Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: POLR2C
Description: RNA polymerase II subunit C
Alias: RPB3, RPB31, hRPB33, hsRPB3, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 33 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit C, RNA polymerase II subunit 3, RNA polymerase II subunit B3, RPB33, polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa, polymerase (RNA) II subunit C
- Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Guo J, Gaynor R. Domains in the SPT5 protein that modulate its transcriptional regulatory properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2970-83 pubmed..These results suggest that C-terminal repeats in SPT5, like those in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, are sites for P-TEFb phosphorylation and function in modulating its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
- Isel C, Karn J. Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. J Mol Biol. 1999;290:929-41 pubmed..We conclude that activation of the CDK9 kinase, leading to CTD phosphorylation, occurs only in elongation complexes that have transcribed through the Tat-recognition element, TAR RNA. ..
- Cramer P, Bushnell D, Fu J, Gnatt A, Maier Davis B, Thompson N, et al. Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanism. Science. 2000;288:640-9 pubmed..A pore in the protein complex beneath the active center may allow entry of substrates for polymerization and exit of the transcript during proofreading and passage through pause sites in the DNA. ..
- Kim Y, Bourgeois C, Isel C, Churcher M, Karn J. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK9 is directly responsible for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-activated transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4622-37 pubmed..We conclude that phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II CTD by CDK9 enhances transcription elongation directly. ..
- Stevens M, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Med Res Rev. 2006;26:595-625 pubmed..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection. ..
- Schlegel B, Green V, Ladias J, Parvin J. BRCA1 interaction with RNA polymerase II reveals a role for hRPB2 and hRPB10alpha in activated transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3148-53 pubmed..No other Pol II subunits tested inhibited activated transcription in these assays. Furthermore, hRPB10alpha, but not hRPB2, blocked Sp1-dependent activation. ..
- Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher..Thus, a series of compounds described herein are novel inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription through inhibition of CycT1/Tat interaction. ..
- Corbi N, Bruno T, De Angelis R, Di Padova M, Libri V, Di Certo M, et al. RNA polymerase II subunit 3 is retained in the cytoplasm by its interaction with HCR, the psoriasis vulgaris candidate gene product. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4253-60 pubmedHere, we show that the subcellular localization of alpha-like RNA polymerase II core subunit 3 (RPB3) is regulated during muscle differentiation...
- Oufattole M, Lin S, Liu B, Mascarenhas D, Cohen P, Rodgers B. Ribonucleic acid polymerase II binding subunit 3 (Rpb3), a potential nuclear target of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2138-46 pubmed..with IGFBP-3 as well as several novel proteins were identified, including RNA polymerase II binding subunit 3 (Rpb3)...
- Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
- He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription. Mol Cell. 2010;38:428-38 pubmed publisher..The ability of Tat to enable two different classes of elongation factors to cooperate and coordinate their actions on the same polymerase enzyme explains why Tat is such a powerful activator of HIV-1 transcription. ..
- Ping Y, Rana T. DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12951-8 pubmed..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter. ..
- De Angelis R, Iezzi S, Bruno T, Corbi N, Di Padova M, Floridi A, et al. Functional interaction of the subunit 3 of RNA polymerase II (RPB3) with transcription factor-4 (ATF4). FEBS Lett. 2003;547:15-9 pubmedb>RPB3 is a core subunit of RNA polymerase II (pol II) that, together with the RPB11 subunit, forms the heterodimer considered as a functional counterpart of the bacterial alpha subunit homodimer involved in promoter recognition...
- Herrmann C, Rice A. Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. J Virol. 1995;69:1612-20 pubmed..Taken together, these results imply that TAK is a very promising candidate for a cellular factor that mediates Tat transactivation. ..
- Schaller S, Grandemange S, Shpakovski G, Golemis E, Kedinger C, Vigneron M. Interactions between the full complement of human RNA polymerase II subunits. FEBS Lett. 1999;461:253-7 pubmed..Finally, complementation experiments in yeast indicated that hRPB4 expression efficiently cured both heat and cold-sensitivity of RPB4-lacking strains, supporting the existence of conserved functional subunit interactions. ..
- Bokar J, Shambaugh M, Polayes D, Matera A, Rottman F. Purification and cDNA cloning of the AdoMet-binding subunit of the human mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferase. RNA. 1997;3:1233-47 pubmed..MT-A70 also contains a long region of homology to the yeast protein SPO8, which is involved in induction of sporulation by an unknown mechanism. ..
- Sawaya B, Khalili K, Gordon J, Taube R, Amini S. Cooperative interaction between HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Vpr modulates transcription of the viral genome. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35209-14 pubmed..Moreover identification of R73S mutant of Vpr provides a new therapeutic avenue for controlling HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in the infected cells. ..
- Pisani C, Onori A, Gabanella F, Delle Monache F, Borreca A, Ammassari Teule M, et al. eEF1BÎ³ binds the Che-1 and TP53 gene promoters and their transcripts. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016;35:146 pubmed publisher..factor subunit 1B gamma (eEF1BÎ³) interacts with the RNA polymerase II (pol II) alpha-like subunit "C" (POLR2C), alone or complexed, in the pol II enzyme...
- Rubinstein M. A new granulation method for compressed tablets [proceedings]. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1976;28 Suppl:67P pubmed
- Yang J, Cai W, Lu X, Liu S, Zhao S. RNA-Sequencing Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Rat Tooth Germ Development. Front Physiol. 2017;8:455 pubmed publisher..We found that GNAO1, ENO1, EFNB1, CALM1, SIAH2, ATP6V0A1, KDELR2, GTPBP1, POLR2C, SORT1, and members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel family are involved in ..
- ..Now, Pagans and colleagues report that the lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 associates with Tat to stimulate RNA polymerase II elongation of the integrated provirus. Set7/9-KMT7 also methylates Tat, and this enhances Tat function. ..
- Kato H, Sumimoto H, Pognonec P, Chen C, Rosen C, Roeder R. HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factors. Genes Dev. 1992;6:655-66 pubmed..We propose the hypothesis that Tat acts as a processivity factor on RNA polymerase II in an analogous manner to TFIIF. ..
- Kiernan R, Vanhulle C, Schiltz L, Adam E, Xiao H, Maudoux F, et al. HIV-1 tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylation. EMBO J. 1999;18:6106-18 pubmed..These data suggest that acetylation of Tat regulates two discrete and functionally critical steps in transcription, binding to an RNAP II CTD-kinase and release of Tat from TAR RNA. ..
- Xiao H, Palhan V, Yang Y, Roeder R. TIP30 has an intrinsic kinase activity required for up-regulation of a subset of apoptotic genes. EMBO J. 2000;19:956-63 pubmed..These data demonstrate a molecular mechanism for TIP30/CC3 function and suggest a novel pathway for regulating apoptosis. ..
- Acker J, Mattei M, Wintzerith M, Roeckel N, Depetris D, Vigneron M, et al. Chromosomal localization of human RNA polymerase II subunit genes. Genomics. 1994;20:496-9 pubmed..The cDNAs of five subunits (hRPB220, hRPB140, hRPB33, hRPB25, and hRPB14.5) have been isolated...
- Xu Y, Bernecky C, Lee C, Maier K, Schwalb B, Tegunov D, et al. Architecture of the RNA polymerase II-Paf1C-TFIIS transcription elongation complex. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15741 pubmed publisher..crosslinking data reveal that Paf1C is highly mobile and extends over the outer Pol II surface from the Rpb2 to the Rpb3 subunit. The Paf1-Leo1 heterodimer and Cdc73 form opposite ends of Paf1C, whereas Ctr9 bridges between them...
- Southgate C, Zapp M, Green M. Activation of transcription by HIV-1 Tat protein tethered to nascent RNA through another protein. Nature. 1990;345:640-2 pubmed..Our results further suggest that cellular proteins that bind specifically to TAR RNA or TAR DNA may not be essential for Tat-responsiveness. ..
- Dammann R, Pfeifer G. Cloning and characterization of the human RNA polymerase I subunit hRPA40. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1396:153-7 pubmed..93%), to two Arabidopsis thaliana subunits (47%), the yeast RPC40 subunit (46%) and the human RNA polymerase II hRPB33 subunit (40%)...
- Deng L, Ammosova T, Pumfery A, Kashanchi F, Nekhai S. HIV-1 Tat interaction with RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) and a dynamic association with CDK2 induce CTD phosphorylation and transcription from HIV-1 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33922-9 pubmed..We suggest that CDK2 is part of a transcription complex that is required for Tat-dependent transcription and that interaction of Tat with CTD and a dynamic association of Tat with CDK2/cyclin E stimulated CTD phosphorylation by CDK2. ..
- HU W, Hughes S. HIV-1 reverse transcription. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2: pubmed publisher..In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. ..
- Zhang Y, Zhang J, Liu Z, Liu Y, Tuo S. A network-based approach to identify disease-associated gene modules through integrating DNA methylation and gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;465:437-42 pubmed publisher..expression and methylation values of these genes between cases and controls, we find some genes, such as VASN, SNRPD3, and gene modules, targeted by POLR2C, CHMP1B and TAF9, which might be novel breast cancer-related biomarkers.
- Wu Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor R. Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and Tat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7153-7 pubmed..These results suggest that Tat may function to alter RNA polymerase II, which is paused due to its binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA with resultant stimulation of its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
- Okamoto H, Sheline C, Corden J, Jones K, Peterlin B. Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11575-9 pubmed..These results suggest that effects of Tat on the processivity of RNA polymerase II require proteins that are associated with the CTD and may result in the phosphorylation of the CTD. ..
- Parada C, Roeder R. A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription. EMBO J. 1999;18:3688-701 pubmed..Our results indicate that Tat-SF is a Tat cofactor-containing RNA Pol II complex whose recruitment to the promoter provides elongation factors important for Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription following TAR RNA synthesis. ..
- Nekhai S, Shukla R, Kumar A. A human primary T-lymphocyte-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activity. J Virol. 1997;71:7436-41 pubmed..Importantly, the Tat-associated kinase markedly induced CAK. We suggest that the mechanism of Tat-mediated processive transcription of the HIV-1 promoter includes a Tat-associated CAK activator. ..
- Zhou M, Kashanchi F, Jiang H, Ge H, Brady J. Phosphorylation of the RAP74 subunit of TFIIF correlates with Tat-activated transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. Virology. 2000;268:452-60 pubmed..Of importance, the exogenous RAP74 was rapidly phosphorylated in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that RAP74 phosphorylation is one important step, of several, in the Tat transactivation cascade. ..
- Ramanathan Y, Reza S, Young T, Mathews M, PE ERY T. Human and rodent transcription elongation factor P-TEFb: interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat and carboxy-terminal domain substrate. J Virol. 1999;73:5448-58 pubmed..We suggest a model in which Tat first interacts with P-TEFb to form the TAK complex that engages with TAR RNA and the elongating transcription complex, resulting in hyperphosphorylation of the CTD on serine 5 residues. ..
- Okamoto T. [Positive and negative regulation of transcription from HIV provirus]. Uirusu. 2011;61:81-9 pubmed..HIV is unique in that it contains virus-specific transcriptional activator called Tat. ..
- Kino T, Gragerov A, Kopp J, Stauber R, Pavlakis G, Chrousos G. The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptor. J Exp Med. 1999;189:51-62 pubmed..The glucocorticoid coactivator activity of Vpr may contribute to increased tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in the absence of hypercortisolism and to the pathogenesis of AIDS. ..
- Nogues G, Kadener S, Cramer P, Bentley D, Kornblihtt A. Transcriptional activators differ in their abilities to control alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43110-4 pubmed..Rapid, highly processive transcription favors EDI exon skipping, whereas slower, less processive transcription favors inclusion. ..
- García Martínez L, Mavankal G, Neveu J, Lane W, Ivanov D, Gaynor R. Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. EMBO J. 1997;16:2836-50 pubmed..These results define a cellular kinase complex whose activity is modulated by Tat to result in activation of HIV-1 trancription. ..
- Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, Kedinger C, Vigneron M. Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunits. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:16815-21 pubmed..These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits. ..
- Fang Z, Jiang B, Zhang F, Wang A, Ji Y, Xu Y, et al. Rpb3 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma through its N-terminus. Oncotarget. 2014;5:9256-68 pubmedThe expression of RNA polymerase II subunit 3 (Rpb3) was found frequent up-regulation in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors...
- Agbottah E, Zhang N, Dadgar S, Pumfery A, Wade J, Zeng C, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 virus replication using small soluble Tat peptides. Virology. 2006;345:373-89 pubmed..Finally, we show that these peptides do not allow loading of the catalytic domain of the cdk/cyclin complex onto the HIV-1 promoter in vivo. ..
- Yang X, Herrmann C, Rice A. The human immunodeficiency virus Tat proteins specifically associate with TAK in vivo and require the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II for function. J Virol. 1996;70:4576-84 pubmed..These observations strengthen the proposal that the mechanism of action of Tat involves the recruitment or activation of TAK, resulting in activated transcription through phosphorylation of the CTD. ..
- Chun R, Jeang K. Requirements for RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27888-94 pubmed..Taken together, these observations address mechanistic corollaries between activators with(out) a linked CTD kinase and regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II moieties with(out) a CTD. ..
- Jeronimo C, Langelier M, Zeghouf M, Cojocaru M, Bergeron D, Baali D, et al. RPAP1, a novel human RNA polymerase II-associated protein affinity purified with recombinant wild-type and mutated polymerase subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7043-58 pubmed
- De Graeve F, Bahr A, Chatton B, Kedinger C. A murine ATFa-associated factor with transcriptional repressing activity. Oncogene. 2000;19:1807-19 pubmed..Together, these findings suggest that mAM may be involved in the fine-tuning of ATFa-regulated gene expression, by interfering with the assembly or stability of specific preinitiation transcription complexes. ..
- Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Nee E, Guo J, García Martínez L, Gaynor R. Cyclin T1 domains involved in complex formation with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for tat-activation. J Mol Biol. 1999;288:41-56 pubmed..These results demonstrate that cyclin T1 interactions with Tat and TAR RNA are critical for activation of HIV-1 gene expression. ..
- Wilusz J. Putting an 'End' to HIV mRNAs: capping and polyadenylation as potential therapeutic targets. AIDS Res Ther. 2013;10:31 pubmed publisher..This review describes these post-transcriptional novelties of HIV gene expression as well as their implications in viral biology and as possible targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
- Kaehlcke K, Dorr A, Hetzer Egger C, Kiermer V, Henklein P, Schnoelzer M, et al. Acetylation of Tat defines a cyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:167-76 pubmed..We propose that Tat acetylation may help in dissociating the Tat cofactor CyclinT1 from TAR RNA and serve to transfer Tat onto the elongating RNA polymerase II. ..
- Agostini I, Navarro J, Bouhamdan M, Willetts K, Rey F, Spire B, et al. The HIV-1 Vpr co-activator induces a conformational change in TFIIB. FEBS Lett. 1999;450:235-9 pubmed..Our data show a correlation between the ability of Vpr-mutated proteins to stimulate transcription and their ability to induce a conformational change in TFIIB, indicating a functional relevance of the Vpr-TFIIB interaction. ..
- Burke K, Janke A, Rhine C, Fawzi N. Residue-by-Residue View of InÂ Vitro FUS Granules that Bind the C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2015;60:231-41 pubmed publisher..Therefore, we propose that disordered protein granules, even those made of aggregation-prone prion-like domains, are dynamic and disordered molecular assemblies with transiently formed protein-protein contacts. ..
- Nordick K, Hoffman M, BETZ J, Jaehning J. Direct interactions between the Paf1 complex and a cleavage and polyadenylation factor are revealed by dissociation of Paf1 from RNA polymerase II. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1158-67 pubmed publisher..The lack of this connection helps to explain the defects in 3'-end formation observed in the absence of Paf1. ..
- Romano G, Kasten M, De Falco G, Micheli P, Khalili K, Giordano A. Regulatory functions of Cdk9 and of cyclin T1 in HIV tat transactivation pathway gene expression. J Cell Biochem. 1999;75:357-68 pubmed
- Zhou M, Halanski M, Radonovich M, Kashanchi F, Peng J, Price D, et al. Tat modifies the activity of CDK9 to phosphorylate serine 5 of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5077-86 pubmed..These studies suggest that the ability of Tat to increase transcriptional elongation may be due to its ability to modify the substrate specificity of the CDK9 complex. ..
- Kershnar E, Wu S, Chiang C. Immunoaffinity purification and functional characterization of human transcription factor IIH and RNA polymerase II from clonal cell lines that conditionally express epitope-tagged subunits of the multiprotein complexes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34444-53 pubmed
- Mbonye U, Karn J. Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:554-67 pubmed
- Jeang K. Tat, Tat-associated kinase, and transcription. J Biomed Sci. 1998;5:24-7 pubmed..Here we review, in brief, the role of Tat-associated kinase in Tat-activated transcription. We discuss evidence that suggests involvement of TFIIH and/or P-TEFb. ..
- Bertolotti A, Melot T, Acker J, Vigneron M, Delattre O, Tora L. EWS, but not EWS-FLI-1, is associated with both TFIID and RNA polymerase II: interactions between two members of the TET family, EWS and hTAFII68, and subunits of TFIID and RNA polymerase II complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1489-97 pubmed..These observations suggest that EWS and EWS-FLI-1 may play different roles in Pol II transcription. ..
- Harrich D, McMillan N, Munoz L, Apolloni A, Meredith L. Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:1595-606 pubmed..Nevertheless, Tat remains an attractive, virus-specific molecule and detailed understanding of specific protein interaction holds promise for future drug discovery. ..
- Nilson K, Price D. The Role of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in HIV-1 Gene Expression, Replication, and Latency. Genet Res Int. 2011;2011:726901 pubmed publisher..HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, is a worldwide health concern. It is hoped that knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the HIV genome will lead to treatments and ultimately a cure. ..
- Liu Y, Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-dependent activation of an arrested RNA polymerase II elongation complex. Virology. 1999;255:337-46 pubmed..These data indicate that Tat can activate elongation of RNA polymerase by modifying an already elongating transcription complex. The data also suggest the possibility that Tat can interact with initiation complexes. ..
- Zhou C, Rana T. A bimolecular mechanism of HIV-1 Tat protein interaction with RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complexes. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:925-42 pubmed..These findings suggest that two Tat molecules are involved in performing various functions during a single round of HIV-1 mRNA synthesis. ..
- Kino T, Tsukamoto M, Chrousos G. Transcription factor TFIIH components enhance the GR coactivator activity but not the cell cycle-arresting activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Vpr. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:17-23 pubmed..These findings suggest that TFIIH participates in Vpr's GR coactivating activity, at a step beyond its interaction with p300/CBP. ..
- Poon B, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. J Virol. 2003;77:3962-72 pubmed..These results attribute a new function to HIV-1 Vpr and implicate Vpr as a critical component in expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA...
- Suñé C, Hayashi T, Liu Y, Lane W, Young R, Garcia Blanco M. CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6029-39 pubmed..Furthermore, we found that functional Tat associates with the holoenzyme whereas activation-deficient Tat mutants do not. Thus, we propose that Tat action is transduced via an RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that contains CA150. ..
- Suñé C, Garcia Blanco M. Transcriptional cofactor CA150 regulates RNA polymerase II elongation in a TATA-box-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4719-28 pubmed..In addition, we also provide evidence suggesting a role for CA150 in the regulation of cellular transcriptional processes. ..
- Zhang H, Sun L, Liang J, Yu W, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. The catalytic subunit of the proteasome is engaged in the entire process of estrogen receptor-regulated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:4223-33 pubmed..These results revealed a mechanism by which the proteasome machinery is recruited in ER-mediated gene transcription. Our experiments also provided evidence implicating SRC coactivators in gene transcription elongation. ..
- Engelman A, Cherepanov P. The structural biology of HIV-1: mechanistic and therapeutic insights. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012;10:279-90 pubmed publisher..Here, we review recent advances in HIV-1 structural biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and on the development of new therapeutics. ..