POLR2E

Summary

Gene Symbol: POLR2E
Description: RNA polymerase II subunit E
Alias: RPABC1, RPB5, XAP4, hRPB25, hsRPB5, DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1, DNA directed RNA polymerase II 23 kda polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 23 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit E, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit RPABC1, RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit ABC1, RPB5 homolog, polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa, polymerase (RNA) II subunit E
Species: human
Products:     POLR2E

Top Publications

  1. Keen N, Gait M, Karn J. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2505-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Tat and cellular cofactors become attached to the transcription complex during its transit through TAR. ..
  2. Byun J, Fufa T, Wakano C, Fernandez A, Haggerty C, Sung M, et al. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II pause site entry and release. Nat Commun. 2012;3:633 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ELL has an early and essential role during rapid high-amplitude gene expression that is required for both Pol II pause site entry and release. ..
  3. Kim Y, Bourgeois C, Isel C, Churcher M, Karn J. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK9 is directly responsible for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-activated transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4622-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II CTD by CDK9 enhances transcription elongation directly. ..
  4. Fujinaga K, Cujec T, Peng J, Garriga J, Price D, Grana X, et al. The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. J Virol. 1998;72:7154-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, P-TEFb binds to TAR only in the presence of Tat. We conclude that Tat-P-TEFb complexes bind to TAR, where CDK9 modifies RNA polymerase II for the efficient copying of the viral genome. ..
  5. Wei P, Garber M, Fang S, Fischer W, Jones K. A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA. Cell. 1998;92:451-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA. ..
  6. Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a series of compounds described herein are novel inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription through inhibition of CycT1/Tat interaction. ..
  7. Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Guo J, Gaynor R. Domains in the SPT5 protein that modulate its transcriptional regulatory properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2970-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that C-terminal repeats in SPT5, like those in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, are sites for P-TEFb phosphorylation and function in modulating its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
  8. Garber M, Mayall T, Suess E, Meisenhelder J, Thompson N, Jones K. CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6958-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat-P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo. ..
  9. Bourgeois C, Kim Y, Churcher M, West M, Karn J. Spt5 cooperates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by preventing premature RNA release at terminator sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1079-93 pubmed
    ..This novel biochemical function of Spt5 is analogous to the function of NusG, an elongation factor found in Escherichia coli that enhances RNA polymerase stability on templates and shows sequence similarity to Spt5. ..

More Information

Publications96

  1. Agostini I, Navarro J, Rey F, Bouhamdan M, Spire B, Vigne R, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:599-606 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the portion of Vpr ranging from amino acids 15 to 77 interacts specifically with the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Also, our data indicated that the N-terminal domain of TFIIB is required for the interaction. ..
  2. Stevens M, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Med Res Rev. 2006;26:595-625 pubmed
    ..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection. ..
  3. Ping Y, Rana T. DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12951-8 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter. ..
  4. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription. Mol Cell. 2010;38:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Tat to enable two different classes of elongation factors to cooperate and coordinate their actions on the same polymerase enzyme explains why Tat is such a powerful activator of HIV-1 transcription. ..
  5. Isel C, Karn J. Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. J Mol Biol. 1999;290:929-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that activation of the CDK9 kinase, leading to CTD phosphorylation, occurs only in elongation complexes that have transcribed through the Tat-recognition element, TAR RNA. ..
  6. Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed
    ..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
  7. Herrmann C, Rice A. Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. J Virol. 1995;69:1612-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results imply that TAK is a very promising candidate for a cellular factor that mediates Tat transactivation. ..
  8. Kiernan R, Vanhulle C, Schiltz L, Adam E, Xiao H, Maudoux F, et al. HIV-1 tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylation. EMBO J. 1999;18:6106-18 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that acetylation of Tat regulates two discrete and functionally critical steps in transcription, binding to an RNAP II CTD-kinase and release of Tat from TAR RNA. ..
  9. Okamoto T. [Positive and negative regulation of transcription from HIV provirus]. Uirusu. 2011;61:81-9 pubmed
    ..HIV is unique in that it contains virus-specific transcriptional activator called Tat. ..
  10. Yang H, Gu J, Zheng Q, Li M, Lian X, Miao J, et al. RPB5-mediating protein is required for the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11865-74 pubmed publisher
    b>RPB5-mediating protein (RMP) is associated with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5...
  11. Chen B, Wang S, Ma G, Han J, Zhang J, Gu X, et al. The association of POLR2E rs3787016 polymorphism and cancer risk: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis. Biosci Rep. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that polymerase II polypeptide E (POLR2E) rs3787016 polymorphism, identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer, might be a common ..
  12. Zhou W, Zhong Y, Wang H, Yang S, Wei W. [Biological function and molecular mechanism of URI in HepG2 cells]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2014;36:816-22 pubmed
    To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of the unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells...
  13. Marete A, Sahana G, Fritz S, LeFebvre R, Barbat A, Lund M, et al. Genome-wide association study for milking speed in French Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:6205-6219 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, 10 were QTL lead SNP, which mapped within the genes HMHA1, POLR2E, GNB5, KLHL29, ZFAT, KCNB2, CEACAM18, CCL24, and LHPP...
  14. Southgate C, Zapp M, Green M. Activation of transcription by HIV-1 Tat protein tethered to nascent RNA through another protein. Nature. 1990;345:640-2 pubmed
    ..Our results further suggest that cellular proteins that bind specifically to TAR RNA or TAR DNA may not be essential for Tat-responsiveness. ..
  15. Lee Y, Li Y, Su C, Chiao C, Lin I, Hsu M. MAF1 represses CDKN1A through a Pol III-dependent mechanism. elife. 2015;4:e06283 pubmed publisher
    ..which are factors that mediate active histone marks, along with the binding of TATA binding protein (TBP) and POLR2E to the CDKN1A promoter. Simultaneous knockdown with Pol III abolished these regulatory events...
  16. Cieśla M, Makała E, Płonka M, Bazan R, Gewartowski K, Dziembowski A, et al. Rbs1, a new protein implicated in RNA polymerase III biogenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Rbs1 physically interacts with a subset of Pol III subunits, AC19, AC40, and ABC27/Rpb5. Additionally, Rbs1 interacts with the Crm1 exportin and shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus...
  17. Zekri A, Hassan Z, Bahnassy A, Khaled H, El Rouby M, Haggag R, et al. Differentially expressed genes in metastatic advanced Egyptian bladder cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:3543-9 pubmed
    ..pathways, MDM2 in 9 pathways, FZD4 in 5 pathways, p15 and FGF12 in 4 pathways, POLE2 in 3 pathways, and MCM4 and POLR2E in 2 pathways...
  18. Zhang J, Jiang T, Jiang B, Yang C, Tan Y, Yang N, et al. RMP predicts survival and adjuvant TACE response in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2015;6:3432-42 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure RPB5-mediating protein (RMP) expression and assessed their association with recurrence rate and response to therapy with ..
  19. Cheong J, Yi M, Lin Y, Murakami S. Human RPB5, a subunit shared by eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, binds human hepatitis B virus X protein and may play a role in X transactivation. EMBO J. 1995;14:143-50 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that one of these cDNAs is a full-length cDNA of human RPB5, a subunit shared by RNA polymerases...
  20. Wu Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor R. Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and Tat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7153-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Tat may function to alter RNA polymerase II, which is paused due to its binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA with resultant stimulation of its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
  21. HU W, Hughes S. HIV-1 reverse transcription. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2: pubmed publisher
    ..In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. ..
  22. Bokar J, Shambaugh M, Polayes D, Matera A, Rottman F. Purification and cDNA cloning of the AdoMet-binding subunit of the human mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferase. RNA. 1997;3:1233-47 pubmed
    ..MT-A70 also contains a long region of homology to the yeast protein SPO8, which is involved in induction of sporulation by an unknown mechanism. ..
  23. Lipinski K, Britschgi C, Schrader K, Christinat Y, Frischknecht L, Krek W. Colorectal cancer cells display chaperone dependency for the unconventional prefoldin URI1. Oncotarget. 2016;7:29635-47 pubmed publisher
    ..URI1 (unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor 1) encodes a member of the prefoldin (PFD) family of molecular chaperones that acts as part of a ..
  24. Siliciano R, Greene W. HIV latency. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1:a007096 pubmed publisher
    ..Several approaches are under exploration for reactivating latent virus with the hope that this will allow elimination of the latent reservoir. ..
  25. Gomes A, Teijeiro A, Burén S, Tummala K, Yilmaz M, Waisman A, et al. Metabolic Inflammation-Associated IL-17A Causes Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2016;30:161-175 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that hepatic unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) couples nutrient surpluses to inflammation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a common ..
  26. Hu X, Zhang F, Luo D, Li N, Wang Q, Xu Z, et al. URI promotes gastric cancer cell motility, survival, and resistance to adriamycin in vitro. Am J Cancer Res. 2016;6:1420-30 pubmed
    Unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI), a RNA polymerase II Subunit 5-Interacting protein, is known to participate in the regulation of nutrient-sensitive mTOR-dependent transcription programs...
  27. Marcello A, Zoppe M, Giacca M. Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator. IUBMB Life. 2001;51:175-81 pubmed
  28. Yankulov K, Bentley D. Transcriptional control: Tat cofactors and transcriptional elongation. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R447-9 pubmed
    ..Recent results show that two cellular cyclin-dependent kinases, which phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II large subunit, contact Tat and contribute to the control of transcriptional elongation. ..
  29. Kang M, Sang Y, Gu H, Zheng L, Wang L, Liu C, et al. Long noncoding RNAs POLR2E rs3787016 C/T and HULC rs7763881 A/C polymorphisms are associated with decreased risk of esophageal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:6401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have genotyped the ANRIL rs2151280 T/C, POLR2E rs3787016 C/T, and HULC rs7763881 A/C SNPs in 380 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 380 cancer-..
  30. Matheos D, Ruiz M, Price G, Zannis Hadjopoulos M. Ku antigen, an origin-specific binding protein that associates with replication proteins, is required for mammalian DNA replication. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1578:59-72 pubmed
    ..The physical association of Ku with replication proteins reveals a possible mechanism by which Ku is recruited to mammalian origins. ..
  31. Bernecky C, Herzog F, Baumeister W, Plitzko J, Cramer P. Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II. Nature. 2016;529:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved 'TPSA motif' in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation...
  32. Nekhai S, Zhou M, Fernandez A, Lane W, Lamb N, Brady J, et al. HIV-1 Tat-associated RNA polymerase C-terminal domain kinase, CDK2, phosphorylates CDK7 and stimulates Tat-mediated transcription. Biochem J. 2002;364:649-57 pubmed
    ..They are also consistent with the observed cell-cycle-specific induction of viral gene transactivation. ..
  33. Sawaya B, Khalili K, Gordon J, Taube R, Amini S. Cooperative interaction between HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Vpr modulates transcription of the viral genome. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35209-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover identification of R73S mutant of Vpr provides a new therapeutic avenue for controlling HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in the infected cells. ..
  34. Gstaiger M, Luke B, Hess D, Oakeley E, Wirbelauer C, Blondel M, et al. Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI. Science. 2003;302:1208-12 pubmed
    ..large member of this family, termed URI, that forms complexes with other small-molecular weight PFDs and with RPB5, a shared subunit of all three RNA polymerases...
  35. Cujec T, Okamoto H, Fujinaga K, Meyer J, Chamberlin H, Morgan D, et al. The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2645-57 pubmed
    ..Our data identify a cellular protein that interacts with the activation domain of Tat, demonstrate that this interaction is critical for the function of Tat, and provide a mechanism by which Tat increases the processivity of Pol II. ..
  36. Zhao W, Liu Y, Timani K, He J. Tip110 protein binds to unphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and promotes its phosphorylation and HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings have provided additional and mechanistic evidence to support Tip110 function in HIV-1 transcription. ..
  37. Kato H, Sumimoto H, Pognonec P, Chen C, Rosen C, Roeder R. HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factors. Genes Dev. 1992;6:655-66 pubmed
    ..We propose the hypothesis that Tat acts as a processivity factor on RNA polymerase II in an analogous manner to TFIIF. ..
  38. Hogan T, Nonnemacher M, Krebs F, Henderson A, Wigdahl B. HIV-1 Vpr binding to HIV-1 LTR C/EBP cis-acting elements and adjacent regions is sequence-specific. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003;57:41-8 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that Vpr may regulate the interaction of members of the C/EBP transcription factor family with the viral LTR. ..
  39. Zhou W, Wang Q, Xu Y, Jiang J, Guo J, Yu H, et al. RMP promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition through NF-κB/CSN2/Snail pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:40373-40388 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the key role of RPB5-mediating protein (RMP) in EMT of HCC cells and the mechanism by which RMP promote EMT...
  40. Rice A. The HIV-1 Tat team gets bigger. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:179-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, Pagans and colleagues report that the lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 associates with Tat to stimulate RNA polymerase II elongation of the integrated provirus. Set7/9-KMT7 also methylates Tat, and this enhances Tat function. ..
  41. Schaller S, Grandemange S, Shpakovski G, Golemis E, Kedinger C, Vigneron M. Interactions between the full complement of human RNA polymerase II subunits. FEBS Lett. 1999;461:253-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, complementation experiments in yeast indicated that hRPB4 expression efficiently cured both heat and cold-sensitivity of RPB4-lacking strains, supporting the existence of conserved functional subunit interactions. ..
  42. Cloutier P, Al Khoury R, Lavallée Adam M, Faubert D, Jiang H, Poitras C, et al. High-resolution mapping of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery and affinity purification of RNA polymerase II-associated complexes. Methods. 2009;48:381-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Kino T, Gragerov A, Kopp J, Stauber R, Pavlakis G, Chrousos G. The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptor. J Exp Med. 1999;189:51-62 pubmed
    ..The glucocorticoid coactivator activity of Vpr may contribute to increased tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in the absence of hypercortisolism and to the pathogenesis of AIDS. ..
  44. Pati U, Weissman S. Isolation and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding the 23-kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13114-21 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence deduced from HP-23 showed no obvious homology with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase subunits or with any of its sigma factors. ..
  45. García Martínez L, Mavankal G, Neveu J, Lane W, Ivanov D, Gaynor R. Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. EMBO J. 1997;16:2836-50 pubmed
    ..These results define a cellular kinase complex whose activity is modulated by Tat to result in activation of HIV-1 trancription. ..
  46. Wei W, Dorjsuren D, Lin Y, Qin W, Nomura T, Hayashi N, et al. Direct interaction between the subunit RAP30 of transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12266-73 pubmed
    ..We examined whether TFIIF interacts with RNA polymerase II subunit 5 (RPB5), the exposed domain of which binds transcriptional regulatory factors such as hepatitis B virus X protein and a ..
  47. Nekhai S, Shukla R, Kumar A. A human primary T-lymphocyte-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activity. J Virol. 1997;71:7436-41 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the Tat-associated kinase markedly induced CAK. We suggest that the mechanism of Tat-mediated processive transcription of the HIV-1 promoter includes a Tat-associated CAK activator. ..
  48. Parada C, Roeder R. A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription. EMBO J. 1999;18:3688-701 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Tat-SF is a Tat cofactor-containing RNA Pol II complex whose recruitment to the promoter provides elongation factors important for Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription following TAR RNA synthesis. ..
  49. Ramanathan Y, Reza S, Young T, Mathews M, PE ERY T. Human and rodent transcription elongation factor P-TEFb: interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat and carboxy-terminal domain substrate. J Virol. 1999;73:5448-58 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model in which Tat first interacts with P-TEFb to form the TAK complex that engages with TAR RNA and the elongating transcription complex, resulting in hyperphosphorylation of the CTD on serine 5 residues. ..
  50. Li Z, Guo J, Wu Y, Zhou Q. The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:277-87 pubmed publisher
  51. Montanuy I, Torremocha R, Hernández Munain C, Suñé C. Promoter influences transcription elongation: TATA-box element mediates the assembly of processive transcription complexes responsive to cyclin-dependent kinase 9. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7368-78 pubmed publisher
  52. Nogues G, Kadener S, Cramer P, Bentley D, Kornblihtt A. Transcriptional activators differ in their abilities to control alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43110-4 pubmed
    ..Rapid, highly processive transcription favors EDI exon skipping, whereas slower, less processive transcription favors inclusion. ..
  53. Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, Kedinger C, Vigneron M. Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunits. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:16815-21 pubmed
    ..These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits. ..
  54. Wei W, Gu J, Zhu C, Sun F, Dorjsuren D, Lin Y, et al. Interaction with general transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) is required for the suppression of activated transcription by RPB5-mediating protein (RMP). Cell Res. 2003;13:111-20 pubmed
    ..transcription via competing with HBx to bind the general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) and interacting with RPB5 subunit of RNA polymerase II as a corepressor of transcription regulator...
  55. Le T, Zhang S, Hayashi N, Yasukawa M, Delgermaa L, Murakami S. Mutational analysis of human RNA polymerase II subunit 5 (RPB5): the residues critical for interactions with TFIIF subunit RAP30 and hepatitis B virus X protein. J Biochem. 2005;138:215-24 pubmed
    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) subunit 5 (RPB5) is positioned close to DNA downstream of the initiation site and is the site of interaction with several regulators...
  56. Chun R, Jeang K. Requirements for RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27888-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations address mechanistic corollaries between activators with(out) a linked CTD kinase and regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II moieties with(out) a CTD. ..
  57. Cramer P, Bushnell D, Fu J, Gnatt A, Maier Davis B, Thompson N, et al. Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanism. Science. 2000;288:640-9 pubmed
    ..Notable features of the model include a pair of jaws, formed by subunits Rpb1, Rpb5, and Rpb9, that appear to grip DNA downstream of the active center...
  58. Jeronimo C, Langelier M, Zeghouf M, Cojocaru M, Bergeron D, Baali D, et al. RPAP1, a novel human RNA polymerase II-associated protein affinity purified with recombinant wild-type and mutated polymerase subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7043-58 pubmed
  59. Birch J, Tan B, Panov K, Panova T, Andersen J, Owen Hughes T, et al. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III. EMBO J. 2009;28:854-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also imply that local chromatin dynamics influence transcription of the active rRNA genes by Pol I and of Pol III-transcribed genes. ..
  60. Yart A, Gstaiger M, Wirbelauer C, Pecnik M, Anastasiou D, Hess D, et al. The HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene product parafibromin associates with human PAF1 and RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5052-60 pubmed
    ..Dysfunction of this pathway may be a general phenomenon in the majority of cases of hereditary parathyroid cancer. ..
  61. Yang X, Herrmann C, Rice A. The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for function. J Virol. 1996;70:4576-84 pubmed
    ..These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD. ..
  62. Agbottah E, Zhang N, Dadgar S, Pumfery A, Wade J, Zeng C, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 virus replication using small soluble Tat peptides. Virology. 2006;345:373-89 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that these peptides do not allow loading of the catalytic domain of the cdk/cyclin complex onto the HIV-1 promoter in vivo. ..
  63. Ye X, Xiao P, Hu X, Chen Y, Zhang L, Xie W, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the RPB5 subunit of human RNA polymerase II. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:1391-3 pubmed publisher
    b>RPB5 is an essential subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. It has been proposed to interact with DNA and several key transcription factors during transcription. These interactions are crucial for transcription and its regulation...
  64. Wilusz J. Putting an 'End' to HIV mRNAs: capping and polyadenylation as potential therapeutic targets. AIDS Res Ther. 2013;10:31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes these post-transcriptional novelties of HIV gene expression as well as their implications in viral biology and as possible targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  65. Lin Y, Nomura T, Cheong J, Dorjsuren D, Iida K, Murakami S. Hepatitis B virus X protein is a transcriptional modulator that communicates with transcription factor IIB and the RNA polymerase II subunit 5. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:7132-9 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism is still obscure. Our finding that HBx directly interacts with RNA polymerase II subunit 5 (RPB5), a common subunit of RNA polymerases, implies that HBx directly modulates the function of RNA polymerase (Cheong, ..
  66. Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Nee E, Guo J, García Martínez L, Gaynor R. Cyclin T1 domains involved in complex formation with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for tat-activation. J Mol Biol. 1999;288:41-56 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cyclin T1 interactions with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for activation of HIV-1 gene expression. ..
  67. Romano G, Kasten M, De Falco G, Micheli P, Khalili K, Giordano A. Regulatory functions of Cdk9 and of cyclin T1 in HIV tat transactivation pathway gene expression. J Cell Biochem. 1999;75:357-68 pubmed
  68. Schlegel B, Green V, Ladias J, Parvin J. BRCA1 interaction with RNA polymerase II reveals a role for hRPB2 and hRPB10alpha in activated transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3148-53 pubmed
    ..No other Pol II subunits tested inhibited activated transcription in these assays. Furthermore, hRPB10alpha, but not hRPB2, blocked Sp1-dependent activation. ..
  69. Pati U, Weissman S. Isolation and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding the 23-kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13468 pubmed
  70. Hu P, Wu S, Sun Y, Yuan C, Kobayashi R, Myers M, et al. Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8044-55 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a characterization of human RNA polymerase III and show that the RPC5 subunit is essential for transcription. ..
  71. Kaehlcke K, Dorr A, Hetzer Egger C, Kiermer V, Henklein P, Schnoelzer M, et al. Acetylation of Tat defines a cyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:167-76 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tat acetylation may help in dissociating the Tat cofactor CyclinT1 from TAR RNA and serve to transfer Tat onto the elongating RNA polymerase II. ..
  72. Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Transcriptional cofactor CA150 regulates RNA polymerase II elongation in a TATA-box-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4719-28 pubmed
    ..In addition, we also provide evidence suggesting a role for CA150 in the regulation of cellular transcriptional processes. ..
  73. Agostini I, Navarro J, Bouhamdan M, Willetts K, Rey F, Spire B, et al. The HIV-1 Vpr co-activator induces a conformational change in TFIIB. FEBS Lett. 1999;450:235-9 pubmed
    ..Our data show a correlation between the ability of Vpr-mutated proteins to stimulate transcription and their ability to induce a conformational change in TFIIB, indicating a functional relevance of the Vpr-TFIIB interaction. ..
  74. Liu Y, Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-dependent activation of an arrested RNA polymerase II elongation complex. Virology. 1999;255:337-46 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Tat can activate elongation of RNA polymerase by modifying an already elongating transcription complex. The data also suggest the possibility that Tat can interact with initiation complexes. ..
  75. Jeang K. Tat, Tat-associated kinase, and transcription. J Biomed Sci. 1998;5:24-7 pubmed
    ..Here we review, in brief, the role of Tat-associated kinase in Tat-activated transcription. We discuss evidence that suggests involvement of TFIIH and/or P-TEFb. ..
  76. Harrich D, McMillan N, Munoz L, Apolloni A, Meredith L. Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:1595-606 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, Tat remains an attractive, virus-specific molecule and detailed understanding of specific protein interaction holds promise for future drug discovery. ..
  77. Mbonye U, Karn J. Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:554-67 pubmed
  78. Bertolotti A, Melot T, Acker J, Vigneron M, Delattre O, Tora L. EWS, but not EWS-FLI-1, is associated with both TFIID and RNA polymerase II: interactions between two members of the TET family, EWS and hTAFII68, and subunits of TFIID and RNA polymerase II complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1489-97 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that EWS and EWS-FLI-1 may play different roles in Pol II transcription. ..
  79. Suñé C, Hayashi T, Liu Y, Lane W, Young R, Garcia Blanco M. CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6029-39 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found that functional Tat associates with the holoenzyme whereas activation-deficient Tat mutants do not. Thus, we propose that Tat action is transduced via an RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that contains CA150. ..
  80. Zhang H, Sun L, Liang J, Yu W, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. The catalytic subunit of the proteasome is engaged in the entire process of estrogen receptor-regulated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:4223-33 pubmed
    ..These results revealed a mechanism by which the proteasome machinery is recruited in ER-mediated gene transcription. Our experiments also provided evidence implicating SRC coactivators in gene transcription elongation. ..
  81. Zhou M, Halanski M, Radonovich M, Kashanchi F, Peng J, Price D, et al. Tat modifies the activity of CDK9 to phosphorylate serine 5 of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5077-86 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the ability of Tat to increase transcriptional elongation may be due to its ability to modify the substrate specificity of the CDK9 complex. ..
  82. Kershnar E, Wu S, Chiang C. Immunoaffinity purification and functional characterization of human transcription factor IIH and RNA polymerase II from clonal cell lines that conditionally express epitope-tagged subunits of the multiprotein complexes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34444-53 pubmed
  83. Kino T, Tsukamoto M, Chrousos G. Transcription factor TFIIH components enhance the GR coactivator activity but not the cell cycle-arresting activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Vpr. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:17-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TFIIH participates in Vpr's GR coactivating activity, at a step beyond its interaction with p300/CBP. ..
  84. Poon B, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. J Virol. 2003;77:3962-72 pubmed
    ..These results attribute a new function to HIV-1 Vpr and implicate Vpr as a critical component in expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA...
  85. Martínez Fernández V, Garrido Godino A, Mirón García M, Begley V, Fernández Pévida A, de la Cruz J, et al. Rpb5 modulates the RNA polymerase II transition from initiation to elongation by influencing Spt5 association and backtracking. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;1861:1-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Rpb5 is a subunit shared by the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases although its role in transcription remains unclear...
  86. Zhou C, Rana T. A bimolecular mechanism of HIV-1 Tat protein interaction with RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complexes. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:925-42 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that two Tat molecules are involved in performing various functions during a single round of HIV-1 mRNA synthesis. ..
  87. Nilson K, Price D. The Role of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in HIV-1 Gene Expression, Replication, and Latency. Genet Res Int. 2011;2011:726901 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, is a worldwide health concern. It is hoped that knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the HIV genome will lead to treatments and ultimately a cure. ..