conducts a symphony of pre-mRNA processing activitiesKenneth James Howe
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1577:308-24. 2002....
- Transcriptional activators differ in their abilities to control alternative splicingGuadalupe Nogues
Laboratorio de Fisiologia y Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Fisiologia, Biologia Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Biol Chem 277:43110-4. 2002..Rapid, highly processive transcription favors EDI exon skipping, whereas slower, less processive transcription favors inclusion...
- Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunitsPing Hu
Graduate Program of Molecular and Cellular Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
Mol Cell Biol 22:8044-55. 2002..Our results provide a characterization of human RNA polymerase III and show that the RPC5 subunit is essential for transcription...
- Mutational studies of archaeal RNA polymerase and analysis of hybrid RNA polymerasesMichael Thomm
Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Regensburg, Universitatsstrasse 31, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Biochem Soc Trans 37:18-22. 2009..These studies revealed that the subunits P and H, the orthologues of eukaryotic Rpb12 and Rpb5, were not required for RNAP assembly...
- A novel approach to investigating protein/protein interactions and their functions by TAP-tagged yeast strains and its application to examine yeast transcription machineryJunho Jung
Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, Korea
J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:631-8. 2008..From ten different TAP-tagged strains, Rpb7- and Rpb12-TAP-tagged strains show severe defects in growth rate and morphology...
- The Rpb4 subunit of RNA polymerase II contributes to cotranscriptional recruitment of 3' processing factorsVanessa M Runner
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Mol Cell Biol 28:1883-91. 2008The RNA polymerase II enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a complex of 12 subunits, Rpb1 to Rpb12. Crystal structures of the full complex show that the polymerase consists of two separable components, a 10-subunit core ..
- Identification of differential expression of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization combined cDNA microarrayYuefang Liu
Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of Ministry of Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China
Oncol Rep 18:943-51. 2007..presence of HCC) are involved in many processes, such as transcription and protein biosynthesis (HNRPDL, PABPC1, POLR2K, SRP9, SNRPA, and six ribosomal protein genes including RPL8, RPL14, RPL41, RPS5, RPS17, RPS24), the metabolism of ..
- The NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus represses gene expression of hRPB10alpha, a common subunit of host RNA polymerases, through interferon regulatory factor-1 binding siteCho Rok Jung
Gene Therapy Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, Yusong, Daejeon 305 806, Republic of Korea
Virus Res 129:155-65. 2007..The results suggest that NS5A may partly modulate host cell transcription by the down-regulation of hRPB10alpha...
- Diversification of function by different isoforms of conventionally shared RNA polymerase subunitsSara Devaux
Institute for Molecular Biology and Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 6041 Gosselies, Belgium
Mol Biol Cell 18:1293-301. 2007..At the core of each complex is a set of 12 highly conserved subunits of which five--RPB5, RPB6, RPB8, RPB10, and RPB12--are thought to be common to all three polymerase classes...
- Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?David Harrich
HIV 1 Molecular Virology Laboratory, Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Royal Brisbane Hospital Post Office, Brisbane 4029, QLD, Australia
Curr Drug Targets 7:1595-606. 2006..Nevertheless, Tat remains an attractive, virus-specific molecule and detailed understanding of specific protein interaction holds promise for future drug discovery...
- The fission yeast Rpb4 subunit of RNA polymerase II plays a specialized role in cell separationNimisha Sharma
University School of Biotechnology, G G S Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi, 110006, India
Mol Genet Genomics 276:545-54. 2006RNA polymerase II is a complex of 12 subunits, Rpb1 to Rpb12, whose specific roles are only partly understood. Rpb4 is essential in mammals and fission yeast, but not in budding yeast...
- The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic interventionMiguel Stevens
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Med Res Rev 26:595-625. 2006..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection...
- Studies of Schizosaccharomyces pombe TFIIE indicate conformational and functional changes in RNA polymerase II at transcription initiationKazuhiro Hayashi
Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Genes Cells 10:207-24. 2005..Further analysis of binding specificities showed that spTFIIEbeta binds the Rpb2 and Rpb12 subunits of PolII, whereas spTFIIEalpha predominantly binds Rpb5, which is located at the clamp region and changes ..
- Acetylation of Tat defines a cyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivationKatrin Kaehlcke
Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Mol Cell 12:167-76. 2003..We propose that Tat acetylation may help in dissociating the Tat cofactor CyclinT1 from TAR RNA and serve to transfer Tat onto the elongating RNA polymerase II...
- Rrn3 becomes inactivated in the process of ribosomal DNA transcriptionIwona Hirschler-Laszkiewicz
Sigfried and Janet Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania 17821, USA
J Biol Chem 278:18953-9. 2003..Our results indicate that Rrn3 functions stoichiometrically in rDNA transcription and that its ability to associate with RNA polymerase I is lost upon transcription...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNABetty Poon
Department of Microbiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA AIDS Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive CAncer Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
J Virol 77:3962-72. 2003..These results attribute a new function to HIV-1 Vpr and implicate Vpr as a critical component in expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA...
- Multiple interactions between RNA polymerase I, TIF-IA and TAF(I) subunits regulate preinitiation complex assembly at the ribosomal gene promoterXuejun Yuan
Division of Molecular Biology of the Cell II, German Cancer Research Center, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
EMBO Rep 3:1082-7. 2002..The results uncover an interphase for essential protein-protein interactions that facilitate Pol I preinitiation complex formation...
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms in miRNA binding sites and miRNA genes as breast/ovarian cancer risk modifiers in Jewish high-risk womenTair Kontorovich
Susanne Levy Gertner Oncogenetics Unit, Institute of Human Genetics, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Int J Cancer 127:589-97. 2010..This study provides preliminary evidence for another regulatory level of penetrance of deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes...
- Interactions between the full complement of human RNA polymerase II subunitsS Schaller
Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire CNRS INSERM ULP, BP 163, 67404, Illkirch, France
FEBS Lett 461:253-7. 1999..Finally, complementation experiments in yeast indicated that hRPB4 expression efficiently cured both heat and cold-sensitivity of RPB4-lacking strains, supporting the existence of conserved functional subunit interactions...
- Gene organization and protein sequence of the small subunits of Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase IIH Sakurai
National Institute of Genetics, Department of Molecular Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
Gene 196:165-74. 1997..Later, other groups isolated the genes for Rpb6 and Rpb12 and cDNA for Rpb10...
- The human immunodeficiency virus tat protein increases the transcription of human Alu repeated sequences by increasing the activity of the cellular transcription factor TFIIICK L Jang
Department of Biochemistry, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, U K
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 5:1142-7. 1992..The significance of this effect for the life cycle of HIV and its interaction with infected cells is discussed...
- CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptionC Suñé
Department of Molecular Cancer Biology, Levine Science Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Mol Cell Biol 17:6029-39. 1997..Furthermore, we found that functional Tat associates with the holoenzyme whereas activation-deficient Tat mutants do not. Thus, we propose that Tat action is transduced via an RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that contains CA150...
- A human primary T-lymphocyte-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activityS Nekhai
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D C 20037, USA
J Virol 71:7436-41. 1997..Importantly, the Tat-associated kinase markedly induced CAK. We suggest that the mechanism of Tat-mediated processive transcription of the HIV-1 promoter includes a Tat-associated CAK activator...
- Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunitsJ Acker
Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire CNRS INSERM ULP, F 67404 Illkirch Cedex C U de Strasbourg, France
J Biol Chem 272:16815-21. 1997..These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits...
- Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcriptionL F García-Martínez
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235 8594, USA
EMBO J 16:2836-50. 1997..These results define a cellular kinase complex whose activity is modulated by Tat to result in activation of HIV-1 trancription...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complexN J Keen
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:2505-10. 1996..We conclude that Tat and cellular cofactors become attached to the transcription complex during its transit through TAR...
- A mutation in the largest subunit of yeast TFIIIC affects tRNA and 5 S RNA synthesis. Identification of two classes of suppressorsO Lefebvre
Service de Biochimie et de Génétique Moléculaire, CEA Centre d Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France
J Biol Chem 269:23374-81. 1994..95 and tau 131, the 70-kDa subunit of TFIIIB, TBP, and a shared subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) I, II, and III, ABC10 alpha; it also includes genes potentially related to pol III function, such as SRP40 which also suppresses a mutation ..
- Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactorC H Herrmann
Division of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030 3498
J Virol 69:1612-20. 1995..Taken together, these results imply that TAK is a very promising candidate for a cellular factor that mediates Tat transactivation...
- Four subunits that are shared by the three classes of RNA polymerase are functionally interchangeable between Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeG V Shpakovski
Departement de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Commissariat à l Energie Atomique Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France
Mol Cell Biol 15:4702-10. 1995..6, hRPB17, and hRPB14.4 (referred to as Hs10 alpha, Hs10 beta, Hs8, and Hs6, respectively), homologous to the ABC10 alpha, ABC10 beta, ABC14...
- Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and TatF Wu-Baer
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235 8594, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:7153-7. 1995..These results suggest that Tat may function to alter RNA polymerase II, which is paused due to its binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA with resultant stimulation of its transcriptional elongation properties...
- Activation of transcription by HIV-1 Tat protein tethered to nascent RNA through another proteinC Southgate
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
Nature 345:640-2. 1990..Our results further suggest that cellular proteins that bind specifically to TAR RNA or TAR DNA may not be essential for Tat-responsiveness...
- Two additional common subunits, ABC10 alpha and ABC10 beta, are shared by yeast RNA polymerasesC Carles
Service de Biochimie et de Génétique Moléculaire, Centre d Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France
J Biol Chem 266:24092-6. 1991..265, 17816-17819). Thus, the three forms of RNA polymerase share two additional and distinct polypeptides, ABC10 alpha and ABC10 beta, that therefore can be considered bona fide subunits of these enzymes...
- RPC10 encodes a new mini subunit shared by yeast nuclear RNA polymerasesI Treich
DBCM, Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Saclay Research Center, Gif sur Yvette, France
Gene Expr 2:31-7. 1992Yeast RNA polymerases A, B, and C share five small subunits, two of which, ABC10 alpha and ABC10 beta, comigrate on SDS polyacrylamide gels. The gene encoding ABC10 alpha, RPC10, was isolated based on microsequence data...
- HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factorsH Kato
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
Genes Dev 6:655-66. 1992..We propose the hypothesis that Tat acts as a processivity factor on RNA polymerase II in an analogous manner to TFIIF...
- Purification and cDNA cloning of the AdoMet-binding subunit of the human mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferaseJ A Bokar
Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
RNA 3:1233-47. 1997..MT-A70 also contains a long region of homology to the yeast protein SPO8, which is involved in induction of sporulation by an unknown mechanism...
- Cyclin T1 domains involved in complex formation with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for tat-activationD Ivanov
Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Harold Simmons Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75235 8594, USA
J Mol Biol 288:41-56. 1999..These results demonstrate that cyclin T1 interactions with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for activation of HIV-1 gene expression...
- The HIV-1 Vpr co-activator induces a conformational change in TFIIBI Agostini
INSERM U372, Marseille, France
FEBS Lett 450:235-9. 1999..Our data show a correlation between the ability of Vpr-mutated proteins to stimulate transcription and their ability to induce a conformational change in TFIIB, indicating a functional relevance of the Vpr-TFIIB interaction...
- Human and rodent transcription elongation factor P-TEFb: interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat and carboxy-terminal domain substrateY Ramanathan
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
J Virol 73:5448-58. 1999..We suggest a model in which Tat first interacts with P-TEFb to form the TAK complex that engages with TAR RNA and the elongating transcription complex, resulting in hyperphosphorylation of the CTD on serine 5 residues...
- Transcriptional cofactor CA150 regulates RNA polymerase II elongation in a TATA-box-dependent mannerC Suñé
Departments of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Levine Science Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Mol Cell Biol 19:4719-28. 1999..We discuss the data in terms of the involvement of CA150 in the regulation of Tat-activated HIV-1 gene expression. In addition, we also provide evidence suggesting a role for CA150 in the regulation of cellular transcriptional processes...
- A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcriptionC A Parada
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
EMBO J 18:3688-701. 1999..Our results indicate that Tat-SF is a Tat cofactor-containing RNA Pol II complex whose recruitment to the promoter provides elongation factors important for Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription following TAR RNA synthesis...
- Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongationC Isel
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QH, UK
J Mol Biol 290:929-41. 1999..We conclude that activation of the CDK9 kinase, leading to CTD phosphorylation, occurs only in elongation complexes that have transcribed through the Tat-recognition element, TAR RNA...
- The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and TatK Fujinaga
Departments of Medicine, Microbiology, and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0703, USA
J Virol 72:7154-9. 1998..Moreover, P-TEFb binds to TAR only in the presence of Tat. We conclude that Tat-P-TEFb complexes bind to TAR, where CDK9 modifies RNA polymerase II for the efficient copying of the viral genome...
- Transcriptional control: Tat cofactors and transcriptional elongationK Yankulov
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Curr Biol 8:R447-9. 1998..Recent results show that two cellular cyclin-dependent kinases, which phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II large subunit, contact Tat and contribute to the control of transcriptional elongation...
- Tat, Tat-associated kinase, and transcriptionK T Jeang
Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
J Biomed Sci 5:24-7. 1998..Here we review, in brief, the role of Tat-associated kinase in Tat-activated transcription. We discuss evidence that suggests involvement of TFIIH and/or P-TEFb...
- A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNAP Wei
Regulatory Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
Cell 92:451-62. 1998..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA...
- The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptorT Kino
Section on Pediatric Endocrinology, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 189:51-62. 1999..The glucocorticoid coactivator activity of Vpr may contribute to increased tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in the absence of hypercortisolism and to the pathogenesis of AIDS...
- Regulatory functions of Cdk9 and of cyclin T1 in HIV tat transactivation pathway gene expressionG Romano
Kimmel Cancer Institute, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
J Cell Biochem 75:357-68. 1999....
- HIV-1 tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylationR E Kiernan
Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Transfert de Gène, Institut de Genetique Humaine, UPR1142 Montpellier, 34396, France
EMBO J 18:6106-18. 1999..These data suggest that acetylation of Tat regulates two discrete and functionally critical steps in transcription, binding to an RNAP II CTD-kinase and release of Tat from TAR RNA...
- HIV-1 Tat interaction with RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) and a dynamic association with CDK2 induce CTD phosphorylation and transcription from HIV-1 promoterLongwen Deng
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D C 20037, USA
J Biol Chem 277:33922-9. 2002..We suggest that CDK2 is part of a transcription complex that is required for Tat-dependent transcription and that interaction of Tat with CTD and a dynamic association of Tat with CDK2/cyclin E stimulated CTD phosphorylation by CDK2...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-dependent activation of an arrested RNA polymerase II elongation complexY Liu
Levine Science Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, 27710, USA
Virology 255:337-46. 1999..These data indicate that Tat can activate elongation of RNA polymerase by modifying an already elongating transcription complex. The data also suggest the possibility that Tat can interact with initiation complexes...
- The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for functionX Yang
Division of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Virol 70:4576-84. 1996..These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD...
- Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase IIH Okamoto
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0724, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:11575-9. 1996..These results suggest that effects of Tat on the processivity of RNA polymerase II require proteins that are associated with the CTD and may result in the phosphorylation of the CTD...
- SMYD3 encodes a histone methyltransferase involved in the proliferation of cancer cellsRyuji Hamamoto
Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
Nat Cell Biol 6:731-40. 2004..Furthermore, activation of SMYD3 may be a key factor in human carcinogenesis...
- Requirements for RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1R F Chun
Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
J Biol Chem 271:27888-94. 1996..Taken together, these observations address mechanistic corollaries between activators with(out) a linked CTD kinase and regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II moieties with(out) a CTD...
- HIV-1 Vpr binding to HIV-1 LTR C/EBP cis-acting elements and adjacent regions is sequence-specificTricia H Hogan
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, H107, 500 University Drive, P O Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Biomed Pharmacother 57:41-8. 2003..These studies suggest that Vpr may regulate the interaction of members of the C/EBP transcription factor family with the viral LTR...
- Phosphorylation of the RAP74 subunit of TFIIF correlates with Tat-activated transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeatM Zhou
Virus Tumor Biology Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA
Virology 268:452-60. 2000..Of importance, the exogenous RAP74 was rapidly phosphorylated in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that RAP74 phosphorylation is one important step, of several, in the Tat transactivation cascade...
- The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase IIT P Cujec
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Franscisco, California USA
Genes Dev 11:2645-57. 1997..Our data identify a cellular protein that interacts with the activation domain of Tat, demonstrate that this interaction is critical for the function of Tat, and provide a mechanism by which Tat increases the processivity of Pol II...
- Transcription factor TFIIH components enhance the GR coactivator activity but not the cell cycle-arresting activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein VprTomoshige Kino
Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 298:17-23. 2002..These findings suggest that TFIIH participates in Vpr's GR coactivating activity, at a step beyond its interaction with p300/CBP...