Gene Symbol: PNPLA2
Description: patatin like phospholipase domain containing 2
Alias: 1110001C14Rik, ATGL, FP17548, PEDF-R, TTS-2.2, TTS2, iPLA2zeta, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2, IPLA2-zeta, TTS2.2, adipose triglyceride lipase, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, desnutrin, mutant patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2, pigment epithelium-derived factor, transport-secretion protein 2.2, triglyceride hydrolase
Species: human
Products:     PNPLA2

Top Publications

  1. Zimmermann R, Lass A, Haemmerle G, Zechner R. Fate of fat: the role of adipose triglyceride lipase in lipolysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..PAT) family of lipid droplet binding proteins and the identification of a novel TG hydrolase named adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
  2. Lass A, Zimmermann R, Haemmerle G, Riederer M, Schoiswohl G, Schweiger M, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis of cellular fat stores is activated by CGI-58 and defective in Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome. Cell Metab. 2006;3:309-19 pubmed
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified as an important triacylglycerol (TG) hydrolase promoting the catabolism of stored fat in adipose and nonadipose tissues...
  3. Badin P, Louche K, Mairal A, Liebisch G, Schmitz G, Rustan A, et al. Altered skeletal muscle lipase expression and activity contribute to insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes. 2011;60:1734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..DAGs are by-products of lipolysis consecutive to TAG hydrolysis by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and are subsequently hydrolyzed by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)...
  4. Wilson P, Gardner S, Lambie N, Commans S, Crowther D. Characterization of the human patatin-like phospholipase family. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1940-9 pubmed
    ..Given the observed conservation of the patatin fold and lipase motif in all human PNPLAs, a single nomenclature to describe the PNPLA family is proposed. ..
  5. Mairal A, Langin D, Arner P, Hoffstedt J. Human adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is not regulated by obesity and exhibits low in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity. Diabetologia. 2006;49:1629-36 pubmed
    The recent identification of murine adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, now known as patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 [PNPLA2]), gene product of Pnpla2, has questioned the unique role of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, now ..
  6. Notari L, Baladron V, Aroca Aguilar J, Balko N, Heredia R, Meyer C, et al. Identification of a lipase-linked cell membrane receptor for pigment epithelium-derived factor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38022-37 pubmed
    ..Recently, PEDF-R (TTS-2.2/independent phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))zeta and mouse desnutrin/ATGL) has been described in adipose cells as a member of the new calcium-independent PLA(2)/nutrin/patatin-like ..
  7. Schoenborn V, Heid I, Vollmert C, Lingenhel A, Adams T, Hopkins P, et al. The ATGL gene is associated with free fatty acids, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55:1270-5 pubmed
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently described to predominantly perform the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis and therefore seems to play a pivotal role in the lipolytic catabolism of stored fat in adipose tissue...
  8. Fischer J, Lefèvre C, Morava E, Mussini J, Laforet P, Negre Salvayre A, et al. The gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is mutated in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. Nat Genet. 2007;39:28-30 pubmed
    ..disease subgroup characterized by mild myopathy, absence of ichthyosis and mutations in both alleles of adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2, also known as ATGL)...
  9. Kienesberger P, Oberer M, Lass A, Zechner R. Mammalian patatin domain containing proteins: a family with diverse lipolytic activities involved in multiple biological functions. J Lipid Res. 2009;50 Suppl:S63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to summarize current knowledge of PNPLA proteins and to document their emerging importance in lipid and energy homeostasis. ..

More Information


  1. Nielsen T, Vendelbo M, Jessen N, Pedersen S, Jørgensen J, Lund S, et al. Fasting, but not exercise, increases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein and reduces G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2) protein and mRNA content in human adipose tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was designed to test whether fasting and exercise affect mRNA and protein levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2), a recently discovered ATGL inhibitor, in humans...
  2. Wang H, Bell M, Sreenivasan U, Sreenevasan U, Hu H, Liu J, et al. Unique regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) by perilipin 5, a lipid droplet-associated protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated mechanisms by which three perilipin proteins control lipolysis by adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key lipase in adipocytes and non-adipose cells...
  3. Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Coker R, Ranganathan G, Phanavanh B, Rasouli N, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression in human adipose tissue and muscle. Role in insulin resistance and response to training and pioglitazone. Metabolism. 2011;60:1012-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte and muscle triglyceride hydrolysis, and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is an essential cofactor...
  4. Akiyama M, Sakai K, Ogawa M, McMillan J, Sawamura D, Shimizu H. Novel duplication mutation in the patatin domain of adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) in neutral lipid storage disease with severe myopathy. Muscle Nerve. 2007;36:856-9 pubmed
    Recently, mutations in PNPLA2 encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) were reported to underlie a neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) subgroup characterized by mild myopathy and the absence of ichthyosis...
  5. Nagy H, Paar M, Heier C, Moustafa T, Hofer P, Haemmerle G, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase activity is inhibited by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:588-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is required for efficient mobilization of triglyceride (TG) stores in adipose tissue and non-adipose tissues. Therefore, ATGL strongly determines the availability of fatty acids for metabolic reactions...
  6. Alsted T, Nybo L, Schweiger M, Fledelius C, Jacobsen P, Zimmermann R, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase in human skeletal muscle is upregulated by exercise training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was identified as a TG-specific lipase in various rodent tissues...
  7. Schweiger M, Schoiswohl G, Lass A, Radner F, Haemmerle G, Malli R, et al. The C-terminal region of human adipose triglyceride lipase affects enzyme activity and lipid droplet binding. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17211-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) generating diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. The enzyme requires the activator protein CGI-58 (or ABHD5) for full enzymatic activity...
  8. Jenkins C, Mancuso D, Yan W, Sims H, Gibson B, Gross R. Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48968-75 pubmed
    ..motifs identified a novel subfamily of three putative iPLA2/lipase family members designated iPLA2epsilon, iPLA2zeta, and iPLA2eta (previously named adiponutrin, TTS-2...
  9. Kobayashi K, Inoguchi T, Maeda Y, Nakashima N, Kuwano A, Eto E, et al. The lack of the C-terminal domain of adipose triglyceride lipase causes neutral lipid storage disease through impaired interactions with lipid droplets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2877-84 pubmed publisher report siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) with a novel mutation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and determine whether the C-terminal part of ATGL containing the hydrophobic region plays a role ..
  10. Schweiger M, Lass A, Zimmermann R, Eichmann T, Zechner R. Neutral lipid storage disease: genetic disorders caused by mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase/PNPLA2 or CGI-58/ABHD5. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, two genes, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2) and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58/ABHD5), have been shown to cause NLSD...
  11. Smirnova E, Goldberg E, Makarova K, Lin L, Brown W, Jackson C. ATGL has a key role in lipid droplet/adiposome degradation in mammalian cells. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:106-13 pubmed
    ..Recently, a novel triglyceride lipase (adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)) that catalyses the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis in adipocyte LDs was identified...
  12. Granneman J, Moore H, Granneman R, Greenberg A, Obin M, Zhu Z. Analysis of lipolytic protein trafficking and interactions in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5726-35 pubmed perilipin A (Plin)-containing droplets and increases the colocalization of adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (Atgl) with its coactivator, Abhd5...
  13. Zimmermann R, Strauss J, Haemmerle G, Schoiswohl G, Birner Gruenberger R, Riederer M, et al. Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase. Science. 2004;306:1383-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis...
  14. Zechner R, Kienesberger P, Haemmerle G, Zimmermann R, Lass A. Adipose triglyceride lipase and the lipolytic catabolism of cellular fat stores. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:3-21 pubmed publisher
    ..lipase (MGL), discovered more than 40 years ago, as well as the relatively recently identified adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
  15. Duncan R, Wang Y, Ahmadian M, Lu J, Sarkadi Nagy E, Sul H. Characterization of desnutrin functional domains: critical residues for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in cultured cells. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:309-17 pubmed publisher
    Murine desnutrin/human ATGL is a triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase with a predicted catalytic dyad within an alpha-beta hydrolase fold in the N-terminal region...
  16. Das S, Eder S, Schauer S, Diwoky C, Temmel H, Guertl B, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase contributes to cancer-associated cachexia. Science. 2011;333:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the inhibition of lipolysis through genetic ablation of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) or hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) ameliorates certain features of cancer-associated cachexia (..
  17. Mason R, Meex R, Lee Young R, Canny B, Watt M. Phosphorylation of adipose triglyceride lipase Ser(404) is not related to 5'-AMPK activation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol lipolysis and whole body energy metabolism at rest and ..
  18. Johansen C, Gallinger Z, Wang J, Ban M, Young T, Bjerregaard P, et al. Rare ATGL haplotypes are associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations in the Greenland Inuit. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:3-12 pubmed
    To genotype common genetic variants found in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene and test them for association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Greenland Inuit...
  19. Nielsen T, Kampmann U, Nielsen R, Jessen N, Orskov L, Pedersen S, et al. Reduced mRNA and protein expression of perilipin A and G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) in human adipose tissue in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..FFA levels induced by insulin withdrawal are accompanied by increased adipose tissue (AT) contents of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and/or altered intracellular ATGL regulation...
  20. Bezaire V, Mairal A, Ribet C, Lefort C, Girousse A, Jocken J, et al. Contribution of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase to lipolysis in hMADS adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18282-91 pubmed publisher
    Lipolysis is the catabolic pathway by which triglycerides are hydrolyzed into fatty acids. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have the capacity to hydrolyze in vitro the first ester bond of ..
  21. Villena J, Roy S, Sarkadi Nagy E, Kim K, Sul H. Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin domain-containing protein, is induced by fasting and glucocorticoids: ectopic expression of desnutrin increases triglyceride hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47066-75 pubmed
    ..0-kb mRNA coding for a putative protein that we have designated as desnutrin. The novel gene is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue, and its expression is induced early during 3T3-L1 ..
  22. Jian W, Yu S, Tang M, Duan H, Huang J. A combination of the main constituents of Fufang Xueshuantong Capsules shows protective effects against streptozotocin-induced retinal lesions in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;182:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These constituents can be used as the base to optimize a new drug for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, and can be selected for quality control of Fufang Xueshuantong Capsules. ..
  23. Pan Y, Luo Z, Zhuo M, Wei C, Chen G, Song Y. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated Cd-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in zebrafish Danio rerio. Aquat Toxicol. 2018;199:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..palmitoyl transferase 1 (cpt1), hormone-sensitive lipase alpha (hsla), and adipose triacylglyceride lipase (atgl)...
  24. Marinozzi M, Pandolfi L, Malatesta M, Colombo M, Collico V, Lievens P, et al. Innovative approach to safely induce controlled lipolysis by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-mediated hyperthermic treatment. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;93:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, transcript expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key gene involved in canonical lipolysis, was not modulated upon SMHT, suggesting the ..
  25. Jarc E, Kump A, Malavašič P, Eichmann T, Zimmermann R, Petan T. Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2018;1863:247-265 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival ..
  26. Peng Y, Miao H, Wu S, Yang W, Zhang Y, Xie G, et al. ABHD5 interacts with BECN1 to regulate autophagy and tumorigenesis of colon cancer independent of PNPLA2. Autophagy. 2016;12:2167-2182 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported a tumor suppressor role of ABHD5 (abhydrolase domain containing 5), a co-activator of PNPLA2 (patatin like phospholipase domain containing 2) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
  27. Zhang Y, Li S, Donelan W, Xie C, Wang H, Wu Q, et al. Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (betatrophin) is a stress-response protein that down-regulates expression of adipocyte triglyceride lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1861:130-137 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, up-regulating early growth response transcription factor (Egr1) and down-regulating adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
  28. Takagi A, Ikeda Y, Kobayashi K, Kobayashi K, Ikeda Y, Kozawa J, et al. Newly developed selective immunoinactivation assay revealed reduction in adipose triglyceride lipase activity in peripheral leucocytes from patients with idiopathic triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:646-651 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary TGCV carries ultra-rare genetic mutations in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a rate-liming enzyme that hydrolyzes intracellular TG in adipose and non-adipose tissues...
  29. Ishida T, Yoshida T, Shinohara K, Cao K, Nakahama K, Morita I, et al. Potential role of sirtuin 1 in Müller glial cells in mice choroidal neovascularization. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183775 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, sirtuin 1 activation in Müller glial cells suppressed the development of choroidal neovascularization, and therefore, might be a therapeutic option. ..
  30. Polyák A, Winkler Z, Kuti D, Ferenczi S, Kovacs K. Brown adipose tissue in obesity: Fractalkine-receptor dependent immune cell recruitment affects metabolic-related gene expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1861:1614-1622 pubmed publisher
    ..selectively attenuated the expression of Tnfa, Il1a and Ccl2, increased BAT expression of lipolytic enzymes (Atgl, Hsl and Mgtl) and upregulated genes involved thermo-metabolism (Ucp1, Pparg Pgc1a) in response to FatED...
  31. Qiu H, Jin M, Li Y, Lu Y, Hou Y, Zhou Q. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea) by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169985 pubmed publisher
    ..Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO ..
  32. Wang G, Cline M, Gilbert E. Responses to peripheral neuropeptide Y in avian adipose tissue are diet, depot, and time specific. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;262:12-19 pubmed publisher
    ..expression changes in the abdominal fat at 3?h post-injection, whereas there were decreases in AGPAT2, adipose triglyceride lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4 and NPY mRNA in the clavicular fat of chicks fed the HP diet...
  33. Askou A, Aagaard L, Kostic C, Arsenijevic Y, Hollensen A, Bek T, et al. Multigenic lentiviral vectors for combined and tissue-specific expression of miRNA- and protein-based antiangiogenic factors. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2015;2:14064 pubmed publisher
  34. Teague A, Fields D, Aston C, Short K, Lyons T, Chernausek S. Cord blood adipokines, neonatal anthropometrics and postnatal growth in offspring of Hispanic and Native American women with diabetes mellitus. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal DM results in fetal hyperleptinemia independent of adiposity. HMWA appears to influence postnatal growth. Thus, in utero exposure to DM imparts hormonal differences on infants even without aberrant growth. ..
  35. Jia L, Li W, Li J, Li Y, Song H, Luan Y, et al. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by up-regulating SIRT1 expression and deacetylase activity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36209 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that LBP increases acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein expression and decreases fatty acid synthase (FAS) by activating the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK ..
  36. Wang J, Liu Y, Song L, Lv F, Xu X, San A, et al. Novel Mutations in SERPINF1 Result in Rare Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type VI. Calcif Tissue Int. 2017;100:55-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified five novel mutations in SERPINF1 and confirmed the diagnostic value of serum PEDF level for the first time in Chinese patients with the extremely rare OI type VI. ..
  37. Rey Funes M, Larrayoz I, Fernández J, Contartese D, Rolón F, Inserra P, et al. Methylene blue prevents retinal damage in an experimental model of ischemic proliferative retinopathy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R1011-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests the use of methylene blue as a new treatment to prevent or decrease retinal damage in the context of ischemic proliferative retinopathy. ..
  38. He T, Hu J, Yan G, Li L, Zhang D, Zhang Q, et al. Pigment epithelium-derived factor regulates microvascular permeability through adipose triglyceride lipase in sepsis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..antibody (PEDF-mAb) or recombinant lentivirus vectors targeting PEDF receptors, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and laminin receptor (LR)...
  39. Pan S, Cui Y, Dong X, Zhang T, Xing H. MicroRNA-130b attenuates dexamethasone-induced increase of lipid accumulation in porcine preadipocytes by suppressing PPAR-? expression. Oncotarget. 2017;8:87928-87943 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 and fat mass and obesity-associated gene, whereas expression as well as enzyme activity of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase were greatly increased...
  40. Obata A, Kubota N, Kubota T, Iwamoto M, Sato H, Sakurai Y, et al. Tofogliflozin Improves Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle and Accelerates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2016;157:1029-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase protein levels in the white adipose tissue as well as the gene expressions related to β-oxidation, ..
  41. Cerk I, Salzburger B, Boeszoermenyi A, Heier C, Pillip C, Romauch M, et al. A peptide derived from G0/G1 switch gene 2 acts as noncompetitive inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a small basic protein that functions as an endogenous inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key enzyme in intracellular lipolysis...
  42. Gómez Zorita S, Lasa A, Abendaño N, Fernández Quintela A, Mosqueda Solís A, Garcia Sobreviela M, et al. Phenolic compounds apigenin, hesperidin and kaempferol reduce in vitro lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. J Transl Med. 2017;15:237 pubmed publisher
    ..All compounds increased mRNA levels of atgl. Apigenin and hesperidin decreased fasn expression...
  43. Christensen B, Nellemann B, Jørgensen J, Pedersen S, Jessen N. Erythropoietin does not activate erythropoietin receptor signaling or lipolytic pathways in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in vivo. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:160 pubmed publisher addition to Epo-R signaling proteins (Akt, STAT5, p70s6k, LYN, and p38MAPK), activation of lipolytic pathways (ATGL, HSL, CGI-58, G0S2, Perilipin, Cidea, Cidec, AMPK, and ACC), and mitochondrial biogenesis (VDAC, HSP90, PDH, and ..
  44. Mulye M, Zapata B, Gilk S. Altering lipid droplet homeostasis affects Coxiella burnetii intracellular growth. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0192215 pubmed publisher
    ..burnetii growth at least 2-fold. Conversely, preventing LD lipolysis by inhibiting adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) with atglistatin almost completely blocked bacterial growth, suggesting LD breakdown is ..
  45. Phang W, Tan A, Gopinath S, Hashim O, Kiew L, Chen Y. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells. Int J Med Sci. 2016;13:330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. ..
  46. Ouyang H, Liu Q, Xu J, Zeng F, Pang X, Jebessa E, et al. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism. Poult Sci. 2016;95:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P < 0...
  47. Chen W, Jiang Y, Han J, Hu J, He T, Yan T, et al. Atgl deficiency induces podocyte apoptosis and leads to glomerular filtration barrier damage. FEBS J. 2017;284:1070-1081 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we have identified a role for the rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL; also called patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2), in renal lipid metabolism ..
  48. Li Z, Song Y, Chen X, Chen Z, Ding Q. Biological Modulation of Mouse RPE Cells in Response to Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Treatment. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;73:545-552 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism and to optimize the use of SDM as a novel method of treatment for retinal vascular diseases. ..
  49. Zhang W, Bu S, Mashek M, O Sullivan I, Sibai Z, Khan S, et al. Integrated Regulation of Hepatic Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Adipose Triacylglycerol Lipase and FoxO Proteins. Cell Rep. 2016;15:349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..effects on intrahepatic lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation via the regulation of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), which mediates the first step in lipolysis, and its inhibitor, the G0/S1 switch 2 gene (G0S2)...
  50. Hu J, Shen J, Xiong C, Zhu X, Deng Z. Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2018;66:1990-1998 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group...
  51. Huh J, Jung I, Piao L, Ha H, Chung M. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipocyte dysfunction in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:890-896 pubmed publisher
    ..decrease in adipose tissue mass by 8-OHdG was due to reduced adipocyte hypertrophy through induction of adipose triglyceride lipase and inhibition of fatty acid synthase expression...
  52. Natali A, Gastaldelli A, Camastra S, Baldi S, Quagliarini F, Minicocci I, et al. Metabolic consequences of adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency in humans: an in vivo study in patients with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1540-8 pubmed publisher
    The role of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in intermediate substrates metabolism has not been fully elucidated in humans...
  53. Mitra R, Le T, Gorjala P, Goodman O. Positive regulation of prostate cancer cell growth by lipid droplet forming and processing enzymes DGAT1 and ABHD5. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:631 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that DGAT1, ABHD5, ACAT1 and ATGL are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells compared to PBMCs and of these overexpressed genes, DGAT1 and ABHD5 aid ..
  54. Zhang X, Heckmann B, Campbell L, Liu J. G0S2: A small giant controller of lipolysis and adipose-liver fatty acid flux. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1146-1154 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) provided a major paradigm shift in the understanding of intracellular lipolysis in both adipocytes and nonadipocyte cells...
  55. Lord C, Ferguson D, Thomas G, Brown A, Schugar R, Burrows A, et al. Regulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Metabolism by CGI-58 Does Not Require ATGL Co-activation. Cell Rep. 2016;16:939-949 pubmed publisher
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) are critical regulators of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. CGI-58 is thought to regulate TAG mobilization by stimulating the enzymatic activity of ATGL...
  56. Jocken J, Smit E, Goossens G, Essers Y, van Baak M, Mensink M, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression in human skeletal muscle is type I (oxidative) fiber specific. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;129:535-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently the identification of a new lipase was reported: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
  57. Yoshida T, Akiba J, Matsui T, Nakamura K, Hisamoto T, Abe M, et al. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Prevents Hepatic Fat Storage, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Dietary Steatohepatitis of Mice. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1527-1536 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that PEDF supplementation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NASH. ..
  58. Wang J, Li L, Zhang Q, Liu Y, Lv F, Xu X, et al. Extremely low level of serum pigment epithelium-derived factor is a special biomarker of Chinese osteogenesis imperfecta patients with SERPINF1 mutations. Clin Chim Acta. 2018;478:216-221 pubmed publisher
  59. Johansson L, Johansson L, Danielsson P, Norgren S, Johansson S, Marcus C, et al. Genetic variance in the adiponutrin gene family and childhood obesity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5327 pubmed publisher
    ..053, p = 0.016, and rs2072907: beta = -0.049, p = 0.024). No associations were seen for PNPLA2, PNPLA4, and PNPLA5...
  60. Lasa A, Schweiger M, Kotzbeck P, Churruca I, Simón E, Zechner R, et al. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule...
  61. Shi H, Zhang C, Zhao W, Luo J, Loor J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta facilitates lipid secretion and catabolism of fatty acids in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:797-806 pubmed publisher
    ..on genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACACA and FASN), desaturation (SCD), hydrolysis and oxidation (PNPLA2 and CPT1A), transport and uptake (FABP3 and CD36), or triacylglycerol synthesis (DGAT1 and AGPAT6) in goat mammary ..
  62. Falero Perez J, Park S, Sorenson C, Sheibani N. PEDF expression affects retinal endothelial cell proangiogenic properties through alterations in cell adhesive mechanisms. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;313:C405-C420 pubmed publisher
  63. Mardian E, Bradley R, Aristizabal Henao J, Marvyn P, Moes K, Bombardier E, et al. Agpat4/Lpaat? deficiency highlights the molecular heterogeneity of epididymal and perirenal white adipose depots. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:2037-2050 pubmed publisher
    ..However, total epididymal TAG hydrolase activity was reduced, and there were significant decreases in total ATGL and reduced phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase at the S563 and S660 PKA-activation sites...
  64. Yang X, Huang Y, Sun C, Li J. Maternal Prenatal Folic Acid Supplementation Programs Offspring Lipid Metabolism by Aberrant DNA Methylation in Hepatic ATGL and Adipose LPL in Rats. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL were significantly decreased in offspring of FAS dams than in offspring of CON dams...
  65. Ghosh M, Niyogi S, Bhattacharyya M, Adak M, Nayak D, Chakrabarti S, et al. Ubiquitin Ligase COP1 Controls Hepatic Fat Metabolism by Targeting ATGL for Degradation. Diabetes. 2016;65:3561-3572 pubmed
    Optimal control of hepatic lipid metabolism is critical for organismal metabolic fitness. In liver, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) serves as a major triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase and controls the bulk of intracellular lipid turnover...
  66. Mora C, Pintado C, Rubio B, Mazuecos L, Lopez V, Fernandez A, et al. Central leptin regulates heart lipid content by selectively increasing PPAR ?/? expression. J Endocrinol. 2018;236:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?, encoded by Pparb/d) and their target genes, adipose triglyceride lipase (encoded by Pnpla2, herefater referred to as Atgl), hormone sensitive lipase (encoded by <..
  67. Hobart M, Fernie B, Stanley K, Lachmann P. C6 epitope expression by an unrelated antisense cDNA clone: an inadvertent surface-simulation mimotope. Proc Biol Sci. 1993;252:157-62 pubmed
  68. Subramanian P, Notario P, Becerra S. Pigment epithelium-derived factor receptor (PEDF-R): a plasma membrane-linked phospholipase with PEDF binding affinity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;664:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently identified PEDF-R, a new member of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 (PNPLA2) family with characteristics of a PEDF receptor...
  69. Pasanisi M, Missaglia S, Cassandrini D, Salerno F, Farina S, Andreini D, et al. Severe cardiomyopathy in a young patient with complete deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase due to a novel mutation in PNPLA2 gene. Int J Cardiol. 2016;207:165-7 pubmed publisher
  70. Ohkuma A, Noguchi S, Sugie H, Malicdan M, Fukuda T, Shimazu K, et al. Clinical and genetic analysis of lipid storage myopathies. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..carnitine deficiency (PCD); ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH for multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD); PNPLA2 for neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM); and ABHD5 for neutral lipid storage disease with ..
  71. Chen G, Zhou G, Aras S, He Z, Lucas S, Podgorski I, et al. Loss of ABHD5 promotes the aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13021 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, knockdown of ATGL, the best-known molecular target of ABHD5, impeded the proliferation and invasion, suggesting an ATGL-independent ..
  72. Olzmann J, Richter C, Kopito R. Spatial regulation of UBXD8 and p97/VCP controls ATGL-mediated lipid droplet turnover. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1345-50 pubmed publisher that UBXD8-mediated recruitment of p97/VCP to LDs increases LD size by inhibiting the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol hydrolysis...
  73. Chen J, Hong D, Wang Z, Yuan Y. A novel PNPLA2 mutation causes neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) presenting muscular dystrophic features with lipid storage and rimmed vacuoles. Clin Neuropathol. 2010;29:351-6 pubmed
    ..NLSDM) is a type of lipid storage myopathy arising due to a mutation in the PNPLA2 gene encoding an adipose triglyceride lipase responsible for the degradation of intracellular triglycerides...
  74. Missaglia S, Tasca E, Angelini C, Moro L, Tavian D. Novel missense mutations in PNPLA2 causing late onset and clinical heterogeneity of neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy in three siblings. Mol Genet Metab. 2015;115:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the PNPLA2 gene cause variable phenotypes of NLSD-M. PNPLA2 codes for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an enzyme that hydrolyses fatty acids from triacylglycerol...
  75. Xu J, Wang Y, Zhang S, Chen Y, Gu H, Dou X, et al. Exosomes containing differential expression of microRNA and mRNA in osteosarcoma that can predict response to chemotherapy. Oncotarget. 2017;8:75968-75978 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that exosomal RNA molecules are reliable biomarkers in classifying osteosarcoma with different chemotherapy sensitivity...
  76. Yang X, Li Y, Sun L, Liu Y, Ma C, Chen Y, et al. NaoXinTong Enhances Atorvastatin-induced Plaque Stability While Ameliorating Atorvastatin-induced Hepatic Inflammation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2017;69:55-64 pubmed publisher downregulating acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 while activating hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase, and comparative gene identification-58 expression...
  77. Qin S, Han H, Zhang K, Ding X, Bai S, Wang J, et al. Dietary fibre alleviates hepatic fat deposition via inhibiting lipogenic gene expression in meat ducks. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..was found about the effect of DF on hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), transcription as well as caecal digesta short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)...
  78. Biswas D, Ghosh M, Kumar S, Chakrabarti P. PPAR?-ATGL pathway improves muscle mitochondrial metabolism: implication in aging. FASEB J. 2016;30:3822-3834 pubmed
    b>Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) maintains an optimum mitochondrial function putatively by generating cognate ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), which, together with PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC1?), regulate ..
  79. Dichlberger A, Schlager S, Maaninka K, Schneider W, Kovanen P. Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates eicosanoid production in activated human mast cells. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:2471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the functional role of adipose TG lipase (ATGL) in TG hydrolysis and the ensuing release of AA as substrate for eicosanoid generation by activated human primary ..
  80. Hao M, Li Y, Liu L, Yuan X, Gao Y, Guan Z, et al. The design and synthesis of a novel compound of berberine and baicalein that inhibits the efficacy of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:5506-5512 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that BBS could up-regulate the expression of the Atgl gene and down-regulate the mRNA expression of Srebp-1c, Fasn, Scd1, and Acc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  81. Sugioka K, Saito A, Kusaka S, Kuniyoshi K, Shimomura Y. Identification of vitreous proteins in retinopathy of prematurity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;488:483-488 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteins specific to or decreased in ROP, if confirmed in future studies, may provide clue to understanding its pathogenesis. ..
  82. Tsai S, Tsao L, Chang S, Ho T, Tung K, Wu A, et al. Pigment epithelium-derived factor short peptides facilitate full-thickness cutaneous wound healing by promoting epithelial basal cell and hair follicle stem cell proliferation. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14:4853-4861 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying mechanisms may involve activation of basal cell proliferation and mobilization of hair follicle stem cells...
  83. Brown A, Mark Brown J. Critical roles for ?/? hydrolase domain 5 (ABHD5)/comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) at the lipid droplet interface and beyond. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1233-1241 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clear that CGI-58 can regulate TAG hydrolysis by activating the major TAG hydrolase adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), yet CGI-58 can also regulate lipid metabolism via mechanisms that do not involve ATGL...
  84. Pham T, He J, Kakazu A, Jun B, Bazan N, Bazan H. Defining a mechanistic link between pigment epithelium-derived factor, docosahexaenoic acid, and corneal nerve regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:18486-18499 pubmed publisher
    ..The PEDF-R inhibitor, atglistatin, blocked all of these changes in the cornea and TG. In conclusion, we uncovered here an active cornea-TG axis, driven by PEDF-R activation, that fosters axon outgrowth in the cornea. ..
  85. Sathyanarayan A, Mashek M, Mashek D. ATGL Promotes Autophagy/Lipophagy via SIRT1 to Control Hepatic Lipid Droplet Catabolism. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic lipid droplet (LD) catabolism is thought to occur via cytosolic lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) or through autophagy of LDs, a process known as lipophagy...