Gene Symbol: POLM
Description: DNA polymerase mu
Alias: Pol Mu, Tdt-N, DNA-directed DNA/RNA polymerase mu, Pol iota, polymerase (DNA) mu, polymerase (DNA-directed), mu, terminal transferase
Species: human
Products:     POLM

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Wu X, Guo D, Rechkoblit O, Taylor J, Geacintov N, et al. Lesion bypass activities of human DNA polymerase mu. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44582-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into the biochemistry of human Polmu and show that efficient translesion synthesis activity is not strictly confined to the Y family polymerases. ..
  2. Nick McElhinny S, Ramsden D. Polymerase mu is a DNA-directed DNA/RNA polymerase. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2309-15 pubmed
    ..We show here that polymerase mu (pol mu), implicated in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, incorporates both ..
  3. Dominguez O, Ruiz J, Lain de Lera T, Garcia Diaz M, Gonzalez M, Kirchhoff T, et al. DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu), homologous to TdT, could act as a DNA mutator in eukaryotic cells. EMBO J. 2000;19:1731-42 pubmed
    A novel DNA polymerase has been identified in human cells. Human DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu), consisting of 494 amino acids, has 41% identity to terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT)...
  4. Martín M, García Ortiz M, Gomez Bedoya A, Esteban V, Guerra S, Blanco L. A specific N-terminal extension of the 8 kDa domain is required for DNA end-bridging by human Pol? and Pol?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:9105-16 pubmed publisher
  5. Martín M, Juarez R, Blanco L. DNA-binding determinants promoting NHEJ by human Pol?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:11389-403 pubmed publisher
  6. Andrade P, Martín M, Juarez R, López de Saro F, Blanco L. Limited terminal transferase in human DNA polymerase mu defines the required balance between accuracy and efficiency in NHEJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16203-8 pubmed publisher
    DNA polymerase mu (Polmu) is a family X member implicated in DNA repair, with template-directed and terminal transferase (template-independent) activities...
  7. Juarez R, Ruiz J, Nick McElhinny S, Ramsden D, Blanco L. A specific loop in human DNA polymerase mu allows switching between creative and DNA-instructed synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:4572-82 pubmed
    Human DNA polymerase mu (Polmu) is a family X member that has terminal transferase activity but, in spite of a non-orthodox selection of the template information, displays its maximal catalytic efficiency in DNA-templated reactions...
  8. Ruiz J, Lucas D, García Palomero E, Saez A, Gonzalez M, Piris M, et al. Overexpression of human DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu) in a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line affects the somatic hypermutation rate. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5861-73 pubmed
    DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu) is a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase closely related to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), and prone to induce template/primer misalignments and misincorporation...
  9. Esteban V, Martín M, Blanco L. The BRCT domain and the specific loop 1 of human Pol? are targets of Cdk2/cyclin A phosphorylation. DNA Repair (Amst). 2013;12:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Pol? plays this dual role due to its template-dependent and terminal transferase (template-independent) polymerization activities...

More Information


  1. Duvauchelle J, Blanco L, Fuchs R, Cordonnier A. Human DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu) exhibits an unusual replication slippage ability at AAF lesion. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2061-7 pubmed
    ..was not detected in SV40-transformed fibroblasts or in HeLa cell extracts unless purified human DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu) was added...
  2. Matsumoto T, Go K, Hyodo M, Koiwai K, Maezawa S, Hayano T, et al. BRCT domain of DNA polymerase ? has DNA-binding activity and promotes the DNA polymerization activity. Genes Cells. 2012;17:790-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, which, like pol ?, belongs to the X family DNA polymerases, also bound to mpdDNA through its amino-terminal region. ..
  3. Covo S, Blanco L, Livneh Z. Lesion bypass by human DNA polymerase mu reveals a template-dependent, sequence-independent nucleotidyl transferase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:859-65 pubmed
    DNA polymerase mu (pol mu), which is related to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and DNA polymerase beta, is thought to be involved in non-homologous end joining and V(D)J recombination...
  4. Mahajan K, Nick McElhinny S, Mitchell B, Ramsden D. Association of DNA polymerase mu (pol mu) with Ku and ligase IV: role for pol mu in end-joining double-strand break repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5194-202 pubmed
    Mammalian DNA polymerase mu (pol mu) is related to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, but its biological role is not yet clear. We show here that after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR), levels of pol mu protein increase...
  5. Nick McElhinny S, Havener J, Garcia Diaz M, Juarez R, Bebenek K, Kee B, et al. A gradient of template dependence defines distinct biological roles for family X polymerases in nonhomologous end joining. Mol Cell. 2005;19:357-66 pubmed
    ..We show here that pol mu and pol lambda are similarly recruited by NHEJ factors to fill gaps when ends have partially complementary ..
  6. Martín M, Garcia Ortiz M, Esteban V, Blanco L. Ribonucleotides and manganese ions improve non-homologous end joining by human Pol?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2428-36 pubmed publisher
    Human DNA polymerase mu (Pol?), a family X member involved in DNA repair, has both template-directed and terminal transferase (template-independent) activities...
  7. Matsuda A, Miyashita M, Matsumoto S, Sakurazawa N, Takahashi G, Matsutani T, et al. Comparison between metallic stent and transanal decompression tube for malignant large-bowel obstruction. J Surg Res. 2016;205:474-481 pubmed publisher
    ..Preoperative SEMS insertion for MLBO is effective with at least equivalent short-term outcomes and superior preoperative quality of life compared with decompression using TDT. ..
  8. Chiu A, Pan L, Li Z, Ely S, Chadburn A, Knowles D. DNA polymerase mu gene expression in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: an analysis utilizing in situ hybridization. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1349-55 pubmed
    DNA polymerase mu (pol mu) is a novel error-prone DNA repair enzyme bearing significant structural homology with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase...
  9. Qi J, Wan D, Ma H, Liu Y, Gong R, Qu X, et al. Deciphering Carbamoylpolyoxamic Acid Biosynthesis Reveals Unusual Acetylation Cycle Associated with Tandem Reduction and Sequential Hydroxylation. Cell Chem Biol. 2016;23:935-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, we verified that PolM, a previously annotated dehydrogenase, catalyzes an unprecedented tandem reduction of acyl-phosphate to aldehyde, ..
  10. Moon A, Pryor J, Ramsden D, Kunkel T, Bebenek K, Pedersen L. Sustained active site rigidity during synthesis by human DNA polymerase μ. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that specific loop 1 residues contribute to Pol μ's unique ability to catalyze template-dependent NHEJ of DSBs with unpaired 3' ends. ..
  11. Aza A, Martín M, Juarez R, Blanco L, Terrados G. DNA expansions generated by human Pol? on iterative sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:253-63 pubmed publisher
    Polµ is the only DNA polymerase equipped with template-directed and terminal transferase activities...
  12. Haracska L, Johnson R, Unk I, Phillips B, Hurwitz J, Prakash L, et al. Targeting of human DNA polymerase iota to the replication machinery via interaction with PCNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14256-61 pubmed
    ..The interaction of hPoliota with PCNA implies that the targeting of this polymerase to the replication machinery stalled at a lesion site is achieved via this association. ..
  13. Moon A, Gosavi R, Kunkel T, Pedersen L, Bebenek K. Creative template-dependent synthesis by human polymerase mu. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This remarkable divergence from canonical 3'-end gap filling is consistent with data on end-joining substrate specificity in cells, and provides insights into polymerase substrate choices during NHEJ. ..
  14. Hoeller D, Hecker C, Wagner S, Rogov V, Dötsch V, Dikic I. E3-independent monoubiquitination of ubiquitin-binding proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:891-8 pubmed
    ..This modification is mechanistically and functionally distinct from E3-mediated and growth factor-dependent monoubiquitination. ..
  15. Washington M, Minko I, Johnson R, Wolfle W, Harris T, Lloyd R, et al. Efficient and error-free replication past a minor-groove DNA adduct by the sequential action of human DNA polymerases iota and kappa. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5687-93 pubmed
    ..Based upon these observations, we suggest that an important biological role of Poliota and Polkappa is to act sequentially to carry out the efficient and accurate bypass of highly distorting minor-groove DNA adducts of the purine bases. ..
  16. Moon A, Pryor J, Ramsden D, Kunkel T, Bebenek K, Pedersen L. Structural accommodation of ribonucleotide incorporation by the DNA repair enzyme polymerase Mu. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9138-9148 pubmed publisher
  17. Sastre Moreno G, Pryor J, Díaz Talavera A, Ruiz J, Ramsden D, Blanco L. Pol? tumor variants decrease the efficiency and accuracy of NHEJ. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:10018-10031 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides the first demonstration that mutations affecting Pol? identified in tumors can alter the efficiency and fidelity of NHEJ...
  18. Martín M, Blanco L. Decision-making during NHEJ: a network of interactions in human Pol? implicated in substrate recognition and end-bridging. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:7923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Loop1 is a flexible piece of Pol? which has a critical role during terminal transferase and end-joining activities: it acts as a pseudo-template when the template strand is discontinuous or ..
  19. Simonis N, Rual J, Lemmens I, Boxus M, Hirozane Kishikawa T, Gatot J, et al. Host-pathogen interactome mapping for HTLV-1 and -2 retroviruses. Retrovirology. 2012;9:26 pubmed publisher
  20. Roettger M, Fiala K, Sompalli S, Dong Y, Suo Z. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of the fidelity of human DNA polymerase mu. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13827-38 pubmed
    ..In addition to a slow and distributive DNA polymerase activity, Polmu was identified to possess a weak strand-displacement activity. The potential biological roles of Polmu are discussed. ..
  21. Shimazaki N, Fujita K, Koiwai O. [Expression and function of terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase and discovery of novel DNA polymerase mu]. Seikagaku. 2002;74:227-32 pubmed
  22. Aoufouchi S, Flatter E, Dahan A, Faili A, Bertocci B, Storck S, et al. Two novel human and mouse DNA polymerases of the polX family. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3684-93 pubmed
    ..novel mouse and human DNA polymerases: one (pol lambda) has homology with DNA polymerase beta while the other one (pol mu) is closer to terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase...