Gene Symbol: PLA2G7
Description: phospholipase A2 group VII
Alias: LDL-PLA2, LP-PLA2, PAFAD, PAFAH, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase, 2-acetyl-1-alkylglycerophosphocholine esterase, LDL-PLA(2), LDL-associated phospholipase A2, PAF 2-acylhydrolase, PAF acetylhydrolase, gVIIA-PLA2, group-VIIA phospholipase A2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma)
Species: human
Products:     PLA2G7

Top Publications

  1. Samanta U, Bahnson B. Crystal structure of human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase: structural implication to lipoprotein binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A crystal structure is also presented of PAF acetylhydrolase reacted with the organophosphate compound paraoxon via its active site Ser273...
  2. Tellis C, Tselepis A. The role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis may depend on its lipoprotein carrier in plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:327-38 pubmed publisher
  3. Zhang S, Shibata H, Karino K, Wang B, Kobayashi S, Masuda J, et al. Comprehensive evaluation of genetic and environmental factors influencing the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in a Japanese population. Hypertens Res. 2007;30:403-9 pubmed
    ..These observations should provide useful information for future clinical and epidemiological evaluations of the Lp-PLA2 activity in cardiovascular diseases in Japanese. ..
  4. Cook N, Paynter N, Manson J, Martin L, Robinson J, Wassertheil Smoller S, et al. Clinical utility of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? for cardiovascular disease prediction in a multiethnic cohort of women. Clin Chem. 2012;58:1352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In the WHI-OS Lp-PLA2 mass, but not activity, was independently associated with CVD. However, model fit did not significantly improve with Lp-PLA2 mass, and assay calibration remains a clinical concern. ..
  5. Delgado P, Chacon P, Penalba A, Pelegrí D, García Berrocoso T, Giralt D, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) activity is associated with large-artery atherosclerotic etiology and recurrent stroke in TIA patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;33:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..008) and Lp-PLA(2) activity of >207 nmol/ml/min (HR 2.7, p = 0.042) were all significant predictors for recurrent stroke/TIA. Lp-PLA(2) activity might add significant prognostic information in the early evaluation of TIA patients. ..
  6. Li L, Qi L, Lv N, Gao Q, Cheng Y, Wei Y, et al. Association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population. Ann Hum Genet. 2011;75:605-11 pubmed publisher
    The role of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) gene (PLA2G7) in atherosclerosis remains controversial...
  7. Sutton B, Crosslin D, Shah S, Nelson S, Bassil A, Hale A, et al. Comprehensive genetic analysis of the platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PLA2G7) gene and cardiovascular disease in case-control and family datasets. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1318-28 pubmed publisher
    Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PLA2G7) is a potent pro- and anti-inflammatory molecule that has been implicated in multiple inflammatory disease processes, including cardiovascular disease...
  8. Casas J, Ninio E, Panayiotou A, Palmen J, Cooper J, Ricketts S, et al. PLA2G7 genotype, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, and coronary heart disease risk in 10 494 cases and 15 624 controls of European Ancestry. Circulation. 2010;121:2284-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PLA2G7 variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity could evaluate whether this relationship is causal...
  9. Jenny N, Solomon C, Cushman M, Tracy R, Nelson J, Psaty B, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:528-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Lp-PLA(2) and CRP were independent and additive in prediction of events. While associations were modest, these results support further exploration of Lp-PLA(2) to identify older individuals at risk for CVD. ..

More Information


  1. Hou L, Chen S, Yu H, Lu X, Chen J, Wang L, et al. Associations of PLA2G7 gene polymorphisms with plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity and coronary heart disease in a Chinese Han population: the Beijing atherosclerosis study. Hum Genet. 2009;125:11-20 pubmed publisher
    The human PLA2G7 gene encodes lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular diseases...
  2. Stafforini D, Satoh K, Atkinson D, Tjoelker L, Eberhardt C, Yoshida H, et al. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:2784-91 pubmed
    ..b>PAF acetylhydrolase catalyzes the degradation of PAF and related phospholipids, which have proinflammatory, allergic, and ..
  3. Vainio P, Gupta S, Ketola K, Mirtti T, Mpindi J, Kohonen P, et al. Arachidonic acid pathway members PLA2G7, HPGD, EPHX2, and CYP4F8 identified as putative novel therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:525-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the PLA2G7, HPGD, EPHX2, and CYP4F8 genes are highly expressed in prostate cancer...
  4. Wang Q, Hao Y, Mo X, Wang L, Lu X, Huang J, et al. PLA2G7 gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk: a meta-analysis. Thromb Res. 2010;126:498-503 pubmed publisher
    Variants of PLA2G7 gene have been reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) since ten years ago, but the available data on this relationship are inconsistent...
  5. Mannheim D, Herrmann J, Versari D, Gossl M, Meyer F, McConnell J, et al. Enhanced expression of Lp-PLA2 and lysophosphatidylcholine in symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Stroke. 2008;39:1448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly support a role for Lp-PLA2 in the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of cerebrovascular disease. ..
  6. Wootton P, Stephens J, Hurel S, Durand H, Cooper J, Ninio E, et al. Lp-PLA2 activity and PLA2G7 A379V genotype in patients with diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189:149-56 pubmed
    b>Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) modulates low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by hydrolysing oxidised phospholipids present on particle surfaces...
  7. Ferguson J, Hinkle C, Mehta N, Bagheri R, DerOhannessian S, Shah R, et al. Translational studies of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? in inflammation and atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:764-72 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to examine the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? (Lp-PLA?/PLA2G7) in human inflammation and coronary atherosclerosis. Lp-PLA? has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in coronary heart disease...
  8. Moldoveanu E, Mut Vitcu B, Tanaseanu G, Marta D, Manea G, Kosaka T, et al. Low basal levels of circulating adiponectin in patients undergoing coronary stenting predict in-stent restenosis, independently of basal levels of inflammatory markers: lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, and myeloperoxidase. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:1429-33 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the correlations between the plasma levels of APO and two markers of inflammation: lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
  9. Dohi T, Miyauchi K, Okazaki S, Yokoyama T, Ohkawa R, Nakamura K, et al. Decreased circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels are associated with coronary plaque regression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The absolute change in PV also significantly correlated with the change in Lp-PLA2 levels (r = 0.404, p = 0.009). Circulating Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with changes in coronary plaque determined by IVUS in patients with ACS. ..
  10. Garg P, McClelland R, Jenny N, Criqui M, Liu K, Polak J, et al. Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and endothelial function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Vasc Med. 2011;16:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..00; 0.01%, p = 0.94 and -0.15%, p = 0.20 for abnormal carotid IMT). In summary, Lp-PLA(2) is not associated with endothelial dysfunction, suggesting its role in atherosclerosis development is primarily related to other factors. ..
  11. Abuzeid A, Hawe E, Humphries S, Talmud P. Association between the Ala379Val variant of the lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 and risk of myocardial infarction in the north and south of Europe. Atherosclerosis. 2003;168:283-8 pubmed
  12. Madjid M, Ali M, Willerson J. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as a novel risk marker for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the literature. Tex Heart Inst J. 2010;37:25-39 pubmed
    ..The available body of evidence suggests that Lp-PLA(2) is a reliable marker of risk for cardiovascular events. ..
  13. Campo S, Sardo M, Bitto A, Bonaiuto A, Trimarchi G, Bonaiuto M, et al. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is not associated with carotid intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolemic Sicilian individuals. Clin Chem. 2004;50:2077-82 pubmed
    ..Our data provided no evidence that PAF-AH polymorphisms influence PAF-AH activity and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic Sicilian patients. ..
  14. Ninio E, Tregouet D, Carrier J, Stengel D, Bickel C, Perret C, et al. Platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase and PAF-receptor gene haplotypes in relation to future cardiovascular event in patients with coronary artery disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1341-51 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to relate the variability of the genes encoding PAF-AH (PLA2G7) and the PAF-receptor (PTAFR) to the risk of CAD and its complications...
  15. Hoffmann M, Winkler K, Renner W, Winkelmann B, Seelhorst U, Wellnitz B, et al. Genetic variants and haplotypes of lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 and their influence on cardiovascular disease (The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study). J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of five polymorphisms (-1357G>A, -403T>C, Arg92His, Ile198Thr, Ala379Val) and related haplotypes at the PLA2G7 locus with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD), plasma LpPLA2 activity, and long-term survival in 3234 ..
  16. Tjoelker L, Wilder C, Eberhardt C, Stafforini D, Dietsch G, Schimpf B, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Nature. 1995;374:549-53 pubmed
    ..The actions of PAF are abolished by hydrolysis of the acetyl residue, a reaction catalysed by PAF acetylhydrolase. There are at least two forms of this enzyme--one intracellular and another that circulates in plasma and ..
  17. Vickers K, Maguire C, Wolfert R, Burns A, Reardon M, Geis R, et al. Relationship of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and oxidized low density lipoprotein in carotid atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the relationship between Lp-PLA(2) and oxLDL in the atherosclerotic plaque is different from that in the plasma compartment. ..
  18. Grallert H, Dupuis J, Bis J, Dehghan A, Barbalic M, Baumert J, et al. Eight genetic loci associated with variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from five community-based studies. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:238-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In meta-analyses of findings from five population-based studies, comprising 13 664 subjects, variants at two loci (PLA2G7, CETP) were associated with Lp-PLA2 mass. The strongest signal was at rs1805017 in PLA2G7 [P = 2...
  19. Gardner A, Reichert E, Topham M, Stafforini D. Identification of a domain that mediates association of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase with high density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for association of human PAF-AH with HDL and may facilitate future studies aimed at precisely determining the function of PAF-AH in each lipoprotein particle. ..
  20. Kim J, Hyun Y, Jang Y, Lee B, Chae J, Kim S, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity is associated with coronary artery disease and markers of oxidative stress: a case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:630-7 pubmed
    ..213, P < 0.001) in controls. This study shows an association of elevated Lp-PLA(2) activity with CAD risk in relation to oxidant stress and thus supports a proatherogenic role of Lp-PLA(2). ..
  21. Tsai T, Chen Y, Lin H, Liu C, Chang H, Lu C, et al. Link between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 gene expression of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and prognostic outcome after acute ischemic stroke. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:523-31 pubmed
    ..011). Elevated Lp-PLA(2) mRNA expression of PBMNCs seems to be a potential biomarker for predicting an unfavorable outcome in patients with acute IS. ..
  22. Hatoum I, Hu F, Nelson J, Rimm E. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity and incident coronary heart disease among men and women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2010;59:1239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This positive association was strongest for more severe clinical end points. ..
  23. Okamura K, Miura S, Zhang B, Uehara Y, Matsuo K, Kumagai K, et al. Ratio of LDL- to HDL-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase may be a marker of inflammation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circ J. 2007;71:214-9 pubmed
    ..Antiinflammatory and antioxidant therapy that targets these factors might be effective for preventing paroxysmal AF. ..
  24. Kizer J, Umans J, Zhu J, Devereux R, Wolfert R, Lee E, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) mass and activity and risk of cardiovascular disease in a population with high prevalences of obesity and diabetes: the Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:840-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Wang T, Karino K, Yamasaki M, Zhang Y, Masuda J, Yamaguchi S, et al. Effects of G994T in the Lp-PLA2 gene on the plasma oxidized LDL level and carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese: the Shimane study. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these results were reproducible in the two independent populations studied. G994T influenced plasma LDL oxidation. Further studies on the effect of this polymorphism in cardiovascular diseases are warranted. ..
  26. Balta G, Gurgey A, Kudayarov D, Tunc B, Altay C. Evidence for the existence of the PAF acetylhydrolase mutation (Val279Phe) in non-Japanese populations: a preliminary study in Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan. Thromb Res. 2001;101:231-4 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the previous notions, identification of the mutation in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan shows the existence of the mutation in non-Japanese populations as well. ..
  27. Wang W, Li J, Yang D, Xu W, Zha R, Wang Y. OxLDL stimulates lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 expression in THP-1 monocytes via PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, lp-PLA2 promotes lipoprotein uptake in macrophages. Our results uncover a new link between oxLDL and lp-PLA2, and may provide insight into this interaction in the context of atherosclerosis. ..
  28. da Silva I, Timm A, Damasceno N. Influence of obesity and cardiometabolic makers on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity in adolescents: the healthy young cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Lp-PLA2 activity can be a cardiovascular biomarker in adolescence. ..
  29. Tsimihodimos V, Karabina S, Tambaki A, Bairaktari E, Miltiadous G, Goudevenos J, et al. Altered distribution of platelet-activating factor- acetylhydrolase activity between LDL and HDL as a function of the severity of hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:256-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ratio of HDL-associated PAF-AH-total plasma enzyme activity may be useful as a potential marker of atherogenicity in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia. ..
  30. Stafforini D, Sheller J, Blackwell T, Sapirstein A, Yull F, McIntyre T, et al. Release of free F2-isoprostanes from esterified phospholipids is catalyzed by intracellular and plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4616-23 pubmed
    ..Plasma samples from subjects deficient in PAF acetylhydrolase do not release F2-isoprostanes from esterified precursors...
  31. Jang Y, Kim O, Koh S, Chae J, Ko Y, Kim J, et al. The Val279Phe variant of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 gene is associated with catalytic activities and cardiovascular disease in Korean men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3521-7 pubmed
    ..The association of the F279 loss of function variant with the reduced risk of CVD supports the concept that Lp-PLA(2) plays a proatherogenic and causative role in CVD. ..
  32. El Saed A, Sekikawa A, Zaky R, Kadowaki T, Takamiya T, Okamura T, et al. Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 with coronary calcification among American and Japanese men. J Epidemiol. 2007;17:179-85 pubmed
    ..Lp-PLA2 may have different mechanisms of action among American and Japanese men. Lp-PLA2 levels can not explain the observed CAC differences between the two populations. ..
  33. Schnabel R, Dupuis J, Larson M, Lunetta K, Robins S, Zhu Y, et al. Clinical and genetic factors associated with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in the Framingham Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:601-7 pubmed publisher
    ..20 x 10(-4)); SNP rs1051931 in PLA2G7 was nominally associated (p=1.26 x 10(-3))...
  34. Paik J, Kim J, Kim O, Lee Y, Jeong T, Sweeney G, et al. Circulating and PBMC Lp-PLA2 associate differently with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation in nonobese women (menopausal status). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29675 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that circulating Lp-PLA(2) and PBMC secreted Lp-PLA(2) associate differently with markers of oxidative stress and sub clinical inflammation in nonobese women, particularly according to the menopausal states. ..
  35. Gazi I, Lourida E, Filippatos T, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf M, Tselepis A. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity is a marker of small, dense LDL particles in human plasma. Clin Chem. 2005;51:2264-73 pubmed
    ..356 mmol/L, total plasma and non-HDL-Lp-PLA(2) activity added significantly to the prediction of the presence of sdLDL in plasma. Lp-PLA(2) activity, but not the enzyme mass, is a marker of sdLDL in human plasma. ..
  36. Yamada Y, Ichihara S, Fujimura T, Yokota M. Identification of the G994--> T missense in exon 9 of the plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in Japanese men. Metabolism. 1998;47:177-81 pubmed
    ..A missense mutation (G--> T transversion at nucleotide 994) in the plasma PAF acetylhydrolase gene results in a Val--> Phe substitution at amino acid 279 of the mature protein and a consequent loss ..
  37. Unno N, Nakamura T, Mitsuoka H, Uchiyama T, Yamamoto N, Saito T, et al. Association of a G994 -->T missense mutation in the plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene with risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm in Japanese. Ann Surg. 2002;235:297-302 pubmed
    To investigate a possible association with plasma platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) gene mutation with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)...
  38. Goncalves I, Edsfeldt A, Ko N, Grufman H, Berg K, Bjorkbacka H, et al. Evidence supporting a key role of Lp-PLA2-generated lysophosphatidylcholine in human atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support Lp-PLA2 inhibition as a possible strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. ..
  39. Persson M, Berglund G, Nelson J, Hedblad B. Lp-PLA2 activity and mass are associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke: a population-based cohort study from Malmö, Sweden. Atherosclerosis. 2008;200:191-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Quarck R, De Geest B, Stengel D, Mertens A, Lox M, Theilmeier G, et al. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase prevents injury-induced neointima formation and reduces spontaneous atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2001;103:2495-500 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that PAF-AH, by reducing oxidized lipoprotein accumulation, is a potent protective enzyme against atherosclerosis. ..
  41. Persson M, Nilsson J, Nelson J, Hedblad B, Berglund G. The epidemiology of Lp-PLA(2): distribution and correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based cohort. Atherosclerosis. 2007;190:388-96 pubmed
    ..However, the measured variables accounted for only 19% and 35% of the variation in Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity respectively. ..
  42. Detopoulou P, Nomikos T, Fragopoulou E, Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) in leukocytes and body composition in healthy adults. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:19 pubmed publisher
    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) also known as serum platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity constitutes a novel risk marker for cardiovascular disease...
  43. Brilakis E, Khera A, McGuire D, See R, Banerjee S, Murphy S, et al. Influence of race and sex on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels: observations from the Dallas Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:110-5 pubmed
    ..001). Similar race and sex differences were observed for Lp-PLA2 mass. Race and sex independently influence Lp-PLA2 activity and mass. Thresholds to define Lp-PLA2 elevation may need to be sex and race specific. ..
  44. Arakawa H, Qian J, Baatar D, Karasawa K, Asada Y, Sasaguri Y, et al. Local expression of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase reduces accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins and inhibits inflammation, shear stress-induced thrombosis, and neointima formation in balloon-injured carotid arteries in nonhyperlipidemic . Circulation. 2005;111:3302-9 pubmed
  45. Garg P, Jorgensen N, McClelland R, Jenny N, Criqui M, Allison M, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of incident peripheral arterial disease in a multi-ethnic cohort: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Vasc Med. 2017;22:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..43 for Lp-PLA2 activity and p=0.55 for Lp-PLA2 mass. We found no evidence of an association between Lp-PLA2 and incident PAD. ..
  46. Howard K, Olson M. The expression and localization of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in endotoxemic rats. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19891-6 pubmed
    ..PAF and PAF-like phospholipids are hydrolyzed and inactivated by the enzyme PAF acetylhydrolase. In the intact rat, infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into a mesenteric vein served as an acute, liver-..
  47. Karabina S, Ninio E. Plasma PAFAH/PLA2G7 Genetic Variability, Cardiovascular Disease, and Clinical Trials. Enzymes. 2015;38:145-55 pubmed publisher
    b>PAFAH is specific for short acyl groups esterified at the sn-2 position of glycerol in phospholipids, and apart from PAF, it hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids produced during LDL oxidation...
  48. Jin W, Ren J, Chen H. [Simvastatin suppress lipopolysaccharides induced upregulation of lipoprotein associated phospholipase A(2) expression in macrophages via inactivation of p38MAPK pathway]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2010;38:923-8 pubmed
  49. Hirschler V, Meroño T, Maccallini G, Gomez Rosso L, Aranda C, Brites F. Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? activity with components of the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy boys. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2011;9:78-83 pubmed
    ..As plaque morphology may change with age, associations of Lp-PLA(2) with CVD may likewise vary with age. ..
  50. Massot A, Pelegrí D, Penalba A, Arenillas J, Boada C, Giralt D, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 testing usefulness among patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..89; 95% CI 1.029 to 8.096; p=0.044) after multivariate analysis (Cox regression). Lp-PLA(2) activity might be a useful tool to identify intracranial large-artery occlusive disease patients at higher risk of suffering new vascular events. ..
  51. Marathe G, Zimmerman G, McIntyre T. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and not paraoxonase-1, is the oxidized phospholipid hydrolase of high density lipoprotein particles. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3937-47 pubmed
    ..b>PAF acetylhydrolase, an oxidized phospholipid phospholipase A(2), is a serine esterase associated with specific HDL particles...
  52. Raichlin E, McConnell J, Bae J, Kremers W, Lerman A, Frantz R. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 predicts progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and increased risk of cardiovascular events in heart transplant patients. Transplantation. 2008;85:963-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding supports the concept that systemic inflammation is an important mediator of CAV. Lp-PLA2 may be a useful marker for risk of CAV and a therapeutic target in posttransplant patients. ..
  53. Yang L, Liu Y, Wang S, Liu T, Cong H. Association between Lp-PLA2 and coronary heart disease in Chinese patients. J Int Med Res. 2017;45:159-169 pubmed publisher
    ..814, 95% confidence interval 1.519, 5.214). Conclusion Plasma Lp-PLA2 concentration was independently associated with CHD in Chinese patients. ..
  54. Ito T, Yasue H, Yoshimura M, Nakamura S, Nakayama M, Shimasaki Y, et al. Paraoxonase gene Gln192Arg (Q192R) polymorphism is associated with coronary artery spasm. Hum Genet. 2002;110:89-94 pubmed
    ..01). Thus, there is a significant association between the PON1-192R allele and coronary spasm; the PON1-192R allele may play an important role in the genesis of coronary spasm, probably by attenuating the suppression of oxidative stress. ..
  55. Fan P, Liu H, Wan D, Li Y, Song Q, Bai H. Altered distribution of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase between high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:2054-7 pubmed publisher
    ..association of plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, high-density lipoprotein-associated PAF acetylhydrolase, and low-density lipoprotein-associated PAF acetylhydrolase activities with metabolic features in patients ..
  56. Zhang X, Yuan C, Zhang H, Xu J, Wu J, Chen B. [Analysis of 994(G--> T) mutation in the plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene in the patients with cerebral infarction]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:450-2 pubmed
    ..05). These findings show that the 994(G--> T) mutation of plasma PAF-AH gene may be an independent risk for atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, but not for lacunar infarction. ..
  57. Gong H, Du Y, Zhong L, Dong Z, Wang X, Mao Y, et al. Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in patients with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Lp-PLA? may be a modulating factor for carotid IMT via age and LDL-cholesterol, not independent predictor in the pathophysiological process of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with MetS. ..
  58. Kriska T, Marathe G, Schmidt J, McIntyre T, Girotti A. Phospholipase action of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, but not paraoxonase-1, on long fatty acyl chain phospholipid hydroperoxides. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:100-8 pubmed
  59. Mai C, Wang B, Wen J, Lin X, Niu J. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and AGEs are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014;30:241-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with GDM have increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. AGEs and Lp-pla2 could be utilized as novel biomarkers to identify at an early stage of women with increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. ..
  60. Lin J, Zheng H, Cucchiara B, Li J, Zhao X, Liang X, et al. Association of Lp-PLA2-A and early recurrence of vascular events after TIA and minor stroke. Neurology. 2015;85:1585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2-A in the acute period are associated with increased short-term risk of recurrent vascular events. ..
  61. Fragopoulou E, Antonopoulou S, Nomikos T, Demopoulos C. Structure elucidation of phenolic compounds from red/white wine with antiatherogenic properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1632:90-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, wine compounds that antagonize PAF were isolated and purified via chromatographic procedures, and determined structurally using chemical, enzymatic and spectroscopic methods. ..