Gene Symbol: POLR2D
Description: RNA polymerase II subunit D
Alias: HSRBP4, HSRPB4, RBP4, RPB16, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 16 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit D, RNA polymerase II 16 kDa subunit, RNA polymerase II subunit B4, RNA polymerase II subunit hsRBP4, polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D, polymerase (RNA) II subunit D
Species: human
Products:     POLR2D

Top Publications

  1. Agostini I, Navarro J, Rey F, Bouhamdan M, Spire B, Vigne R, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:599-606 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the portion of Vpr ranging from amino acids 15 to 77 interacts specifically with the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Also, our data indicated that the N-terminal domain of TFIIB is required for the interaction. ..
  2. Garber M, Mayall T, Suess E, Meisenhelder J, Thompson N, Jones K. CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6958-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat-P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo. ..
  3. Ping Y, Rana T. DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12951-8 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter. ..
  4. Stevens M, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Med Res Rev. 2006;26:595-625 pubmed
    ..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection. ..
  5. Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed
    ..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
  6. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription. Mol Cell. 2010;38:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Tat to enable two different classes of elongation factors to cooperate and coordinate their actions on the same polymerase enzyme explains why Tat is such a powerful activator of HIV-1 transcription. ..
  7. Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a series of compounds described herein are novel inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription through inhibition of CycT1/Tat interaction. ..
  8. Wei P, Garber M, Fang S, Fischer W, Jones K. A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA. Cell. 1998;92:451-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA. ..
  9. Krois C, Vuckovic M, Huang P, Zaversnik C, Liu C, Gibson C, et al. RDH1 suppresses adiposity by promoting brown adipose adaptation to fasting and re-feeding. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Exceptions were Rbp4 and Gbp2b, which increased during both dietary conditions...

More Information

Publications133 found, 100 shown here

  1. Saeed A, Dullaart R, Schreuder T, Blokzijl H, Faber K. Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Nutrients. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of ..
  2. Salilew Wondim D, Wang Q, Tesfaye D, Schellander K, Hoelker M, Hossain M, et al. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is accompanied by repression of gene signatures associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids, cholesterol and lipids. J Ovarian Res. 2015;8:24 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 573 gene transcripts, including CPA1, CDH1, INSL3, AMH, ALDH1B1, INHBA, CYP17A1, RBP4, GAS6, GAS7 and GATA4, were activated while 430 others including HSD17B7, HSD3B6, STAR, HMGCS1, HMGCR, CYP51, ..
  3. Mateos Muñoz B, García Martín E, Torrejón M, Devesa Medina M, Esguevillas G, Cárdenas M, et al. GC Gene Polymorphism and Unbound Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Related to the Risk of Insulin Resistance in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e3019 pubmed publisher
    ..laboratory analysis as well as specifically designed serum biochemical tests [retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), 25-OH vitamin D, Vitamin E, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cystatin C]...
  4. Plucińska K, Dekeryte R, Koss D, Shearer K, Mody N, Whitfield P, et al. Neuronal human BACE1 knockin induces systemic diabetes in mice. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1513-1523 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin-related signalling, enhanced protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels, along with upregulation of the ribosomal protein and lipid translation machinery...
  5. Kataria Y, Deaton R, Enk E, Jin M, Petrauskaite M, Dong L, et al. Retinoid and carotenoid status in serum and liver among patients at high-risk for liver cancer. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16:30 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant inverse association between serum retinol, lycopene, and RBP4 concentrations with fibrosis stage...
  6. Hou W, Meng X, Zhao A, Zhao W, Pan J, Tang J, et al. Development of Multimarker Diagnostic Models from Metabolomics Analysis for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018;17:431-441 pubmed publisher
    ..721 to 0.751. Model consisting of body mass index (BMI), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), n-acetylaspartic acid and C16:1 (cis-7) manifested the best discrimination [AUC 0.751 (95% CI: 0.693-0...
  7. Kotzé S, Zinyama Gutsire R, Kallestrup P, Benn C, Gomo E, Gerstoft J, et al. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe: the association of retinol-binding protein with disease progression, inflammation and mortality. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;33:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status...
  8. Adamu H, Imam M, Ooi D, Esa N, Rosli R, Ismail M. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring. Food Nutr Res. 2016;60:30209 pubmed publisher
    ..and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured...
  9. Vendrame S, Zhao A, Merrow T, Klimis Zacas D. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat. J Med Food. 2015;18:619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured...
  10. Fu Y, Gaelings L, Jalovaara P, Kakkola L, Kinnunen M, Kallio Kokko H, et al. Protein profiling of nasopharyngeal aspirates of hospitalized and outpatients revealed cytokines associated with severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections: A pilot study. Cytokine. 2016;86:10-14 pubmed publisher
    ..008), whereas levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5), interleukin-8 (IL-8), complement factor D (CFD), adiponectin, and chitinase-3-..
  11. Nevalainen J, Korpimäki T, Kouru H, Sairanen M, Ryynanen M. Performance of first trimester biochemical markers and mean arterial pressure in prediction of early-onset pre-eclampsia. Metabolism. 2017;75:6-15 pubmed publisher
    ..placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4), a disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 (ADAM12), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), follistatin like-3 (FSTL3), ..
  12. Lopez Domenech S, Abad Jimenez Z, Iannantuoni F, de Marañón A, Rovira Llopis S, Morillas C, et al. Moderate weight loss attenuates chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human obesity. Mol Metab. 2019;19:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the metabolic and inflammatory markers -TNFα, hsCRP, complement component 3 (C3c), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4)-, in the ER stress markers and modulators -eIF2α-P, sXBP1, ATF6, JNK-P, CHOP, GRP78, and SIRT1-, and in ..
  13. Liu G, Deng Y, Sun L, Ye X, Yao P, Hu Y, et al. Elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 and resistin are associated with increased incidence of kidney function decline in Chinese adults. Endocrine. 2016;52:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..73 m(2) were prospectively followed for 6 years. Plasma levels of resistin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (TNF-R2) were ..
  14. Rollins K, Noorani A, Janeckova L, Jones T, Griffiths M, Baker M, et al. Ascorbic acid ameliorates renal injury in a murine model of contrast-induced nephropathy. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:101 pubmed publisher
    ..from mouse kidneys was also performed for both lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) encoding NGAL and retinol binding protein-6 (RBP4) genes. NGAL protein expression was also confirmed by ELISA analysis of kidney lysates...
  15. Zhang S, Meng P, Zhang J, Jia P, Lin J, Wang X, et al. Machine Learning Models for Genetic Risk Assessment of Infants with Non-syndromic Orofacial Cleft. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2018;16:354-364 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, defective variants in MTHFR and RBP4, two genes involved in folic acid and vitamin A biosynthesis, were found to have high contributions to NSCL/P ..
  16. Sarega N, Imam M, Esa N, Zawawi N, Ismail M. Effects of phenolic-rich extracts of Clinacanthus nutans on high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:88 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral glucose tolerance test, and serum insulin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin and leptin were measured...
  17. Farajzadeh A, Bathaie S, Arabkheradmand J, Ghodsi S, Faghihzadeh S. Different Pain States of Trigeminal Neuralgia Make Significant Changes in the Plasma Proteome and Some Biochemical Parameters: a Preliminary Cohort Study. J Mol Neurosci. 2018;66:524-534 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma proteome analysis showed upregulated expression of transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP2) in TN patients compared to control group; whereas, TTR and RBP expression ..
  18. Kelly C, Hookham M, Yu J, Lockhart S, Du M, Jenkins A, et al. Circulating adipokines are associated with pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017;60:2514-2524 pubmed publisher
    ..adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]; also known as high molecular mass), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin and evaluated associations with the subsequent development of pre-eclampsia...
  19. Wang J, Sun Z, Jiang J, Wu D, Liu X, Xie Z, et al. Proteomic Signature of Acute Liver Failure: From Discovery and Verification in a Pig Model to Confirmation in Humans. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017;16:1188-1199 pubmed publisher
    ..89 ?g/dL) than in those with lower FBP1 levels (p = 0.002). Additionally, serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) level was found decreased prior to ALT elevation in GALN-insulted pig model...
  20. Maxel T, Svendsen P, Smidt K, Lauridsen J, Brock B, Pedersen S, et al. Expression Patterns and Correlations with Metabolic Markers of Zinc Transporters ZIP14 and ZNT1 in Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:38 pubmed publisher
    ..alongside lipid profile and markers of glucose metabolism [insulin degrading enzyme, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)]...
  21. Lu Q, Liu C, Liu Y, Zhang N, Deng H, Zhang Z. Serum markers of pre-eclampsia identified on proteomics. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2016;42:1111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was used as the target protein for further validation on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry ..
  22. Zemany L, Kraus B, Norseen J, Saito T, Peroni O, Johnson R, et al. Downregulation of STRA6 in adipocytes and adipose stromovascular fraction in obesity and effects of adipocyte-specific STRA6 knockdown in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1170-86 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the mechanisms by which elevated retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) causes insulin resistance, we studied the role of the high-affinity receptor for RBP4, STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid), in insulin resistance and obesity...
  23. Brandt S, Moß A, Koenig W, Rothenbacher D, Brenner H, Wabitsch M. Intrafamilial associations of cardiometabolic risk factors--results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study. Atherosclerosis. 2015;240:174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting plasma samples were collected and concentrations of insulin, glucose, retinol-binding-protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, apolipoprotein A and B (ApoA, ApoB) were analyzed...
  24. Sawczyn T, Stygar D, Karcz Socha I, Fink J, Skrzep Poloczek B, KÅ‚osok M, et al. Long-term Effect of Ileal Transposition on Adipokine Serum Level in Zucker (Orl)-Lepr(fa) Fatty Rats. Obes Surg. 2015;25:1848-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Six months after surgery, serum levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, chemerin RBP4 were analyzed using ELISA kits...
  25. Andersen E, Ingerslev L, Fabre O, Donkin I, Altıntaş A, Versteyhe S, et al. Preadipocytes from obese humans with type 2 diabetes are epigenetically reprogrammed at genes controlling adipose tissue function. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43:306-318 pubmed publisher
    ..of adipogenic genes throughout differentiation (PLIN1, CIDEC, FABP4, ADIPOQ, LPL, PDK4, APOE, LIPE, FABP3, LEP, RBP4 and CD36) were associated with DNA methylation remodelling at genes controlling insulin sensitivity and ..
  26. Fang P, Shi M, Guo L, He B, Wang Q, Yu M, et al. Effect of endogenous galanin on glucose transporter 4 expression in cardiac muscle of type 2 diabetic rats. Peptides. 2014;62:159-63 pubmed
    ..The present study showed that the plasma insulin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels were higher in both drug groups than controls respectively...
  27. Belyaeva O, Wu L, Shmarakov I, Nelson P, Kedishvili N. Retinol dehydrogenase 11 is essential for the maintenance of retinol homeostasis in liver and testis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:6996-7007 pubmed publisher
    ..to be impaired in the testes of Rdh11-/-/retinol-binding protein 4-/-(Rbp4-/-) mice, which lack circulating holo RBP4 and rely on dietary supplementation with β-carotene for ..
  28. Pamir N, Hutchins P, Ronsein G, Vaisar T, Reardon C, Getz G, et al. Proteomic analysis of HDL from inbred mouse strains implicates APOE associated with HDL in reduced cholesterol efflux capacity via the ABCA1 pathway. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholesterol efflux capacity with macrophages strongly and positively correlated with retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and PLTP, but not APOA1...
  29. Gonzalez Calero L, Martin Lorenzo M, Ramos Barron A, Ruiz Criado J, Maroto A, Ortiz A, et al. Urinary Kininogen-1 and Retinol binding protein-4 respond to Acute Kidney Injury: predictors of patient prognosis?. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19667 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and kininogen-1 (KNG1) were found significantly altered following AKI...
  30. Hammarstedt A, Graham T, Kahn B. Adipose tissue dysregulation and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with enlarged abdominal adipose cells. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4:42 pubmed publisher
    ..46, 0 = 0.009). In addition, insulin sensitivity is inversely correlated to circulating RBP4 (R = -0.61, 0 = 0.003) and adipocyte cell size (R = -0...
  31. Tan X, Zhang M, Li M, Xiao Y. [Association between acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome in children with obesity]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015;17:672-6 pubmed
    ..Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured using ELISA...
  32. Grzegorczyk E, Harasim Symbor E, Lukaszuk B, Harasiuk D, Choromańska B, Mysliwiec P, et al. Lack of pronounced changes in the expression of fatty acid handling proteins in adipose tissue and plasma of morbidly obese humans. Nutr Diabetes. 2018;8:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in obese subjects plasma concentration of RBP4 was markedly elevated (P = 0.04) and sCD36 level presented a tendency for an increase (P = 0...
  33. Cramer P, Bushnell D, Fu J, Gnatt A, Maier Davis B, Thompson N, et al. Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanism. Science. 2000;288:640-9 pubmed
    ..A pore in the protein complex beneath the active center may allow entry of substrates for polymerization and exit of the transcript during proofreading and passage through pause sites in the DNA. ..
  34. Ma X, Zhou Z, Chen Y, Wu Y, Liu Y. RBP4 functions as a hepatokine in the regulation of glucose metabolism by the circadian clock in mice. Diabetologia. 2016;59:354-62 pubmed publisher
    As one of the key adipokines, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is suggested to positively correlate with insulin resistance; however, not all clinical studies support this association...
  35. Kelly M, Widjaja Adhi M, Palczewski G, von Lintig J. Transport of vitamin A across blood-tissue barriers is facilitated by STRA6. FASEB J. 2016;30:2985-95 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin A bound to retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) constitutes the major transport mode for retinoids in fasting circulation...
  36. Guan W, Yang G. Significance of change of retinol binding protein 4 level of plasma of patients with coronary heart disease complicated with hyperlipidemia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:4136-4140 pubmed
    We investigated the significance of a change in retinol binding protein (RBP4) levels in the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease complicated with hyperlipidemia...
  37. Zhu R, Liu H, Liu C, Wang L, Ma R, Chen B, et al. Cinnamaldehyde in diabetes: A review of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety. Pharmacol Res. 2017;122:78-89 pubmed publisher
    ..exerts these effects through its action on multiple signaling pathways, including PPARs, AMPK, PI3K/IRS-1, RBP4-GLUT4, and ERK/JNK/p38MAPK, TRPA1-ghrelin and Nrf2 pathways...
  38. Taslim N, Virani D, Sumartini N, Karmila -, Bukhari A, Aminuddin -, et al. Energy regulation in newly diagnosed TB with chronic energy deficiency: free fatty acids and RBP4. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26:S73-S78 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are candidate adipocytokines...
  39. Zachariah J, Quiroz R, Enserro D, Andersson C, Keaney J, Sullivan L, et al. Association of Parental Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines in Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating concentrations of fetuin A, RBP4 (retinol binding protein 4), FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4), leptin, LEP-R (leptin receptor), and adiponectin ..
  40. Yang X, Herrmann C, Rice A. The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for function. J Virol. 1996;70:4576-84 pubmed
    ..These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD. ..
  41. Nilson K, Price D. The Role of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in HIV-1 Gene Expression, Replication, and Latency. Genet Res Int. 2011;2011:726901 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, is a worldwide health concern. It is hoped that knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the HIV genome will lead to treatments and ultimately a cure. ..
  42. Rahimlou M, Mirzaei K, Keshavarz S, Hossein Nezhad A. Association of circulating adipokines with metabolic dyslipidemia in obese versus non-obese individuals. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2016;10:S60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the mean serum levels of omentin-1 and vaspin between the obese and non-obese groups, while, serum level of RBP4 was significantly higher in the non-obese group. We found the 0...
  43. Goodwin K, Abrahamowicz M, Leonard G, Perron M, Richer L, Veillette S, et al. Dietary Vitamin A and Visceral Adiposity: A Modulating Role of the Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Gene. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2015;8:164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..effects on adipogenesis differentially in VF and SF, and this effect may be modulated by retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4)...
  44. Li P, Lu Y, Song G, Ma B, Liu J, Chen J, et al. Association of RBP4 levels with increased arterial stiffness in adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes. Int Angiol. 2016;35:546-551 pubmed
    ..Blood samples were collected, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum lipids, Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4), C reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and visfatin were examined...
  45. Du M, Martin A, HAYS F, Johnson J, FARJO R, Farjo K. Serum retinol-binding protein-induced endothelial inflammation is mediated through the activation of toll-like receptor 4. Mol Vis. 2017;23:185-197 pubmed
    Elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) induces inflammation in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) via a retinol-independent mechanism; thus, it may play a causative role in the development and ..
  46. Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Bodles A, Rasouli N, Phanavanh B, Lee M, et al. Retinol binding protein 4 expression in humans: relationship to insulin resistance, inflammation, and response to pioglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2590-7 pubmed
    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently found to be expressed and secreted by adipose tissue, and was strongly associated with insulin resistance...
  47. Li Z, Guo J, Wu Y, Zhou Q. The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:277-87 pubmed publisher
  48. Du M, Otalora L, Martin A, Moiseyev G, Vanlandingham P, Wang Q, et al. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Serum Retinol-Binding Protein Develop Progressive Retinal Degeneration through a Retinoid-Independent Mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2771-89 pubmed publisher
    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol in the blood, but it is also an adipokine with retinol-independent, proinflammatory activity associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 ..
  49. Feng S, Zhu Y, Yan C, Wang Y, Zhang Z. Retinol binding protein 4 correlates with and is an early predictor of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J Biomed Res. 2015;29: pubmed publisher
    The association of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) with atherosclerosis of the carotid artery in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains undefined...
  50. Blaner W, Li Y, Brun P, Yuen J, Lee S, Clugston R. Vitamin A Absorption, Storage and Mobilization. Subcell Biochem. 2016;81:95-125 pubmed
    ..Since retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein that is required for mobilizing stored vitamin A, is synthesized solely by hepatocytes and not HSCs, it ..
  51. Domingos M, Queiroz M, Lotufo P, Benseñor I, Titan S. Serum RBP4 and CKD: Association with insulin resistance and lipids. J Diabetes Complications. 2017;31:1132-1138 pubmed publisher
    Serum RBP4 is new adipokine and it has been related to insulin resistance and diabetes risk in animal and clinical studies. However, there is controversy on this relationship among CKD patients...
  52. Chen W, Lee M, Chang C, Chiu C, Chang M. Retinol-binding protein-4 expression marks the short-term mortality of critically ill patients with underlying liver disease: Lipid, but not glucose, matters. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2881 pubmed publisher
    The implications of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) expression in critically ill patients with underlying liver diseases remain unclear...
  53. Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Nee E, Guo J, García Martínez L, Gaynor R. Cyclin T1 domains involved in complex formation with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for tat-activation. J Mol Biol. 1999;288:41-56 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cyclin T1 interactions with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for activation of HIV-1 gene expression. ..
  54. Zhang H, Sun L, Liang J, Yu W, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. The catalytic subunit of the proteasome is engaged in the entire process of estrogen receptor-regulated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:4223-33 pubmed
    ..These results revealed a mechanism by which the proteasome machinery is recruited in ER-mediated gene transcription. Our experiments also provided evidence implicating SRC coactivators in gene transcription elongation. ..
  55. Fasshauer M, Blüher M. Adipokines in health and disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015;36:461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, BMP-7, vaspin, apelin, and progranulin, is ..
  56. Schmiedchen B, Longardt A, Loui A, Bührer C, Raila J, Schweigert F. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2016;175:365-72 pubmed publisher
    ..On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine...
  57. Abe M, Yamashita S, Mori Y, Abe T, Saijo H, Hoshi K, et al. High-risk oral leukoplakia is associated with aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:350 pubmed publisher
    ..In OSCC tissues (n?=?26), 8 of the 13 genes, TSPYL5, EGFLAM, CLDN11, NKX2-3, RBP4, CMTM3, TRPC4, and MAP6, were methylated...
  58. Ozaki R, Kuroda K, Ikemoto Y, Ochiai A, Matsumoto A, Kumakiri J, et al. Reprogramming of the retinoic acid pathway in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173035 pubmed publisher
    ..Decidualization was also associated with increased expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and various enzymes involved in the metabolism of RA and its precursor, retinaldehyde (Rald), including CYP26A1, ..
  59. Cubedo J, Padró T, Formiga F, Ferrer A, Padrós G, Peña E, et al. Inflammation and hemostasis in older octogenarians: implication in 5-year survival. Transl Res. 2017;185:34-46.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..UHOs showed a coordinated change in several inflammation-related proteins (AMBP, RBP4, and ITIH4; P < 0...
  60. Majerczyk M, Kocełak P, Choręza P, Arabzada H, Owczarek A, Bożentowicz Wikarek M, et al. Components of metabolic syndrome in relation to plasma levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in a cohort of people aged 65 years and older. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41:1211-1219 pubmed publisher
    Elevated plasma concentration of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently emerged as a potential risk factor as a component of developing metabolic syndrome (MS)...
  61. Herrmann C, Rice A. Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. J Virol. 1995;69:1612-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results imply that TAK is a very promising candidate for a cellular factor that mediates Tat transactivation. ..
  62. Uzan J, Laas E, Alsamad I, Skalli D, Mansouri D, Haddad B, et al. Supervised Clustering of Adipokines and Hormonal Receptors Predict Prognosis in a Population of Obese Women with Type 1 Endometrial Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry (IHC) study was performed on type I EC tumor samples using five adipokines (SPARC, RBP4 (Retinol Binding Protein 4), adiponectin, TNF α, IL-6) and hormonal receptors (estrogen receptor and ..
  63. Cione E, Caroleo M, Cannataro R, Perri M, Pingitore A, Genchi G. Vitamin A and Diabesity: New Insight for Drug Discovery. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016;16:738-42 pubmed
    ..Vitamin A is delivered by a specific binding protein called retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) a soluble protein, emerging to have a role in insulin resistance, the major cause of diabetes is highly associated ..
  64. Schlegel B, Green V, Ladias J, Parvin J. BRCA1 interaction with RNA polymerase II reveals a role for hRPB2 and hRPB10alpha in activated transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3148-53 pubmed
    ..No other Pol II subunits tested inhibited activated transcription in these assays. Furthermore, hRPB10alpha, but not hRPB2, blocked Sp1-dependent activation. ..
  65. Shihabudeen M, Roy D, James J, Thirumurugan K. Chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR ligand alters adipokines and reverses insulin resistance. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;414:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..CDCA suppressed several of the tested pro-inflammatory adipokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, Chemerin, PAI, RBP4, resistin, vaspin), and enhanced the major anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing adipokines (adiponectin, ..
  66. Toloza F, Pérez Matos M, Ricardo Silgado M, Morales Álvarez M, Mantilla Rivas J, Pinzón Cortés J, et al. Comparison of plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for the identification of insulin resistance. J Diabetes Complications. 2017;31:1423-1429 pubmed publisher
    ..PEDF was associated with adiposity variables. PEDF and RBP4 increased linearly across quartiles of iAUCins (for PEDF p-trend=0.029; for RBP-4 p-trend=0.053)...
  67. Poon B, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. J Virol. 2003;77:3962-72 pubmed
    ..These results attribute a new function to HIV-1 Vpr and implicate Vpr as a critical component in expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA...
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    ..transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma protein secreted by the liver that circulates bound to retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its retinol ligand...
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    ..Many other proteins have been proposed as potential new markers of IR in PCOS, such as resistin, leptin, RBP4, kisspetin and ghrelin, but their role is still controversial...
  70. Czeczuga Semeniuk E, Galar M, Jarzabek K, Kozłowski P, Sarosiek N, Wołczyński S. The preliminary association study of ADIPOQ, RBP4, and BCMO1 variants with polycystic ovary syndrome and with biochemical characteristics in a cohort of Polish women. Adv Med Sci. 2018;63:242-248 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to elucidate the frequency of the SNPs in the ADIPOQ, RBP4 and BCMO1genes in a population of Caucasian Polish women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to evaluate the possible associations between these variants and the ..
  71. Kino T, Tsukamoto M, Chrousos G. Transcription factor TFIIH components enhance the GR coactivator activity but not the cell cycle-arresting activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Vpr. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:17-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TFIIH participates in Vpr's GR coactivating activity, at a step beyond its interaction with p300/CBP. ..
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    ..Among those genes, elevated expression levels of seven in particular (HMGB3, SPARC, MKI67, CENPF, CDK1, RHOU, and POLR2D) were associated with a shorter disease-free survival in a large number of patients in the The Cancer Genome Atlas ..
  73. Kershnar E, Wu S, Chiang C. Immunoaffinity purification and functional characterization of human transcription factor IIH and RNA polymerase II from clonal cell lines that conditionally express epitope-tagged subunits of the multiprotein complexes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34444-53 pubmed
  74. Lewis B, Sims R, Lane W, Reinberg D. Functional characterization of core promoter elements: DPE-specific transcription requires the protein kinase CK2 and the PC4 coactivator. Mol Cell. 2005;18:471-81 pubmed
    ..These data establish that CK2 acts as a switch, converting the transcriptional machinery from functioning on one type of downstream element to another. ..
  75. Harrich D, McMillan N, Munoz L, Apolloni A, Meredith L. Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:1595-606 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, Tat remains an attractive, virus-specific molecule and detailed understanding of specific protein interaction holds promise for future drug discovery. ..
  76. Vink R, Roumans N, Mariman E, van Baak M. Dietary weight loss-induced changes in RBP4, FFA, and ACE predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..to measure FFA, TAG, total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, IL-6, RBP4, apelin, leptin, adiponectin, vaspin, and nesfatin-1 concentrations...
  77. Suñé C, Hayashi T, Liu Y, Lane W, Young R, Garcia Blanco M. CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6029-39 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found that functional Tat associates with the holoenzyme whereas activation-deficient Tat mutants do not. Thus, we propose that Tat action is transduced via an RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that contains CA150. ..
  78. Jeang K. Tat, Tat-associated kinase, and transcription. J Biomed Sci. 1998;5:24-7 pubmed
    ..Here we review, in brief, the role of Tat-associated kinase in Tat-activated transcription. We discuss evidence that suggests involvement of TFIIH and/or P-TEFb. ..
  79. Liu Y, Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-dependent activation of an arrested RNA polymerase II elongation complex. Virology. 1999;255:337-46 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Tat can activate elongation of RNA polymerase by modifying an already elongating transcription complex. The data also suggest the possibility that Tat can interact with initiation complexes. ..
  80. Agostini I, Navarro J, Bouhamdan M, Willetts K, Rey F, Spire B, et al. The HIV-1 Vpr co-activator induces a conformational change in TFIIB. FEBS Lett. 1999;450:235-9 pubmed
    ..Our data show a correlation between the ability of Vpr-mutated proteins to stimulate transcription and their ability to induce a conformational change in TFIIB, indicating a functional relevance of the Vpr-TFIIB interaction. ..
  81. Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Transcriptional cofactor CA150 regulates RNA polymerase II elongation in a TATA-box-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4719-28 pubmed
    ..In addition, we also provide evidence suggesting a role for CA150 in the regulation of cellular transcriptional processes. ..
  82. Zhou M, Halanski M, Radonovich M, Kashanchi F, Peng J, Price D, et al. Tat modifies the activity of CDK9 to phosphorylate serine 5 of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5077-86 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the ability of Tat to increase transcriptional elongation may be due to its ability to modify the substrate specificity of the CDK9 complex. ..
  83. Kaehlcke K, Dorr A, Hetzer Egger C, Kiermer V, Henklein P, Schnoelzer M, et al. Acetylation of Tat defines a cyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:167-76 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tat acetylation may help in dissociating the Tat cofactor CyclinT1 from TAR RNA and serve to transfer Tat onto the elongating RNA polymerase II. ..
  84. Khan K, Carss K, Raymond F, Islam F, Nihr BioResource Rare Diseases Consortium -, Moore A, et al. Vitamin A deficiency due to bi-allelic mutation of RBP4: There's more to it than meets the eye. Ophthalmic Genet. 2017;38:465-466 pubmed publisher
    ..Bi-allelic mutations in RBP4 were identified (c.248+1G>A), consistent with a diagnosis of inherited vitamin A deficiency...
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    ..We propose the hypothesis that Tat acts as a processivity factor on RNA polymerase II in an analogous manner to TFIIF. ..
  86. Romano G, Kasten M, De Falco G, Micheli P, Khalili K, Giordano A. Regulatory functions of Cdk9 and of cyclin T1 in HIV tat transactivation pathway gene expression. J Cell Biochem. 1999;75:357-68 pubmed
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    ..We show that the transgenic mouse Rbp4-Cre selectively labels several retinal neuronal types relevant to the encoding of absolute light intensity (..
  88. Keen N, Gait M, Karn J. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2505-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Tat and cellular cofactors become attached to the transcription complex during its transit through TAR. ..
  89. Fujinaga K, Cujec T, Peng J, Garriga J, Price D, Grana X, et al. The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. J Virol. 1998;72:7154-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, P-TEFb binds to TAR only in the presence of Tat. We conclude that Tat-P-TEFb complexes bind to TAR, where CDK9 modifies RNA polymerase II for the efficient copying of the viral genome. ..
  90. Sawaya B, Khalili K, Gordon J, Taube R, Amini S. Cooperative interaction between HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Vpr modulates transcription of the viral genome. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35209-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover identification of R73S mutant of Vpr provides a new therapeutic avenue for controlling HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in the infected cells. ..
  91. Marcello A, Zoppe M, Giacca M. Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator. IUBMB Life. 2001;51:175-81 pubmed
  92. Nekhai S, Zhou M, Fernandez A, Lane W, Lamb N, Brady J, et al. HIV-1 Tat-associated RNA polymerase C-terminal domain kinase, CDK2, phosphorylates CDK7 and stimulates Tat-mediated transcription. Biochem J. 2002;364:649-57 pubmed
    ..They are also consistent with the observed cell-cycle-specific induction of viral gene transactivation. ..