plasminogen

Summary

Gene Symbol: plasminogen
Description: plasminogen
Alias: plasminogen, plasmin
Species: human
Products:     plasminogen

Top Publications

  1. Chung M, Tonry J, Narayanan A, Manes N, Mackie R, Gutting B, et al. Bacillus anthracis interacts with plasmin(ogen) to evade C3b-dependent innate immunity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18119 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis spores, and found that plasminogen (PLG) is a major surface-bound protein...
  2. Matta S, Agarwal S, Bhatnagar R. Surface localized and extracellular Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus anthracis is a plasminogen binding protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:2111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis. Human plasminogen predominantly interacted with the rGapA isoform at physiological concentrations and the interaction was found ..
  3. Koch T, Reuter M, Barthel D, Böhm S, van den Elsen J, Kraiczy P, et al. Staphylococcus aureus proteins Sbi and Efb recruit human plasmin to degrade complement C3 and C3b. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47638 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (Sbi) and extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) bind C3/C3b simultaneously with plasminogen. Bound plasminogen is converted by bacterial activator staphylokinase or by host-specific urokinase-type ..
  4. Heidtmann H, Nettelbeck D, Mingels A, Jager R, Welker H, Kontermann R. Generation of angiostatin-like fragments from plasminogen by prostate-specific antigen. Br J Cancer. 1999;81:1269-73 pubmed
    ..a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastasis, is a biologically active fragment of plasminogen, containing the kringle domains 1-4. It is generated from plasminogen by limited proteolysis...
  5. Cao Y, Ji R, Davidson D, Schaller J, Marti D, Söhndel S, et al. Kringle domains of human angiostatin. Characterization of the anti-proliferative activity on endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:29461-7 pubmed
    ..1995) Nat. Med. 1, 27-31). Angiostatin was shown to represent an internal fragment of plasminogen containing the first four kringle structures...
  6. Moscato S, Pratesi F, Sabbatini A, Chimenti D, Scavuzzo M, Passatino R, et al. Surface expression of a glycolytic enzyme, alpha-enolase, recognized by autoantibodies in connective tissue disorders. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:3575-84 pubmed
    ..b>Plasminogen binding was studied by an immunoenzymatic assay...
  7. Luo S, Poltermann S, Kunert A, Rupp S, Zipfel P. Immune evasion of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans: Pra1 is a Factor H, FHL-1 and plasminogen binding surface protein. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant Pra1 binds Factor H, FHL-1 and also plasminogen. Attached to Pra1, the three human proteins are functionally active...
  8. Burysek L, Syrovets T, Simmet T. The serine protease plasmin triggers expression of MCP-1 and CD40 in human primary monocytes via activation of p38 MAPK and janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33509-17 pubmed
    The mechanism of proinflammatory activation of human monocytes by plasmin is unknown...
  9. Wajih N, Sane D. Angiostatin selectively inhibits signaling by hepatocyte growth factor in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Blood. 2003;101:1857-63 pubmed
    ..an inhibitor of angiogenesis, contains 3 to 4 kringle domains that are derived from proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. The antiangiogenic effects of angiostatin occur, in part, from its inhibition of endothelial cell surface ..

More Information

Publications86

  1. Ranson M, Andronicos N. Plasminogen binding and cancer: promises and pitfalls. Front Biosci. 2003;8:s294-304 pubmed
    The urokinase plasminogen activation system is a key modulator of the tissue remodeling processes required for tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
  2. Ge J, Catt D, Gregory R. Streptococcus mutans surface alpha-enolase binds salivary mucin MG2 and human plasminogen. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Surface enolase was demonstrated to bind to human plasminogen and salivary mucin MG2. The results suggested a role for enolase in S...
  3. Pluskota E, Soloviev D, Bdeir K, Cines D, Plow E. Integrin alphaMbeta2 orchestrates and accelerates plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis by neutrophils. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18063-72 pubmed
    ..on the surface of many cell types, where urokinase receptor (uPAR)-bound urokinase (uPA) activates cell-bound plasminogen (Plg)...
  4. Grosskinsky S, Schott M, Brenner C, Cutler S, Kraiczy P, Zipfel P, et al. Borrelia recurrentis employs a novel multifunctional surface protein with anti-complement, anti-opsonic and invasive potential to escape innate immunity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4858 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate that it binds human complement regulators, Factor H, CFHR-1, and simultaneously, the host protease plasminogen. Cell surface bound factor H was found to retain its activity and to confer resistance to complement attack...
  5. Sun H, Ringdahl U, Homeister J, Fay W, Engleberg N, Yang A, et al. Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection. Science. 2004;305:1283-6 pubmed
    ..a common human pathogen, secrete streptokinase, which activates the host's blood clot-dissolving protein, plasminogen. Streptokinase is highly specific for human plasminogen, exhibiting little or no activity against other ..
  6. Jong A, Chen S, Stins M, Kim K, Tuan T, Huang S. Binding of Candida albicans enolase to plasmin(ogen) results in enhanced invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:615-22 pubmed
    ..albicans enolase to human plasminogen/plasmin was investigated. C...
  7. Sha J, Erova T, Alyea R, Wang S, Olano J, Pancholi V, et al. Surface-expressed enolase contributes to the pathogenesis of clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3095-107 pubmed publisher
    ..that the surface-expressed enolase from diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila bound to human plasminogen and facilitated the latter's tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated activation to plasmin...
  8. Cork A, Jergic S, Hammerschmidt S, Kobe B, Pancholi V, Benesch J, et al. Defining the structural basis of human plasminogen binding by streptococcal surface enolase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17129-37 pubmed publisher
    The flesh-eating bacterium group A Streptococcus (GAS) binds and activates human plasminogen, promoting invasive disease. Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN), a glycolytic pathway enzyme, is an identified plasminogen receptor of GAS...
  9. Patterson B, Sang Q. Angiostatin-converting enzyme activities of human matrilysin (MMP-7) and gelatinase B/type IV collagenase (MMP-9). J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28823-5 pubmed
    ..Reports have shown that metalloelastase, pancreas elastase, plasmin reductase, and plasmin convert plasminogen to angiostatin. However, the cleavage sites of plasminogen by those enzymes have not been determined...
  10. O Reilly M, Holmgren L, Shing Y, Chen C, Rosenthal R, Moses M, et al. Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. Cell. 1994;79:315-28 pubmed
    ..The activity copurifies with a 38 kDa plasminogen fragment that we have sequenced and named angiostatin...
  11. Miles L, Plow E. Binding and activation of plasminogen on the platelet surface. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:4303-11 pubmed
    A mechanism by which platelets might participate in fibrinolysis by binding plasminogen and influencing its activation has been examined...
  12. Knaust A, Weber M, Hammerschmidt S, Bergmann S, Frosch M, Kurzai O. Cytosolic proteins contribute to surface plasminogen recruitment of Neisseria meningitidis. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3246-55 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen recruitment is a common strategy of pathogenic bacteria and results in a broad-spectrum surface-associated protease activity. Neisseria meningitidis has previously been shown to bind plasminogen...
  13. Kinnby B, Booth N, Svensäter G. Plasminogen binding by oral streptococci from dental plaque and inflammatory lesions. Microbiology. 2008;154:924-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen binding by bacteria is a virulence factor important for the entry and dissemination of bacteria in the body...
  14. Pluskota E, Soloviev D, Szpak D, Weber C, Plow E. Neutrophil apoptosis: selective regulation by different ligands of integrin alphaMbeta2. J Immunol. 2008;181:3609-19 pubmed
    ..The abilities of closely related alpha(M)beta(2) ligands, plasminogen and angiostatin, derived from plasminogen, as well as fibrinogen and its two derivative alpha(M)beta(2) ..
  15. Sanderson Smith M, Batzloff M, Sriprakash K, Dowton M, Ranson M, Walker M. Divergence in the plasminogen-binding group a streptococcal M protein family: functional conservation of binding site and potential role for immune selection of variants. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3217-26 pubmed publisher
    Group A streptococci (GAS) display receptors for the human zymogen plasminogen on the cell surface, one of which is the plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM)...
  16. Cole J, McArthur J, McKay F, Sanderson Smith M, Cork A, Ranson M, et al. Trigger for group A streptococcal M1T1 invasive disease. FASEB J. 2006;20:1745-7 pubmed
    ..Human plasminogen was an absolute requirement for M1T1 strain 5448 virulence following subcutaneous (s.c...
  17. Xolalpa W, Vallecillo A, Lara M, Mendoza Hernandez G, Comini M, Spallek R, et al. Identification of novel bacterial plasminogen-binding proteins in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proteomics. 2007;7:3332-41 pubmed
    Binding and activation of human plasminogen (Plg) to generate the proteolytic enzyme plasmin (Plm) have been associated with the invasive potential of certain bacteria...
  18. Antikainen J, Kuparinen V, Lähteenmäki K, Korhonen T. Enolases from Gram-positive bacterial pathogens and commensal lactobacilli share functional similarity in virulence-associated traits. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;51:526-34 pubmed
    ..The fusion proteins were compared for putative virulence-associated functions, i.e., binding of human plasminogen, enhancement of plasminogen activation by human plasminogen activators, as well as binding to immobilized ..
  19. Jones M, Holt R. Cloning and characterization of an alpha-enolase of the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans that binds human plasminogen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:924-9 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have demonstrated that S. mutans cells have the capacity to bind and activate plasminogen to plasmin. Here we report the first cloning and characterization of an alpha-enolase of S...
  20. Candela M, Biagi E, Centanni M, Turroni S, Vici M, Musiani F, et al. Bifidobacterial enolase, a cell surface receptor for human plasminogen involved in the interaction with the host. Microbiology. 2009;155:3294-303 pubmed publisher
    The interaction with the host plasminogen/plasmin system represents a novel component in the molecular cross-talk between bifidobacteria and human host. Here, we demonstrated that the plasminogen-binding bifidobacterial species B...
  21. Hallström T, Haupt K, Kraiczy P, Hortschansky P, Wallich R, Skerka C, et al. Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of Borrelia burgdorferi binds to human bone morphogenic protein 2, several extracellular matrix proteins, and plasminogen. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:490-8 pubmed publisher
    ..including bone morphogenic protein 2, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen. The plasminogen-binding regions were located in 2 separate regions of CRASP-1...
  22. Moser T, Stack M, Asplin I, Enghild J, Højrup P, Everitt L, et al. Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2811-6 pubmed
    Angiostatin, a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, is a potent antagonist of angiogenesis and an inhibitor of endothelial cell migration and proliferation...
  23. Barthel D, Singh B, Riesbeck K, Zipfel P. Haemophilus influenzae uses the surface protein E to acquire human plasminogen and to evade innate immunity. J Immunol. 2012;188:379-85 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic microbes acquire the human plasma protein plasminogen to their surface...
  24. Silva M, Thelwell C, Williams S, Longstaff C. Regulation of fibrinolysis by C-terminal lysines operates through plasminogen and plasmin but not tissue-type plasminogen activator. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:2354-60 pubmed publisher
    Binding of tissue-type plasminogen (Pgn) activator (t-PA) and Pgn to fibrin regulates plasmin generation, but there is no consistent, quantitative understanding of the individual contribution of t-PA finger and kringle 2 domains to the ..
  25. Crowe J, Sievwright I, Auld G, Moore N, Gow N, Booth N. Candida albicans binds human plasminogen: identification of eight plasminogen-binding proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:1637-51 pubmed
    Several microbial pathogens augment their invasive potential by binding and activating human plasminogen to generate the proteolytic enzyme plasmin...
  26. Forsgren M, Raden B, Israelsson M, Larsson K, Hedén L. Molecular cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone for human plasminogen. FEBS Lett. 1987;213:254-60 pubmed
    A human liver cDNA library enriched for full-length clones was screened for plasminogen cDNA using a synthetic 24-nucleotide probe derived from a reported partial cDNA sequence...
  27. Pancholi V, Fischetti V. alpha-enolase, a novel strong plasmin(ogen) binding protein on the surface of pathogenic streptococci. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14503-15 pubmed
    ..and showed significantly greater plasmin(ogen) binding affinity compared with previously reported streptococcal plasminogen binding proteins...
  28. Narasaki R, Kuribayashi H, Shimizu K, Imamura D, Sato T, Hasumi K. Bacillolysin MA, a novel bacterial metalloproteinase that produces angiostatin-like fragments from plasminogen and activates protease zymogens in the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14278-87 pubmed
    We isolated a novel protease that converts plasminogen to angiostatin-like fragments (BL-angiostatins) from a culture of Bacillus megaterium A9542 through a single-step chromatography on CM-cellulose...
  29. Malinowski D, Sadler J, Davie E. Characterization of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid coding for human and bovine plasminogen. Biochemistry. 1984;23:4243-50 pubmed
    A cDNA library was constructed in pBR322 from bovine liver mRNA that was enriched for plasminogen mRNA by polysome immunoprecipitation...
  30. Deshet N, Lupu Meiri M, Espinoza I, Fili O, Shapira Y, Lupu R, et al. Plasminogen-induced aggregation of PANC-1 cells requires conversion to plasmin and is inhibited by endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:632-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2006, J Cell Physiol 206:322-328). We studied the effect of plasminogen (PGN), an inactive precursor of the PAR-1-activating protease, plasmin (PN) on aggregation of pancreatic ..
  31. Hanson R, Evilia C, Gilmer J, Woods L, Black B, Flores R, et al. Libby amphibole-induced mesothelial cell autoantibodies bind to surface plasminogen and alter collagen matrix remodeling. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..The most promising result from the MASCOT analysis, plasminogen (PLG), was tested for MCAA binding using purified human PLG in an ELISA We report that serum containing MCAA ..
  32. Hofmann S, Voith U, Schönau V, Sorokin L, Bruckner Tuderman L, Franzke C. Plasmin plays a role in the in vitro generation of the linear IgA dermatosis antigen LADB97. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As blister fluids contain significant plasmin-like serine protease activity, HaCaT keratinocytes or purified 120 kDa ectodomain were incubated with several ..
  33. Pawar K, Cummings B, Thomas A, Shea L, LEVINE A, Pfaff S, et al. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function. Biomaterials. 2015;65:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task. ..
  34. Siqueira G, Atzingen M, de Souza G, Vasconcellos S, Nascimento A. Leptospira interrogans Lsa23 protein recruits plasminogen, factor H and C4BP from normal human serum and mediates C3b and C4b degradation. Microbiology. 2016;162:295-308 pubmed publisher
    ..LIC11360) is a multipurpose protein capable of binding purified extracellular matrix molecules, FH, C4BP and plasminogen (PLG)/plasmin in the presence of PLG activators...
  35. Kurtulus Waschulewski I, Gokbuget A, Christiansen N, Ziegler M, Schuster V, Wahl G, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of the gingiva with periodontitis of type I plasminogen deficiency compared to gingiva with gingivitis and periodontitis and healthy gingiva. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;72:75-86 pubmed publisher
    Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss...
  36. Thergaonkar R, Narang A, Gurjar B, Tiwari P, Puraswani M, Saini H, et al. Targeted exome sequencing in anti-factor H antibody negative HUS reveals multiple variations. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2018;22:653-660 pubmed publisher
    ..Population data on variation frequency of the Indian population and supportive functional studies are likely to improve diagnostic yield. ..
  37. Balavigneswaran C, Mahto S, Mahanta A, Singh R, Vijayakumar M, Ray B, et al. Cell proliferation influenced by matrix compliance of gelatin grafted poly(d,l-Lactide) three dimensional scaffolds. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018;166:170-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, gelatin grafting can be used to modulate mechanical property of the scaffolds and this study reveals the significance of the matrix stiffness to produce the successful 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. ..
  38. Higgins D, Vehar G. Interaction of one-chain and two-chain tissue plasminogen activator with intact and plasmin-degraded fibrin. Biochemistry. 1987;26:7786-91 pubmed
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) plays a central role in fibrinolysis in vivo...
  39. Schott D, Dempfle C, Beck P, Liermann A, Mohr Pennert A, Goldner M, et al. Therapy with a purified plasminogen concentrate in an infant with ligneous conjunctivitis and homozygous plasminogen deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1679-86 pubmed
  40. Hube F, Reverdiau P, Iochmann S, Gruel Y. Computer model of the interaction of human TFPI-2 Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor with human plasmin. Thromb Res. 2003;111:197-8 pubmed
  41. Al Ani B, Hollenberg M. Selective tryptic cleavage at the tethered ligand site of the amino terminal domain of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in intact cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1120-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in intact cells, trypsin activation does not concurrently "disarm" rat PAR(2), but leaves the "tethered ligand" persistently attached to the body of the receptor. ..
  42. Fulde M, Bernardo García N, Rohde M, Nachtigall N, Frank R, Preissner K, et al. Pneumococcal phosphoglycerate kinase interacts with plasminogen and its tissue activator. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111:401-16 pubmed publisher
    ..is localised on the pneumococcal surface of both capsulated and non-capsulated strains and colocalises with plasminogen. Since pneumococci may concentrate host plasminogen (PLG) together with its activators on the bacterial cell ..
  43. Bohnsack R, Patel M, Olson L, Twining S, Dahms N. Residues essential for plasminogen binding by the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Biochemistry. 2010;49:635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The CI-MPR is a receptor for plasminogen, and this interaction can be inhibited by lysine analogues...
  44. Selim T, Ghoneim H, Uknis A, Colman R, Dela Cadena R. High-molecular-mass and low-molecular-mass kininogens block plasmin-induced platelet aggregation by forming a complex with kringle 5 of plasminogen/plasmin. Eur J Biochem. 1997;250:532-8 pubmed
    ..8 microM, non-covalent complex formation between high-molecular-mass kininogen (HK) and plasminogen (Plg) which prevented Plg interaction with glioma and endothelial cells...
  45. Schooling C, Huang J, Zhao J, Kwok M, Au Yeung S, Lin S. Disconnect Between Genes Associated With Ischemic Heart Disease and Targets of Ischemic Heart Disease Treatments. EBioMedicine. 2018;28:311-315 pubmed publisher
    ..Closer alignment of IHD treatments with genetically validated physiological targets may represent a major opportunity for combating a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality through repurposing existing interventions. ..
  46. Aktas E, Chamberlain C, Saether E, Duenwald Kuehl S, Kondratko Mittnacht J, Stitgen M, et al. Immune modulation with primed mesenchymal stem cells delivered via biodegradable scaffold to repair an Achilles tendon segmental defect. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:269-280 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:269-280, 2017...
  47. DeFilippis A, Chernyavskiy I, Amraotkar A, Trainor P, Kothari S, Ismail I, et al. Circulating levels of plasminogen and oxidized phospholipids bound to plasminogen distinguish between atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic myocardial infarction. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016;42:61-76 pubmed publisher
    Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are abundant in atherosclerotic plaques. They are also bound to circulating plasminogen after myocardial infarction (MI), and their binding to plasminogen may accentuate fibrinolysis...
  48. De Oliveira D, Law R, Ly D, Cook S, Quek A, McArthur J, et al. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates. Biochemistry. 2015;54:3960-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346...
  49. Tu Y, Gonzalez Gronow M, Kolomeyer A, Cohen A, Pruzon J, Milman T, et al. Adult-Onset Ligneous Conjunctivitis with Detection of a Novel Plasminogen Gene Mutation and Anti-Plasminogen IgA Antibody: A Clinicopathologic Study and Review of Literature. Semin Ophthalmol. 2016;31:526-31 pubmed publisher
    To report a novel plasminogen gene mutation and detection of anti-plasminogen antibodies in a patient with ligneous conjunctivitis successfully treated with 60% fresh frozen plasma (FFP)...
  50. Herman Bausier P, Pietrocola G, Foster T, Speziale P, Dufrêne Y. Fibrinogen Activates the Capture of Human Plasminogen by Staphylococcal Fibronectin-Binding Proteins. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    Invasive bacterial pathogens can capture host plasminogen (Plg) and allow it to form plasmin...
  51. Teresa Sartori M, Saggiorato G, Pellati D, Casonato A, Spiezia L, Pontara E, et al. Contraceptive pills induce an improvement in congenital hypoplasminogenemia in two unrelated patients with ligneous conjunctivitis. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:86-91 pubmed
    Severe type I plasminogen deficiency is the underlying cause of ligneous conjunctivitis, a rare disease characterized by wood-like pseudomembranes developing on the ocular and extraocular mucosa...
  52. McCready J, Sims J, CHAN D, Jay D. Secretion of extracellular hsp90alpha via exosomes increases cancer cell motility: a role for plasminogen activation. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:294 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation to identify plasminogen as a potential client protein of extracellular hsp90alpha...
  53. Nogueira S, Smith A, Qin J, Pal U. A surface enolase participates in Borrelia burgdorferi-plasminogen interaction and contributes to pathogen survival within feeding ticks. Infect Immun. 2012;80:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the protein also interacts with host plasminogen, potentially leading to its activation and resulting in B. burgdorferi-induced fibrinolysis...
  54. Kwieci ski J, Josefsson E, Mitchell J, Higgins J, Magnusson M, Foster T, et al. Activation of plasminogen by staphylokinase reduces the severity of Staphylococcus aureus systemic infection. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is an extracellular protein that activates the conversion of human plasminogen (plg) to plasmin. The role played by SAK in staphylococcal infection is unclear. ..
  55. Dudani A, Mehic J, Martyres A. Plasminogen and angiostatin interact with heat shock proteins. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;300:197-205 pubmed
    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that plasminogen and angiostatin bind to endothelial cell (EC) surface-associated actin via their kringles in a specific manner...
  56. Song K, Lee S, Choi J. Detection of an Ala601Thr mutation of plasminogen gene in 3 out of 36 Korean patients with deep vein thrombosis. J Korean Med Sci. 2003;18:167-70 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen is a key proenzyme in the fibrinolytic and thrombolytic systems...
  57. Wu H, Shi G, Wohl R, Bender M. Structure and formation of microplasmin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8793-5 pubmed
    ..It is slightly more positively charged than plasminogen and is a more hydrophobic molecule...
  58. Poon I, Olsson A, Hulett M, Parish C. Regulation of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) function via plasmin-mediated proteolytic cleavage. Biochem J. 2009;424:27-37 pubmed publisher
    The plasminogen/plasmin system is involved in a variety of normal physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodelling, angiogenesis and tumour metastasis...
  59. Wang M, Zajicek J, Geiger J, Prorok M, Castellino F. Solution structure of the complex of VEK-30 and plasminogen kringle 2. J Struct Biol. 2010;169:349-59 pubmed publisher
    The solution structure of the complex containing the isolated kringle 2 domain of human plasminogen (K2(Pg)) and VEK-30, a 30-amino acid residue internal peptide from a streptococcal M-like plasminogen (Pg) binding protein (PAM), has ..
  60. Gonzalez Gronow M, Gawdi G, Pizzo S. Tissue factor is the receptor for plasminogen type 1 on 1-LN human prostate cancer cells. Blood. 2002;99:4562-7 pubmed
    Tissue factor (TF), the initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, binds plasminogen (Pg) with high affinity through an interaction between kringles 1-3 of Pg and the extracellular domain of TF...
  61. Mitchell J, Lionikiene A, Georgiev G, Klemmer A, Brain C, Kim P, et al. Polyphosphate colocalizes with factor XII on platelet-bound fibrin and augments its plasminogen activator activity. Blood. 2016;128:2834-2845 pubmed
    Activated factor XII (FXIIa) has plasminogen activator capacity but its relative contribution to fibrinolysis is considered marginal compared with urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator...
  62. Moroi M, Aoki N. Isolation and characterization of alpha2-plasmin inhibitor from human plasma. A novel proteinase inhibitor which inhibits activator-induced clot lysis. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:5956-65 pubmed
    ..plasma whose apparent unique biological property is to inhibit efficiently the lysis of fibrin clots induced by plasminogen activator. The final product is homogeneous as judged by disc gel electrophoresis, and immunoelectrophoresis...
  63. Wahl M, Grant D. Effects of microenvironmental extracellular pH and extracellular matrix proteins on angiostatin's activity and on intracellular pH. Gen Pharmacol. 2000;35:277-85 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that substrate and pH(e) are critical parameters in the evaluation of this antiangiogenic substance, and probably for others as well. ..
  64. Kim K, Choi Y, Park J, Lee J, Kim D, Lee S, et al. Proteolytic cleavage of extracellular ?-synuclein by plasmin: implications for Parkinson disease. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, extracellular ?-syn regulated the plasmin system through up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression...
  65. Dewald G. A missense mutation in the plasminogen gene, within the plasminogen kringle 3 domain, in hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:193-198 pubmed publisher
    ..patients representing eight 'HAE families with normal C1 inhibitor and no F12 mutation' for mutations in the plasminogen (PLG) gene. A rare non-conservative missense mutation was newly identified in exon 9 of the PLG gene...
  66. Madoiwa S, Tanaka H, Nagahama Y, Dokai M, Kashiwakura Y, Ishiwata A, et al. Degradation of cross-linked fibrin by leukocyte elastase as alternative pathway for plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis in sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res. 2011;127:349-55 pubmed publisher
    An alternative pathway for fibrinolysis that comprises leukocyte elastase and its interaction with the plasminogen activator-plasmin system has been suggested...
  67. DePoli P, Bacon Baguley T, Kendra Franczak S, Cederholm M, Walz D. Thrombospondin interaction with plasminogen. Evidence for binding to a specific region of the kringle structure of plasminogen. Blood. 1989;73:976-82 pubmed
    Platelet thrombospondin interacts with plasminogen in a specific and saturable manner. Thrombospondin was found to specifically bind to plasminogen and the nonenzyme chain of plasmin...
  68. Wiman B, Wallen P. Structural relationship between "glutamic acid" and "lysine" forms of human plasminogen and their interaction with the NH2-terminal activation peptide as studied by affinity chromatography. Eur J Biochem. 1975;50:489-94 pubmed
    Urokinase digestion of maleinated plasminogen results in cleavage of the single peptide bond Arg-68-Met-69, which is one of the bonds normally cleaved during the first step of the activation procedure...
  69. Sadovnick A, Traboulsee A, Bernales C, Ross J, Forwell A, Yee I, et al. Analysis of Plasminogen Genetic Variants in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..G420D) in plasminogen (PLG) as a putative genetic risk factor for MS. Genotyping of PLG p...
  70. Zorin N, Zhabin S, Semenkov N. Interaction of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A with serine proteinases. Clin Chim Acta. 1995;239:47-55 pubmed
    ..plasma protein A (PAPP-A) inhibited significantly the proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin and human plasmin. Trypsin or plasmin treatment of PAPP-A resulted in the generation of a major 85 kDa component and the rapid ..
  71. Gründel A, Friedrich K, Pfeiffer M, Jacobs E, Dumke R. Subunits of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Cluster of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Are Surface-Displayed Proteins that Bind and Activate Human Plasminogen. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126600 pubmed publisher
    ..All recombinant PDH subunits are able to bind to HeLa cells and human plasminogen. These interactions can be specifically blocked by the corresponding polyclonal antisera...
  72. Bergmann S, Schoenen H, Hammerschmidt S. The interaction between bacterial enolase and plasminogen promotes adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to epithelial and endothelial cells. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:452-62 pubmed publisher
    Binding and conversion of the plasma protein plasminogen is an important pathogenesis mechanism of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  73. Ferreira E, Teixeira F, Cordeiro F, Araújo Lobo L, Rocha E, Smith J, et al. The Bfp60 surface adhesin is an extracellular matrix and plasminogen protein interacting in Bacteroides fragilis. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:492-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen (Plg) is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues...
  74. Murata M, Ooe A, Izumi T, Nakagawa M, Takahashi S, Ishikawa M, et al. Ala601-Thr type dysplasminogenaemia genetically diagnosed in patients with retinochoroidal vascular disorders. Br J Haematol. 1997;99:301-3 pubmed
    ..This defect may also play a role in the pathogenesis of circulation disorders in small local vessels because of reduced fibrinolytic activity due to decreased functional plasminogen levels.
  75. Hauk P, Barbosa A, Ho P, Farah C. Calcium binding to leptospira outer membrane antigen LipL32 is not necessary for its interaction with plasma fibronectin, collagen type IV, and plasminogen. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Q67A, and S247A) and evaluated their ability to interact with Ca(2+) and with ECM glycoproteins and human plasminogen. The D163-168A mutant modifies aspartate residues involved in Ca(2+) binding, whereas the other two modify ..
  76. Chang Y, Mochalkin I, McCance S, Cheng B, Tulinsky A, Castellino F. Structure and ligand binding determinants of the recombinant kringle 5 domain of human plasminogen. Biochemistry. 1998;37:3258-71 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of the recombinant (r) kringle 5 domain of human plasminogen (K5HPg) has been solved by molecular replacement methods using K1HPg as a model and refined at 1.7 A resolution to an R factor of 16.6%...
  77. Brodsky S, Chen J, Lee A, Akassoglou K, Norman J, Goligorsky M. Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1784-92 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction in diseases associated with impaired angiogenesis, including atherosclerosis, diabetic vasculopathy, and nephropathy...