Gene Symbol: POLR2B
Description: RNA polymerase II subunit B
Alias: POL2RB, RPB2, hRPB140, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 140 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit B, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, RNA polymerase II subunit 2, RNA polymerase II subunit B2, polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa, polymerase (RNA) II subunit B
Species: human
Products:     POLR2B

Top Publications

  1. Wei P, Garber M, Fang S, Fischer W, Jones K. A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA. Cell. 1998;92:451-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA. ..
  2. Ivanov D, Kwak Y, Guo J, Gaynor R. Domains in the SPT5 protein that modulate its transcriptional regulatory properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2970-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that C-terminal repeats in SPT5, like those in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, are sites for P-TEFb phosphorylation and function in modulating its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
  3. Keen N, Gait M, Karn J. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2505-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Tat and cellular cofactors become attached to the transcription complex during its transit through TAR. ..
  4. Fujinaga K, Cujec T, Peng J, Garriga J, Price D, Grana X, et al. The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. J Virol. 1998;72:7154-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, P-TEFb binds to TAR only in the presence of Tat. We conclude that Tat-P-TEFb complexes bind to TAR, where CDK9 modifies RNA polymerase II for the efficient copying of the viral genome. ..
  5. Ping Y, Rana T. DSIF and NELF interact with RNA polymerase II elongation complex and HIV-1 Tat stimulates P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and DSIF during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12951-8 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the negative and positive regulation of transcriptional elongation at the HIV-1 promoter. ..
  6. Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed
    ..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
  7. He N, Liu M, Hsu J, Xue Y, Chou S, Burlingame A, et al. HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription. Mol Cell. 2010;38:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Tat to enable two different classes of elongation factors to cooperate and coordinate their actions on the same polymerase enzyme explains why Tat is such a powerful activator of HIV-1 transcription. ..
  8. Herrmann C, Rice A. Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. J Virol. 1995;69:1612-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results imply that TAK is a very promising candidate for a cellular factor that mediates Tat transactivation. ..
  9. Garber M, Mayall T, Suess E, Meisenhelder J, Thompson N, Jones K. CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6958-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat-P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo. ..

More Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bourgeois C, Kim Y, Churcher M, West M, Karn J. Spt5 cooperates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by preventing premature RNA release at terminator sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1079-93 pubmed
    ..This novel biochemical function of Spt5 is analogous to the function of NusG, an elongation factor found in Escherichia coli that enhances RNA polymerase stability on templates and shows sequence similarity to Spt5. ..
  2. Kim Y, Bourgeois C, Isel C, Churcher M, Karn J. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK9 is directly responsible for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-activated transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4622-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II CTD by CDK9 enhances transcription elongation directly. ..
  3. Agostini I, Navarro J, Rey F, Bouhamdan M, Spire B, Vigne R, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:599-606 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the portion of Vpr ranging from amino acids 15 to 77 interacts specifically with the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Also, our data indicated that the N-terminal domain of TFIIB is required for the interaction. ..
  4. Isel C, Karn J. Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. J Mol Biol. 1999;290:929-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that activation of the CDK9 kinase, leading to CTD phosphorylation, occurs only in elongation complexes that have transcribed through the Tat-recognition element, TAR RNA. ..
  5. Jeronimo C, Langelier M, Zeghouf M, Cojocaru M, Bergeron D, Baali D, et al. RPAP1, a novel human RNA polymerase II-associated protein affinity purified with recombinant wild-type and mutated polymerase subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7043-58 pubmed
    ..We also used TAP-tagged Rpb2 with mutations in fork loop 1 and switch 3, two structural elements located strategically within the active center, ..
  6. Stevens M, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Med Res Rev. 2006;26:595-625 pubmed
    ..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection. ..
  7. Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a series of compounds described herein are novel inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription through inhibition of CycT1/Tat interaction. ..
  8. Zervakis G, Venturella G, Fryssouli V, Inglese P, Polemis E, Gargano M. Pleurotus opuntiae revisited - An insight to the phylogeny of dimitic Pleurotus species with emphasis on the P. djamor complex. Fungal Biol. 2019;123:188-199 pubmed publisher
    ..by examining the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA (LSU) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The P...
  9. Saito S, Margosan D, Michailides T, Xiao C. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes. Mycologia. 2016;108:330-43 pubmed publisher
    ..dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B...
  10. Zhang L, Wang J, Pan Y, Jin J, Sang J, Huang P, et al. Expression of histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and its demethylases in the developing mouse testis. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:875-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot showed that the amounts of LSD1, RPB2 and SMCX mRNA and protein were age-dependent, were significantly reduced with increasing age and exhibited a ..
  11. Luo Y, Lu X, Bi W, Liu F, Gao W. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China. Mycologia. 2016;108:773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), ?-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi.
  12. Olarte R, Horn B, Singh R, Carbone I. Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis. Mycologia. 2015;107:307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined three loci, including mating type (MAT), RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and β-tubulin (BT2), and found that 84% (58/69) of progeny were recombinants...
  13. Qin J, Yang Z. Three new species of Physalacria from China, with a key to the Asian taxa. Mycologia. 2016;108:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..and genes for translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1α) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2)...
  14. Su L, Guo L, Hao Y, Xiang M, Cai L, Liu X. Rupestriomyces and Spissiomyces, two new genera of rock-inhabiting fungi from China. Mycologia. 2015;107:831-44 pubmed publisher
    ..combined sequence datasets of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 16S rDNA, part of genes of RPB2, TUB2, nuc rDNA 18S and 28S revealed that those strains represented five new species (i.e...
  15. Robène Soustrade I, Jouen E, Pastou D, Payet Hoarau M, Goble T, Linderme D, et al. Description and phylogenetic placement of Beauveria hoplocheli sp. nov. used in the biological control of the sugarcane white grub, Hoplochelus marginalis, on Reunion Island. Mycologia. 2015;107:1221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the Bloc nuc intergenic region was carried out on Beauveria strains isolated on ..
  16. Sanjuan T, Franco Molano A, Kepler R, Spatafora J, Tabima J, Vasco Palacios A, et al. Five new species of entomopathogenic fungi from the Amazon and evolution of neotropical Ophiocordyceps. Fungal Biol. 2015;119:901-916 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci including SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1, and RPB2 were conducted alongside a morphological evaluation...
  17. Yin G, Zhang Y, Pennerman K, Wu G, Hua S, Yu J, et al. Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci. J Fungi (Basel). 2017;3: pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we were unable to amplify RPB2 sequences from four of the isolates...
  18. Ruibal C, Selbmann L, Avci S, Martin Sanchez P, Gorbushina A. Roof-Inhabiting Cousins of Rock-Inhabiting Fungi: Novel Melanized Microcolonial Fungal Species from Photocatalytically Reactive Subaerial Surfaces. Life (Basel). 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..are described here as a novel species, Constantinomyces oldenburgensis, based on multilocus ITS, LSU, RPB2 gene phylogeny. Their closest relative is a still-unnamed rock-inhabiting strain TRN431, here described as C...
  19. Ge Z, Yang Z, Qasim T, Nawaz R, Khalid A, Vellinga E. Four new species in Leucoagaricus (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota) from Asia. Mycologia. 2015;107:1033-44 pubmed publisher
    ..internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and region 6-7 of the gene for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2) sequences show that the novel taxa are nested within a well-supported clade jointly formed by members of ..
  20. Checa J, Jaklitsch W, Blanco M, Moreno G, Olariaga I, Tello S, et al. Two new species of Thyronectria from Mediterranean Europe. Mycologia. 2015;107:1314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..by multigene phylogenetic analyses of a matrix containing six loci (ITS and 28S regions of nuc rDNA, ACT1, RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and TUB2 genes)...
  21. Thomas B, Contet Audonneau N, Machouart M, Debourgogne A. Molecular identification of Fusarium species complexes: Which gene and which database to choose in clinical practice?. J Mycol Med. 2019;29:56-58 pubmed publisher
    ..transcribed spacer), EF1α (translation elongation factor 1 alpha), RPB1 (largest subunit of RNA polymerase) and RPB2 (second largest subunit of RNA polymerase) genes and two databases: GenBank and Fusarium MLST (MultiLocus Sequence ..
  22. Wang X, Chen K, Zeng Z, Zhuang W. Phylogeny and morphological analyses of Penicillium section Sclerotiora (Fungi) lead to the discovery of five new species. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8233 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic positions of the new taxa are determined based on the sequence data of ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 regions, which reveals that all the species with biverticillate condiophores form a well-supported subclade in the ..
  23. Gelardi M, Simonini G, Ercole E, Davoli P, Vizzini A. Cupreoboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), a new monotypic genus segregated from Boletus sect. Luridi to reassign the Mediterranean species B. poikilochromus. Mycologia. 2015;107:1254-69 pubmed publisher
    ..and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and genes for ribosomal RNA polymerase II subunits 1 (rpb1) and 2 (rpb2) and translation-elongation factor 1-α (tef1α)...
  24. Moussa T, Al Zahrani H, Kadasa N, Ahmed S, de Hoog G, Al Hatmi A. Two new species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from the natural environment. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2017;110:819-832 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular analyses were performed including TEF1 spanning 576 bp region, 860 bp region of rPB2, and 500 bp BT2 region...
  25. Xiao Y, Wen T, Hongsanan S, Jeewon R, Luangsa Ard J, Brooks S, et al. Multigene phylogenetics of Polycephalomyces (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales), with two new species from Thailand. Sci Rep. 2018;8:18087 pubmed publisher
    ..A combined nrSSU, nrLSU, ITS, tef-1a, rpb1 and rpb2 sequence data was analysed phylogenetically including Ophiocordyceps and Polycephalomyces taxa...
  26. Dal Forno M, Lücking R, Bungartz F, Yánez Ayabaca A, Marcelli M, Spielmann A, et al. From one to six: unrecognized species diversity in the genus Acantholichen (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae). Mycologia. 2016;108:38-55 pubmed publisher
    ..8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage...
  27. Meyer J, Trapiello E, Senn Irlet B, Sieber T, Cornejo C, Aghayeva D, et al. Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterisation of Sirococcus castaneae comb. nov. (synonym Diplodina castaneae), a fungal endophyte of European chestnut. Fungal Biol. 2017;121:625-637 pubmed publisher
    ..from Switzerland, Spain, and Azerbaijan were sequenced at five nuclear loci (β-tubulin, EF-1α, ITS, LSU, and RPB2). Phylogenies were inferred to place D. castaneae in the Gnomoniaceae family...
  28. Jiang X, Yu Z, Ruan Y, Wang L. Three new species of Talaromyces sect. Talaromyces discovered from soil in China. Sci Rep. 2018;8:4932 pubmed publisher
    ..dimorphus is unique and has no close relatives. Although T. lentulus and T. mae resembles T. adpressus and T. pinophilus very much, phylogenetic analyses of CaM, BenA, ITS and Rpb2 sequences all support their status as novel species.
  29. Liu J, Li Y, Creamer R. A Re-examination of the Taxonomic Status of Embellisia astragali. Curr Microbiol. 2016;72:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic tree developed based on the sequences of 3 loci (GPD, RPB2, and TEF-1) strongly supported the placement of E. astragali in Alternaria sect. Undifilum...
  30. Xu M, Heidmarsson S, Thorsteinsdottir M, Kreuzer M, Hawkins J, Omarsdottir S, et al. Authentication of Iceland Moss (Cetraria islandica) by UPLC-QToF-MS chemical profiling and DNA barcoding. Food Chem. 2018;245:989-996 pubmed publisher
    ..islandica are clearly distinguishable from each other and from C. ericetorum by the chemometric approach. The RPB2 barcode was able to differentiate C. islandica from C...
  31. Boehm E, Marson G, Mathiassen G, Gardiennet A, Schoch C. An overview of the genus Glyphium and its phylogenetic placement in Patellariales. Mycologia. 2015;107:607-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenies inferred from the analysis of sequences of six gene regions (nuLSU, nuSSU, mtSSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) derived from six accessions indicate that Glyphium belongs to Patellariales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes)...
  32. Osorio J, Crous C, de Beer Z, Wingfield M, Roux J. Endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae, including five new species, associated with mangrove trees in South Africa. Fungal Biol. 2017;121:361-393 pubmed publisher
    ..the beta-tubulin (tub2), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) gene regions...
  33. Wang X, Buyck B, Verbeken A, Hansen K. Revisiting the morphology and phylogeny of Lactifluus with three new lineages from southern China. Mycologia. 2015;107:941-58 pubmed publisher
    ..ITS), D1 and D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S), and part of the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) (6-7 region) sequences of 28 samples from southern China revealed three new lineages of Lactifluus...
  34. Bokar J, Shambaugh M, Polayes D, Matera A, Rottman F. Purification and cDNA cloning of the AdoMet-binding subunit of the human mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferase. RNA. 1997;3:1233-47 pubmed
    ..MT-A70 also contains a long region of homology to the yeast protein SPO8, which is involved in induction of sporulation by an unknown mechanism. ..
  35. Schaller S, Grandemange S, Shpakovski G, Golemis E, Kedinger C, Vigneron M. Interactions between the full complement of human RNA polymerase II subunits. FEBS Lett. 1999;461:253-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, complementation experiments in yeast indicated that hRPB4 expression efficiently cured both heat and cold-sensitivity of RPB4-lacking strains, supporting the existence of conserved functional subunit interactions. ..
  36. Kino T, Gragerov A, Kopp J, Stauber R, Pavlakis G, Chrousos G. The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptor. J Exp Med. 1999;189:51-62 pubmed
    ..The glucocorticoid coactivator activity of Vpr may contribute to increased tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in the absence of hypercortisolism and to the pathogenesis of AIDS. ..
  37. Yang T, Groenewald J, Cheewangkoon R, Jami F, Abdollahzadeh J, Lombard L, et al. Families, genera, and species of Botryosphaeriales. Fungal Biol. 2017;121:322-346 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU)-rpb2 proved effective at delineating taxa at family and generic level...
  38. Zhu Z, Zhuang W. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China. Mycologia. 2015;107:328-45 pubmed publisher
    ..factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described...
  39. Bellanger J, Moreau P, Corriol G, Bidaud A, Chalange R, Dudova Z, et al. Plunging hands into the mushroom jar: a phylogenetic framework for Lyophyllaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Genetica. 2015;143:169-94 pubmed publisher
    ..8S rDNA (ITS) and portions of the genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) is the most performing combination to resolve the broadest range of taxa within ..
  40. Liu X, Groenewald M, Boekhout T, Bai F. Kondoa gutianensis f.a. sp. nov., a novel ballistoconidium-forming yeast species isolated from plant leaves. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018;111:155-160 pubmed publisher
    ..spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of rRNA (LSU rRNA) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), complemented by physiological tests...
  41. Rice A. The HIV-1 Tat team gets bigger. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:179-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, Pagans and colleagues report that the lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 associates with Tat to stimulate RNA polymerase II elongation of the integrated provirus. Set7/9-KMT7 also methylates Tat, and this enhances Tat function. ..
  42. Floudas D, Hibbett D. Revisiting the taxonomy of Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) using a four gene dataset and extensive ITS sampling. Fungal Biol. 2015;119:679-719 pubmed publisher
    We amplified RPB1, RPB2, and the ITS and LSU ribosomal genes from species mostly in the phlebioid clade, focusing heavily in phanerochaetoid taxa...
  43. de Crop E, Nuytinck J, Van de Putte K, Wisitrassameewong K, Hackel J, Stubbe D, et al. A multi-gene phylogeny of Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) translated into a new infrageneric classification of the genus. Persoonia. 2017;38:58-80 pubmed publisher
    ..relationships within this genus, we combined a multi-gene molecular phylogeny, based on nuclear ITS, LSU, RPB2 and RPB1, with a morphological study, focussing on five important characteristics (fruit body type, ..
  44. Kuzdraliński A, Kot A, Szczerba H, Ostrowska A, Nowak M, Muszyńska M, et al. Novel PCR Assays for the Detection of Biological Agents Responsible for Wheat Rust Diseases: Puccinia triticina and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;27:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..For each pathogen, we validated 3 primer sets that target the second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and ?-tubulin 1 (tub1) genes...
  45. Southgate C, Zapp M, Green M. Activation of transcription by HIV-1 Tat protein tethered to nascent RNA through another protein. Nature. 1990;345:640-2 pubmed
    ..Our results further suggest that cellular proteins that bind specifically to TAR RNA or TAR DNA may not be essential for Tat-responsiveness. ..
  46. Hogan T, Nonnemacher M, Krebs F, Henderson A, Wigdahl B. HIV-1 Vpr binding to HIV-1 LTR C/EBP cis-acting elements and adjacent regions is sequence-specific. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003;57:41-8 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that Vpr may regulate the interaction of members of the C/EBP transcription factor family with the viral LTR. ..
  47. Ferrada E, Latorre B, Zoffoli J, Castillo A. Identification and Characterization of Botrytis Blossom Blight of Japanese Plums Caused by Botrytis cinerea and B. prunorum sp. nov. in Chile. Phytopathology. 2016;106:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60), and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) grouped B. prunorum isolates in a single cluster, distantly from B. cinerea and other Botrytis species...
  48. Imoulan A, Wu H, Lu W, Li Y, Li B, Yang R, et al. Beauveria medogensis sp. nov., a new fungus of the entomopathogenic genus from China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;139:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..separated from those species in the phylogenetic analyses including sequences of four nuclear genes (RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and Bloc)...
  49. Videira S, Groenewald J, Nakashima C, Braun U, Barreto R, de Wit P, et al. Mycosphaerellaceae - Chaos or clarity?. Stud Mycol. 2017;87:257-421 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study a multigene phylogenetic analysis (LSU, ITS and rpb2) was performed based on 415 isolates representing 297 taxa and incorporating ex-type strains where available...
  50. Zheng L, Kanagaraj R, Mihaljevic B, Schwendener S, Sartori A, Gerrits B, et al. MRE11 complex links RECQ5 helicase to sites of DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the MRN complex recruits RECQ5 to sites of DNA damage to regulate DNA repair. ..
  51. He X, Li Q, Peng W, Zhou J, Cao X, Wang D, et al. Intra- and inter-isolate variation of ribosomal and protein-coding genes in Pleurotus: implications for molecular identification and phylogeny on fungal groups. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:139 pubmed publisher
    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1?) are often used in fungal taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis...
  52. Kiernan R, Vanhulle C, Schiltz L, Adam E, Xiao H, Maudoux F, et al. HIV-1 tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylation. EMBO J. 1999;18:6106-18 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that acetylation of Tat regulates two discrete and functionally critical steps in transcription, binding to an RNAP II CTD-kinase and release of Tat from TAR RNA. ..
  53. Xiao H, Palhan V, Yang Y, Roeder R. TIP30 has an intrinsic kinase activity required for up-regulation of a subset of apoptotic genes. EMBO J. 2000;19:956-63 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a molecular mechanism for TIP30/CC3 function and suggest a novel pathway for regulating apoptosis. ..
  54. Okamoto T. [Positive and negative regulation of transcription from HIV provirus]. Uirusu. 2011;61:81-9 pubmed
    ..HIV is unique in that it contains virus-specific transcriptional activator called Tat. ..
  55. Rocha L, Laurence M, Proctor R, McCormick S, Summerell B, Liew E. Variation in type A trichothecene production and trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Fusarium goolgardi from natural ecosystems of Australia. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:4577-94 pubmed publisher
    ..phylogenies inferred from DNA sequences of genes encoding the RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits as well as the trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI), F...
  56. Ke X, Lu M, Wang J. Identification of Fusarium solani species complex from infected zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016;28:688-692 pubmed
    ..D1 and D2 of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS plus LSU), and the RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB2), showed 99.9-100% homology to Fusarium solani species complex sequences...
  57. Sklenář F, Jurjevic Z, Zalar P, Frisvad J, Visagie C, Kolařík M, et al. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti. Stud Mycol. 2017;88:161-236 pubmed publisher
    ..Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect...
  58. Kuuskeri J, Mäkelä M, Isotalo J, Oksanen I, Lundell T. Lignocellulose-converting enzyme activity profiles correlate with molecular systematics and phylogeny grouping in the incoherent genus Phlebia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota). BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:217 pubmed publisher
    ..rRNA-encoding (5.8S, partial LSU) and two protein-encoding gene (gapdh, rpb2) sequences were adopted for the evolutionary analysis, and ITS sequences (ITS1+5...
  59. van Nieuwenhuijzen E, Houbraken J, Meijer M, Adan O, Samson R. Aureobasidium melanogenum: a native of dark biofinishes on oil treated wood. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2016;109:661-83 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of ITS and RPB2 were used to identify the culturable Aureobasidium species composition in mould stained wood surfaces with and ..
  60. Otto A, Laub A, Wendt L, Porzel A, Schmidt J, Palfner G, et al. Chilenopeptins A and B, Peptaibols from the Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori KSH 883. J Nat Prod. 2016;79:929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A taxonomic study of the strain using molecular data of the ITS, EF1-α, and RPB2 barcoding genes confirmed the position of the isolated strain within the S...
  61. Haight J, Laursen G, Glaeser J, Taylor L. Phylogeny of Fomitopsis pinicola: a species complex. Mycologia. 2016;: pubmed
    ..the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), the TEF1 gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-?, and the RPB2 gene encoding the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II for collections across all major geographic regions ..
  62. Jančič S, Nguyen H, Frisvad J, Zalar P, Schroers H, Seifert K, et al. A Taxonomic Revision of the Wallemia sebi Species Complex. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125933 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (MCM7), pre-rRNA processing protein (TSR1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and a new marker 3´-phosphoadenosine-5´-phosphatase (HAL2), confirmed the previous ..
  63. Wu Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor R. Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and Tat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7153-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Tat may function to alter RNA polymerase II, which is paused due to its binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA with resultant stimulation of its transcriptional elongation properties. ..
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    ..bound to RNAP II, Mg(B) is coordinated by the beta and gamma phosphates of the NTP, Rpb1 residues D481 and D483 and Rpb2 residue D837. Rpb2 residue D837 is highly conserved across species...
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