PKR

Summary

Gene Symbol: PKR
Description: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2
Alias: EIF2AK1, PKR, PRKR, P1/eIF-2A protein kinase, double stranded RNA activated protein kinase, eIF-2A protein kinase 2, interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, interferon-inducible elF2alpha kinase, p68 kinase, protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent, tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc PKR stimulates NF-kappaB irrespective of its kinase function by interacting with the IkappaB kinase complex
    M C Bonnet
    Unité de Virologie et d Immunologie Cellulaire, URA CNRS 1930, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Mol Cell Biol 20:4532-42. 2000
  2. ncbi Mechanism of interaction of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain of protein kinase R with short dsRNA sequences
    Jason W Ucci
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and National Analytical Ultracentrifugation Facility, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3125, USA
    Biochemistry 46:55-65. 2007
  3. pmc Systematic deletion of the adenovirus-associated RNAI terminal stem reveals a surprisingly active RNA inhibitor of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
    Ahmed M Wahid
    Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:17485-93. 2008
  4. pmc Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activation modulates endotoxin-induced diaphragm weakness
    G S Supinski
    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 110:199-205. 2011
  5. ncbi The dsRNA protein kinase PKR: virus and cell control
    M A Garcia
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Biochimie 89:799-811. 2007
  6. pmc Regulation of PKR by HCV IRES RNA: importance of domain II and NS5A
    Rebecca Toroney
    Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Biol 400:393-412. 2010
  7. doi Novel role for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR: modulation of macrophage infection by the protozoan parasite Leishmania
    Renata M S Pereira
    Laboratorio de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    FASEB J 24:617-26. 2010
  8. pmc Hepatitis C virus reveals a novel early control in acute immune response
    Noëlla Arnaud
    Institut Pasteur, Hepacivirus and Innate Immunity, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002289. 2011
  9. pmc Hepatitis C virus controls interferon production through PKR activation
    Noëlla Arnaud
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Hépacivirus et Immunité Innée, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e10575. 2010
  10. pmc TRBP control of PACT-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R is reversed by stress
    Aïcha Daher
    Virus Cell Interactions Laboratory, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 29:254-65. 2009

Research Grants

  1. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL IN REGULATION OF APOPTOSIS
    Randal Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2001
  3. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William May; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. MECHANISM FOR REGULATION OF PKR PROTEIN BY RNA
    PHILIP BEVILACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2003
  8. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2003
  9. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
  10. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications194 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc PKR stimulates NF-kappaB irrespective of its kinase function by interacting with the IkappaB kinase complex
    M C Bonnet
    Unité de Virologie et d Immunologie Cellulaire, URA CNRS 1930, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Mol Cell Biol 20:4532-42. 2000
    The interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR mediates inhibition of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and is also involved in the ..
  2. ncbi Mechanism of interaction of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain of protein kinase R with short dsRNA sequences
    Jason W Ucci
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and National Analytical Ultracentrifugation Facility, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3125, USA
    Biochemistry 46:55-65. 2007
    The dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays a major role in the cellular response to viral infection. PKR contains an N-terminal dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) and a C-terminal kinase domain...
  3. pmc Systematic deletion of the adenovirus-associated RNAI terminal stem reveals a surprisingly active RNA inhibitor of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
    Ahmed M Wahid
    Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:17485-93. 2008
    ..innate cellular immunity and RNA interference, mediated by the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and Dicer/RNA-induced silencing complex, respectively...
  4. pmc Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activation modulates endotoxin-induced diaphragm weakness
    G S Supinski
    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 110:199-205. 2011
    ..It is also known that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a regulator of caspase-8 activation in neural tissue...
  5. ncbi The dsRNA protein kinase PKR: virus and cell control
    M A Garcia
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Biochimie 89:799-811. 2007
    The IFN-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is one of the four mammalian serine-threonine kinases (the three others being HRI, GCN2 and PERK) that phosphorylate the eIF2 alpha translation initiation factor, in ..
  6. pmc Regulation of PKR by HCV IRES RNA: importance of domain II and NS5A
    Rebecca Toroney
    Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Biol 400:393-412. 2010
    Protein kinase R (PKR) is an essential component of the innate immune response...
  7. doi Novel role for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR: modulation of macrophage infection by the protozoan parasite Leishmania
    Renata M S Pereira
    Laboratorio de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    FASEB J 24:617-26. 2010
    ..Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR), a classic antiviral protein, is able to regulate a number of signaling pathways and macrophage functions...
  8. pmc Hepatitis C virus reveals a novel early control in acute immune response
    Noëlla Arnaud
    Institut Pasteur, Hepacivirus and Innate Immunity, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002289. 2011
    ..by cleaving MAVS through its NS3/4A protease and by controlling cellular translation through activation of PKR, an eIF2α-kinase containing dsRNA-binding domains (DRBD)...
  9. pmc Hepatitis C virus controls interferon production through PKR activation
    Noëlla Arnaud
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Hépacivirus et Immunité Innée, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e10575. 2010
    ..The cellular protein kinase PKR is an important regulator of translation, through the phosphorylation of its substrate the eIF2alpha initiation ..
  10. pmc TRBP control of PACT-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R is reversed by stress
    Aïcha Daher
    Virus Cell Interactions Laboratory, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 29:254-65. 2009
    The TAR RNA binding Protein, TRBP, inhibits the activity of the interferon-induced protein kinase R (PKR), whereas the PKR activator, PACT, activates its function...
  11. pmc TRAF family proteins link PKR with NF-kappa B activation
    Jesus Gil
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 24:4502-12. 2004
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR activates NF-kappa B via the I kappa B kinase (IKK) complex, but little is known about additional molecules that may be involved in this pathway...
  12. ncbi Thr 446 phosphorylation of PKR by HCV core protein deregulates G2/M phase in HCC cells
    A Alisi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Sanità Pubblica M I S P, University of L Aquila, L Aquila, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 205:25-31. 2005
    ..Different pathways mediate G2/M arrest: such as p53 and double strand RNA protein kinase (PKR)...
  13. ncbi Expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in small-size peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Mee Sook Roh
    Medical Research Center for Cancer Molecular Therapy, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
    Pathol Int 55:688-93. 2005
    The authors investigated the protein expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which was identified by using a previous cDNA microarray study, to discover PKR's correlations with several pathological parameters ..
  14. pmc Protein kinase PKR plays a stimulus- and virus-dependent role in apoptotic death and virus multiplication in human cells
    Ping Zhang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Biomolecular Sciences and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    J Virol 81:8192-200. 2007
    The protein kinase regulated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), PKR, is implicated in a range of biologic processes, including apoptotic death and interferon antiviral responses, based in part on studies with mouse cells genetically ..
  15. pmc Hepatitis C virus blocks interferon effector function by inducing protein kinase R phosphorylation
    Urtzi Garaigorta
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 6:513-22. 2009
    ..We now show that HCV infection triggers phosphorylation and activation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, which inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 alpha and attenuates ISG protein expression despite ..
  16. ncbi Loss of PKR activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Su Ing Hii
    Cancer Biology Programme, Centre for Immunology and Cancer Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Int J Cancer 109:329-35. 2004
    There are a number of observations that suggest the dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR, may play an active role in formation and maintenance of leukemia, including nonrandom chromosomal deletions in acute leukemia as well as truncations ..
  17. ncbi Nuclear factor-90 of activated T-cells: A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR
    J O Langland
    Department of Microbiology and Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 2701, USA
    Biochemistry 38:6361-8. 1999
    ..RNA-dependent manner likely by the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. The NF90 protein was found to be expressed not only in T-cells, but also in nonimmune HeLa cells...
  18. pmc Protein kinase PKR amplification of interferon β induction occurs through initiation factor eIF-2α-mediated translational control
    Christopher S McAllister
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:36384-92. 2012
    The protein kinase PKR is activated by RNA with double-stranded (ds) structure and subsequently impairs translation through phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2α...
  19. doi Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of double-stranded RNA-dependant protein kinase in Alzheimer's disease
    François Mouton-Liger
    Memory Clinical Center, Lariboisiere Fernand Widal Saint Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, University of Paris Diderot, France
    Biol Psychiatry 71:829-35. 2012
    ..The proapoptotic kinase R (PKR), is activated by Aβ accumulates in degenerating neurons in AD brains and controls protein synthesis and ..
  20. pmc Structure of the double-stranded RNA-binding domain of the protein kinase PKR reveals the molecular basis of its dsRNA-mediated activation
    S Nanduri
    Structural Biology Program, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 17:5458-65. 1998
    Protein kinase PKR is an interferon-induced enzyme that plays a key role in the control of viral infections and cellular homeostasis...
  21. pmc Modular structure of PACT: distinct domains for binding and activating PKR
    G A Peters
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 21:1908-20. 2001
    PACT is a 35-kDa human protein that can directly bind and activate the latent protein kinase, PKR. Here we report that PKR activation by PACT causes cellular apoptosis in addition to PKR autophosphorylation and translation inhibition...
  22. ncbi Binding of double-stranded RNA to protein kinase PKR is required for dimerization and promotes critical autophosphorylation events in the activation loop
    F Zhang
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, NICHHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:24946-58. 2001
    Protein kinase PKR is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and phosphorylates translation initiation factor 2alpha to inhibit protein synthesis in virus-infected mammalian cells...
  23. ncbi Inhibition of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR by HCV E2 protein
    D R Taylor
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Science 285:107-10. 1999
    ..protein E2 contains a sequence identical with phosphorylation sites of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR and the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha, a target of PKR...
  24. pmc The B56alpha regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is a target for regulation by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR
    Z Xu
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5285-99. 2000
    b>PKR is a cellular serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) to regulate protein synthesis...
  25. ncbi Reduction of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus
    George G Chen
    Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T Hong Kong
    J Med Virol 73:187-94. 2004
    ..Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is an interferon-induced, serine/threonine protein kinase...
  26. pmc An RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in tunicamycin-induced apoptosis and Alzheimer's disease
    Reiko Onuki
    Gene Function Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba Science City, Japan
    EMBO J 23:959-68. 2004
    ..We identified a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as one of the participants in this process...
  27. ncbi Activation of NF-kappa B by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR involves the I kappa B kinase complex
    J Gil
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Oncogene 19:1369-78. 2000
    Besides its known role as a translational controlling factor, the double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a key transcriptional regulator exerting antiviral and antitumoural activities...
  28. pmc Induction of protein kinase PKR-dependent activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 by vaccinia virus occurs through adapter IPS-1 signaling
    Ping Zhang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:34580-7. 2008
    ..To test in human cells the role of the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) in IRF-3 activation, HeLa cells made stably deficient in PKR using an RNA interference strategy were compared with ..
  29. ncbi Protein kinase R is increased and is functional in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma
    Yoichi Hiasa
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Cancer Center and Hospital for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 98:2528-34. 2003
    Protein kinase R (PKR) interacts with dsRNA and phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2alpha), which in turn inhibits host translation initiation as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) translation...
  30. pmc Detection of a novel unglycosylated form of hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein that is located in the cytosol and interacts with PKR
    Nicole Pavio
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Virol 76:1265-72. 2002
    ..Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) treatment or overexpression of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) significantly increased the stability of E2-p38, consistent with a previous report (D. R. Taylor, S. T. Shi, P. R...
  31. ncbi Protein kinase R (PKR) interacts with and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MKK6) in response to double-stranded RNA stimulation
    Aristobolo M Silva
    Departments of Cancer Biology and Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:37670-6. 2004
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) has been invoked in different signaling pathways...
  32. pmc Loss of protein kinase PKR expression in human HeLa cells complements the vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant phenotype by restoration of viral protein synthesis
    Ping Zhang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    J Virol 82:840-8. 2008
    ..Among the cellular proteins implicated as targets of E3L is the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR)...
  33. ncbi The double-strand RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays a significant role in a sustained ER stress-induced apoptosis
    Eun Soo Lee
    Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon Dong 300, Jangan gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi do 440 746, South Korea
    FEBS Lett 581:4325-32. 2007
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the double strand RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is involved in the ER stress-mediated signaling pathway...
  34. ncbi Protein kinase R regulates double-stranded RNA induction of TNF-alpha but not IL-1 beta mRNA in human epithelial cells
    Tiffany R Meusel
    Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Immunol 168:6429-35. 2002
    ..Our data show that dsRNA activation of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is associated with induction of TNF-alpha but not IL-1 beta expression...
  35. pmc Prognostic significance of RNA-dependent protein kinase on non-small cell lung cancer patients
    Abujiang Pataer
    Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 16:5522-8. 2010
    The role of RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in antiviral defense mechanisms and in cellular differentiation, growth, and apoptosis is well known, but the role of PKR in human lung cancer remains poorly understood...
  36. ncbi HIV-1 Tat directly interacts with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase, PKR
    N A McMillan
    Department of Cancer Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
    Virology 213:413-24. 1995
    We present evidence that the HIV-1 Tat protein and the RNA-dependent cellular protein kinase, PKR, interact with each other both in vitro and in vivo...
  37. pmc Mechanisms of protein kinase PKR-mediated amplification of beta interferon induction by C protein-deficient measles virus
    Christopher S McAllister
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    J Virol 84:380-6. 2010
    ..Furthermore, protein kinase PKR and mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 were required for maximal C(ko)-mediated IFN-beta induction, which correlated with ..
  38. pmc PACT, a protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase, PKR
    R C Patel
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 17:4379-90. 1998
    b>PKR, a latent protein kinase, mediates the antiviral actions of interferon. It is also involved in cellular signal transduction, apoptosis, growth regulation and differentiation...
  39. ncbi Evidence that hepatitis C virus resistance to interferon is mediated through repression of the PKR protein kinase by the nonstructural 5A protein
    M J Gale
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Virology 230:217-27. 1997
    ..in mediating HCV IFN resistance, we tested whether the NS5A protein could regulate the IFN-induced protein kinase, PKR, a mediator of IFN-induced antiviral resistance and a target of viral and cellular inhibitors...
  40. ncbi The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a substrate and inhibitor of the interferon-induced, virally activated protein kinase, PKR
    S R Brand
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11742, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:8388-95. 1997
    We demonstrate that the interferon-induced, double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated kinase, PKR, is able to bind to and phosphorylate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activating protein, Tat...
  41. ncbi The P58 cellular inhibitor complexes with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, to regulate its autophosphorylation and activity
    S J Polyak
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:1702-7. 1996
    ..to as P58, is a cellular inhibitor of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. The P58 protein inhibits both the autophosphorylation of PKR and the phosphorylation of the PKR natural substrate, ..
  42. ncbi HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms
    R Cai
    Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 373:361-7. 2000
    ..type 1 (HIV-1) is inhibited by interferons (IFNs), in part through activity of the IFN-inducible protein kinase PKR. To escape this antiviral effect, HIV-1 has developed strategies for blocking PKR function...
  43. pmc West Nile virus-induced interferon production is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR
    Felicia D Gilfoy
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0436, USA
    J Virol 81:11148-58. 2007
    ..Here we demonstrate that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR, which has been shown to function as a PRR in cells treated with the dsRNA mimetic poly(I:C), serves as a PRR in ..
  44. ncbi Translation inhibition in apoptosis: caspase-dependent PKR activation and eIF2-alpha phosphorylation
    X Saelens
    Department of Molecular Biology, Unit of Molecular Signaling and Cell Death, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology and Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 276:41620-8. 2001
    The protein kinase PKR is a major player in the cellular antiviral response, acting mainly by phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2-alpha) to block de novo protein synthesis...
  45. ncbi Neoplastic progression in melanoma and colon cancer is associated with increased expression and activity of the interferon-inducible protein kinase, PKR
    Steve H Kim
    Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, New Jersey, NJ 07103, USA
    Oncogene 21:8741-8. 2002
    The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase, PKR, plays key roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and has been postulated as a tumor suppressor...
  46. ncbi Control of the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase by the HIV-1 tat gene product
    S Roy
    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Science 247:1216-9. 1990
    ..effect on translation in vitro by activating the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase (p68 kinase)...
  47. pmc Protein kinase PKR is required for platelet-derived growth factor signaling of c-fos gene expression via Erks and Stat3
    A Deb
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 20:2487-96. 2001
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase PKR is an interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme that controls protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF-2alpha)...
  48. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase interacts with apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Implications for apoptosis signaling pathways
    Takenori Takizawa
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 269:6126-32. 2002
    Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a serine/threonine kinase, is activated in virus-infected cells and acts as an antiviral machinery of type I interferons...
  49. ncbi 5'-triphosphate-dependent activation of PKR by RNAs with short stem-loops
    Subba Rao Nallagatla
    Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Science 318:1455-8. 2007
    ..immune system, and a component of this response is the interferon-induced enzyme RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). The major activators of PKR have been proposed to be long double-stranded RNAs...
  50. ncbi Okadaic acid induces apoptosis through double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha pathway in human osteoblastic MG63 cells
    Hiroyuki Morimoto
    Department of Anatomy, School of Dentistry, The University of Tokushima, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770 8504, Japan
    J Biochem 136:433-8. 2004
    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a participant in the cellular antiviral response and phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF-2alpha) to block protein synthesis...
  51. pmc Repression of PKR mediates palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through regulation of Bcl-2
    Xuerui Yang
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Cell Res 19:469-86. 2009
    The present study shows that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) regulates the protein expression level and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and plays an anti-apoptotic role in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
  52. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of the human double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase induced by interferon
    E Meurs
    Institut Pasteur Unité d Oncologie Virale URA CNRS 1157, Paris, France
    Cell 62:379-90. 1990
    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase from human cells is a 68 kd protein (p68 kinase) induced by interferon...
  53. doi PKR protein kinase is activated by hepatitis C virus and inhibits viral replication through translational control
    Ju Il Kang
    School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 5 1 Anamdong, Seoul 136 701, Republic of Korea
    Virus Res 142:51-6. 2009
    ..here that HCV JFH1 infection of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells leads to the activation of IFN-inducible protein kinase PKR and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha...
  54. ncbi Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
    L M Parker
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103 2714, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:32522-30. 2001
    ..motifs (dsRBMs) and interacts with highly structured RNAs as well as the dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. In this report, we characterize the biochemical interactions between these two dsRBM containing proteins...
  55. pmc NF-kappaB activation by double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is mediated through NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and IkappaB kinase
    M Zamanian-Daryoush
    Department of Cancer Biology, The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:1278-90. 2000
    The interferon (IFN)-inducible double-stranded-RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine-threonine protein kinase (PKR) is a major mediator of the antiviral and antiproliferative activities of IFNs...
  56. pmc The RNA-activated protein kinase enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors
    Christopher S McAllister
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:1644-51. 2009
    ..PRNAs 50 nucleotides long as well as polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid activated the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and induced significant levels of IFN-beta and apoptosis, whereas shorter PRNAs and chemically synthesized dsRNAs ..
  57. ncbi Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR
    N Abraham
    Ottawa Regional Cancer Center Research Laboratories, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6
    J Biol Chem 274:5953-62. 1999
    The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses...
  58. pmc A PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase from zebrafish contains Z-DNA binding domains instead of dsRNA binding domains
    Stefan Rothenburg
    Institut fur Immunologie, Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1602-7. 2005
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is induced as part of the IFN response in mammals and acts to shut down protein synthesis by the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha)...
  59. pmc Protein synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress can be modulated by the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 through the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase PERK
    Nicole Pavio
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Virol 77:3578-85. 2003
    ..protein that contains a region of sequence homology with the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR and its substrate, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2)...
  60. ncbi The catalytic activity of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase PKR is required to negatively regulate Stat1 and Stat3 via activation of the T-cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase
    Shuo Wang
    Department of Oncology, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:9439-49. 2006
    ..The protein kinase PKR plays an important role in translational control through the modulation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha ..
  61. pmc The gamma(1)34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 complexes with protein phosphatase 1alpha to dephosphorylate the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 and preclude the shutoff of protein synthesis by double-stranded RNA-activa
    B He
    Marjorie B Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:843-8. 1997
    In human cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is activated but phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) and total shutoff of ..
  62. pmc Interleukin 3 stimulates protein synthesis by regulating double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    T Ito
    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD 21231
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:7455-9. 1994
    ..line, IL-3 deprivation resulted in increased autophosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) that has been reported to inhibit protein synthesis by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation ..
  63. ncbi Comparison of the eIF-2alpha homologous proteins of seven ranaviruses (Iridoviridae)
    S Essbauer
    Institute of Zoology, Fishery Biology and Fish Diseases, LMU University of Munich, Muenchen, Germany
    Virus Genes 23:347-59. 2001
    ..stress such as viral infections, eIF-2alpha is phosphorylated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) leading to the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis...
  64. ncbi Inactivation of the PKR protein kinase and stimulation of mRNA translation by the cellular co-chaperone P58(IPK) does not require J domain function
    Wei Yan
    Department of Microbiology and Washington Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Biochemistry 41:4938-45. 2002
    P58(IPK) was discovered as an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, protein kinase, PKR. Upon virus infection, PKR can, as part of the host defense system, inhibit mRNA translation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of protein synthesis ..
  65. pmc NSs protein of rift valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    Matthias Habjan
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 83:4365-75. 2009
    ..part of the antiviral activity of IFN against RVFV is due to a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)...
  66. ncbi Involvement of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in ER stress-induced retinal neuron damage
    Masamitsu Shimazawa
    Department of Biofunctional Molecules, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3729-36. 2007
    To clarify whether the activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) participates in the cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the authors used cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion ..
  67. ncbi Platelet-derived growth factor signal transduction through the interferon-inducible kinase PKR. Immediate early gene induction
    L J Mundschau
    Cancer Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118
    J Biol Chem 270:3100-6. 1995
    The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha kinase PKR has primarily been characterized as a component of the interferon-mediated cellular antiviral response...
  68. doi Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase inhibits hepatitis C virus replication but may be not essential in interferon treatment
    Jin Hai Chang
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Liver Int 30:311-8. 2010
    Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene, is activated by binding with double-stranded RNA, a putative replicative intermediate of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  69. doi Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro
    Junpei Teramachi
    Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770 8504, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 316:3254-62. 2010
    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in antiviral defence of the host cells. PKR is also involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis...
  70. pmc Ethanol promotes thiamine deficiency-induced neuronal death: involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
    Zun Ji Ke
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:1097-103. 2009
    ..The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a potent antiviral protein...
  71. ncbi The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates radiation resistance in mouse embryo fibroblasts through nuclear factor kappaB and Akt activation
    Urs von Holzen
    Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 13:6032-9. 2007
    Activation of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) leads to the induction of various pathways including the down-regulation of translation through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (..
  72. pmc Translational resistance of late alphavirus mRNA to eIF2alpha phosphorylation: a strategy to overcome the antiviral effect of protein kinase PKR
    Iván Ventoso
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia CSIC, Cantoblanco, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Genes Dev 20:87-100. 2006
    The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is one of the four mammalian kinases that phosphorylates the translation initiation factor 2alpha in response to virus infection...
  73. doi Functional expression of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in rat intestinal epithelial cells
    Nagahiro Sato
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1 1, Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    J Cell Biochem 110:104-11. 2010
    ..component of this barrier in intestine, we examined the expression of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)...
  74. ncbi Induction of E-selectin expression by double-stranded RNA and TNF-alpha is attenuated in murine aortic endothelial cells derived from double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR)-null mice
    S K Bandyopadhyay
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Immunol 164:2077-83. 2000
    ..Because we have previously shown that the dsRNA-activated kinase PKR mediates dsRNA induction of NF-kappaB, we used murine aortic endothelial (MuAE) cells isolated from wild-type and ..
  75. doi Activation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 α-kinases in okadaic acid-treated neurons
    S M Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Neuroscience 169:1831-9. 2010
    ..and this protein can be phosphorylated by several kinases, including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), amino acids-regulated eIF2 alpha kinase (GCN2) and heme-regulated ..
  76. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (pkr) is essential for thermotolerance, accumulation of HSP70, and stabilization of ARE-containing HSP70 mRNA during stress
    Meijuan Zhao
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:44539-47. 2002
    We have investigated the role of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase gene (pkr) in the regulation of the heat shock response...
  77. pmc Functional domains and the antiviral effect of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR from Paralichthys olivaceus
    Rong Zhu
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
    J Virol 82:6889-901. 2008
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR is thought to mediate a conserved antiviral pathway by inhibiting viral protein synthesis via the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (..
  78. ncbi Upstream signaling pathways leading to the activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase in beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity
    Ka Chun Suen
    Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    J Biol Chem 278:49819-27. 2003
    ..previously that Abeta peptide induces activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (PKR) and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) in neurons in vitro...
  79. ncbi Ultrastructural localization of interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated enzymes in human cells
    S Besse
    Laboratoire Organisation Fonctionnelle du Noyau de l UPR 9044 CNRS, Villejuif, France
    Exp Cell Res 239:379-92. 1998
    The protein kinase PKR and the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase are two interferon-induced and double-stranded RNA-activated enzymes which are implicated in the mechanism of action of interferon...
  80. ncbi Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism in neurons
    Xin Wang
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Neurochem 103:2380-90. 2007
    ..The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), has been well known for its anti-viral function...
  81. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase is required for the LPS-induced activation of STAT1 inflammatory signaling in rat brain glial cells
    Jee Hoon Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
    Glia 50:66-79. 2005
    b>PKR, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated as an important component of host responses to infection and various situations of cellular stress...
  82. pmc Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation
    Tetsuro Ikegami
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000287. 2009
    ..of RVFV lacking the NSs protein, but not that carrying NSs, induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation, leading to the suppression of host and viral ..
  83. pmc Transcriptional induction of the human asparagine synthetase gene during the unfolded protein response does not require the ATF6 and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the pathway
    Altin Gjymishka
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics Institute, Shands Cancer Center and Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Biochem J 417:695-703. 2009
    ..pathway comprises three signalling cascades mediated by the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress-sensor proteins PERK [PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase)-like ER kinase], IRE1 (inositol-requiring kinase 1) and ATF6 (..
  84. pmc The herpes simplex virus type 1 U(S)11 protein interacts with protein kinase R in infected cells and requires a 30-amino-acid sequence adjacent to a kinase substrate domain
    Kevin A Cassady
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Virol 76:2029-35. 2002
    ..5 gene product precludes the host-mediated protein shutoff response induced by activated protein kinase R (PKR). Earlier studies demonstrated that recombinant viruses lacking the gamma(1)34.5 gene (Deltagamma(1)34...
  85. pmc Activation of PKR by Bunyamwera virus is independent of the viral interferon antagonist NSs
    Hein Streitenfeld
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 77:5507-11. 2003
    ..Cellular responses to dsRNA include induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN) synthesis and activation of the enzyme PKR, which exerts its antiviral effect by phosphorylating the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2 alpha, thereby ..
  86. ncbi Interferon-induced proteins are elevated in blood samples of patients with chemically or virally induced chronic fatigue syndrome
    A Vojdani
    Immunosciences Laboratory Inc, Beverly Hills, California, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 21:175-202. 1999
    ..Since interferon induced proteins 2-5A Synthetase and Protein Kinase RNA (PKR) have been implicated in the viral induction of CFS, the objective of this study was to utilize 2-5A and PKR ..
  87. ncbi Identification by electron microscopy of the maturation steps in vaccinia virus morphogenesis inhibited by the interferon-induced enzymes, protein kinase (PKR), 2-5A synthetase, and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
    M Esteban
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Electron Microscopy Service, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 280049 Madrid, Spain
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 20:867-77. 2000
    ..in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells each of the three IFN-induced genes encoding protein kinase (PKR), 2-5A synthetase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
  88. pmc Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications
    Stefan Rothenburg
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMC Biol 6:12. 2008
    ..ds) RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha leading to the general inhibition of protein ..
  89. ncbi Functional characterization of pkr gene products expressed in cells from mice with a targeted deletion of the N terminus or C terminus domain of PKR
    Dionissios Baltzis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Ste Catherine Street, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:38364-72. 2002
    The interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase, PKR, plays an important role in messenger (m) RNA translation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2...
  90. ncbi Characterization of the solution complex between the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase and HIV-I trans-activating region RNA
    B W Carpick
    Department of Cancer Biology, Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:9510-6. 1997
    The antiviral activity of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is mediated through dsRNA binding leading to PKR autophosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis...
  91. ncbi Mechanism of attenuation of angiotensin-II-induced protein degradation by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
    Steven T Russell
    Nutritional Biomedicine, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Cell Signal 19:1583-95. 2007
    ..Induction of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been linked to activation of the RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), since an inhibitor of PKR attenuated proteasome expression and activity in response to angiotensin II and ..
  92. ncbi Three leucine-rich sequences and the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) are responsible for its cytoplasmic localization
    T Takizawa
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi 480 0392, Japan
    J Biochem 128:471-6. 2000
    The double-stranded RNA-activated-protein kinase PKR was originally identified as a ribosomal protein that regulates protein synthesis at the translational level...
  93. pmc The VP35 protein of Ebola virus inhibits the antiviral effect mediated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR
    Zongdi Feng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology M C 790, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Virol 81:182-92. 2007
    ..on the VP35 function that interferes with the pathway regulated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. When expressed in a heterologous system, the VP35 protein enhanced viral polypeptide synthesis and growth in Vero ..
  94. ncbi Molecular cloning of two new interferon-induced, highly related nuclear phosphoproteins
    S Kadereit
    Unit of Virology and Cellular Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 268:24432-41. 1993
    During the molecular cloning of the human dsRNA activated-p68 kinase (PKR), polyclonal antibodies against PKR selected, in addition to cDNAs corresponding to PKR, another cDNA presenting only slight homology with PKR cDNA...
  95. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, down-regulates CDC2/cyclin B1 and induces apoptosis in non-transformed but not in v-mos transformed cells
    Y Dagon
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
    Oncogene 20:8045-56. 2001
    The interferon (IFN)-induced, double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine/threonine kinase, PKR, is a potent negative regulator of cell growth when overexpressed in yeast or mammalian cells...
  96. ncbi The 58-kDa cellular inhibitor of the double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase requires the tetratricopeptide repeat 6 and DnaJ motifs to stimulate protein synthesis in vivo
    N M Tang
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:28660-6. 1996
    Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a double stranded RNA-activated, interferon-induced serine-threonine kinase that participates in both the antiviral and antiproliferative properties of interferon...
  97. pmc Herpes simplex virus 1 infection activates the endoplasmic reticulum resident kinase PERK and mediates eIF-2alpha dephosphorylation by the gamma(1)34.5 protein
    Guofeng Cheng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology M C 790, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Ave, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Virol 79:1379-88. 2005
    ..Although the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is activated during HSV infection, the gamma(1)34...
  98. pmc Diversity in viral anti-PKR mechanisms: a remarkable case of evolutionary convergence
    Elena Domingo-Gil
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular and Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e16711. 2011
    ..express during infection products that prevent or neutralize the effect of the host dsRNA activated protein kinase (PKR)...
  99. doi PKR, the double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase as a critical target in Alzheimer's disease
    Milena Morel
    Research Group on Brain Aging EA 3808 University of Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex, France
    J Cell Mol Med 13:1476-88. 2009
    ..The availability of these factors depends on the activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), respectively...
  100. pmc Analysis of PKR structure by small-angle scattering
    Jennifer VanOudenhove
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
    J Mol Biol 387:910-20. 2009
    Protein kinase R (PKR) is a key component of the interferon antiviral defense pathway. Upon binding double-stranded RNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation reactions that activate the kinase...
  101. pmc The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase differentially regulates insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 in HepG2 cells
    Xuerui Yang
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 21:3449-58. 2010
    Initially identified to be activated upon virus infection, the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is best known for triggering cell defense responses by phosphorylating eIF-2α, thus suppressing RNA translation...

Research Grants90

  1. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL IN REGULATION OF APOPTOSIS
    Randal Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..ubiquitous eIF-2alpha kinase known in mammalian cells is the double-stranded RNA-dependent serine/threonine kinase (PKR)...
  2. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..investigation is to elucidate the role of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the actions which natural and recombinant interferons mediate on viral and host functions...
  3. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..trichothecene, mediates cleavage of 18S and 28S ribosomal (r)RNA, 2) double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a ribosome-associated serine-threonine kinase, is essential for DON-induced protein kinase activation and 3) DON ..
  4. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..trichothecene, mediates cleavage of 18S and 28S ribosomal (r)RNA, 2) double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a ribosome-associated serine-threonine kinase, is essential for DON-induced protein kinase activation and 3) DON ..
  5. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..chemotherapy treatment or viral infection promotes activation of the double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase, PKR, by its cellular activator protein, RAX...
  6. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William May; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..chemotherapy treatment or viral infection promotes activation of the double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase, PKR, by its cellular activator protein, RAX...
  7. MECHANISM FOR REGULATION OF PKR PROTEIN BY RNA
    PHILIP BEVILACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The interferon- induced protein kinase activated by RNA (PKR) mediates the human viral defense mechanism, as well as the growth, differentiation, and programmed death of human ..
  8. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..investigation is to elucidate the role of the interferon-inducible, double-stranded, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the actions which natural and recombinant interferons mediate on viral and host functions...
  9. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..investigation is to elucidate the role of the interferon-inducible, double-stranded, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the actions which natural and recombinant interferons mediate on viral and host functions...
  10. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..investigation is to elucidate the role of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the actions which natural and recombinant interferons mediate on viral and host functions...
  11. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    ROBERT KRUG; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..inhibition of the nuclear export of mRNA; inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing; and blocking activation of the PKR kinase that would lead to the inhibition of translation...
  12. Inflammatory and stress signaling networks in metabolic disease
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..led us to a well-established pathogen sensing pathway mediated by the double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase, PKR. We made exiting observations showing the marked activation of this kinase, which can act upstream of JNK and the ..
  13. ANTIVIRAL PROTEIN KINASE AND TH2 RESPONSES
    Farhad Imani; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..which consequently activates a ubiquitous anti viral protein kinase (Protein Kinase double-stranded RNA-activated, PKR)...
  14. Cigarette Smoke, RIG-like Helicases and Alveolar Remodeling
    Jack A Elias; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is downstream of RLH and includes type I and II Interferons, IL-18, double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) and eukaryotic initiation factor-2( (eIF2() and (c) associated with activation of the 2',5'-..
  15. INTRACELLULAR MECHANISMS OF TUMOR PROMOTION
    Bruce Magun; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..these observations, we hypothesize that treatment with thapsigargin results in the activation of protein kinase R (PKR), which phosphorylates eIF2 alpha...
  16. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION AND CELLULAR RESPONSE
    Bin He; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It has been established that virus infection activates the double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR), which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha), leading to the shutoff of ..
  17. Alcohol-Induced Regulation of Hepatic Protein Synthesis
    THOMAS VARY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Ethanol or its metabolites may cause a selective activation of 1 of the known elF2 kinases (PERK, GCN2, PKR or HRI) or inhibit elF2a phosphatase activity...
  18. Role of FA protein complexes in hematopoiesis
    Qishen Pang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our studies have demonstrated that the pro-apoptotic protein kinase PKR is required for cytokine hypersensitivity of FA cells...
  19. Interferon Regulated dsRNA Activated Kinase, PKR
    Bryan Williams; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..project is to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR controls viral growth and cellular homeostasis...
  20. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INITIATION IN ANIMAL CELLS
    Bansidhar Datta; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..p67, a cellular glycoprotein, protects eIF2alpha from phosphorylation by active kinases, PKR and HCR. The O-GlcNAc moieties of p67 are required for its activity...
  21. INTERFERON REGULATED DS RNA ACTIVATED KINASE, PKR
    Bryan Williams; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR, is an interferon (IFN)-regulated host defense enzyme essential for higher vertebrates to suppress the spread of different viruses...
  22. Molecular Basis for PKR Activation by Viral RNAs
    JOSEPH PUGLISI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a 68 kDa protein that is activated by dsRNA binding, leading to phosphorylation of initiation factor elF2a...
  23. Molecular Basis for PKR Activation by Viral RNAs
    JOSEPH PUGLISI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a 68 kDa protein that is activated by dsRNA binding, leading to phosphorylation of initiation factor elF2a...
  24. Molecular Basis for PKR Activation by Viral RNAs
    JOSEPH PUGLISI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a 68 kDa protein that is activated by dsRNA binding, leading to phosphorylation of initiation factor elF2a...
  25. Metabolic stress responses and eIF2 kinase GCN2
    RONALD WEK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..C-terminus of GCN2 can functionally replace the regulatory domain of the related eIF2 kinase, PKRI This so-called PKR chimera system will be exploited to identify diverse oligomerization and targeting domains and select for mutations ..
  26. RNA-regulation and signal transduction by PKR
    CYNTHIA BURROWS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>PKR, the RNA-dependent protein kinase, is a member of the elF2 alpha kinase family that controls the rate of translation initiation in human cells in response to various environmental stresses...
  27. RNA-regulation and signal transduction by PKR
    PETER BEAL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>PKR, the RNA-dependent protein kinase, is a member of the elF2 alpha kinase family that controls the rate of translation initiation in human cells in response to various environmental stresses...
  28. Functions of Double-stranded RNA Binding Proteins
    Michael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and nuclear factor 90 (NF90) each contain two dsRBMs...
  29. VIRAL & HOST FACTORS IN HERPETIC REACTIVATION
    David A Leib; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Xenophagy is an important PKR-dependent host defense mechanism against chronic intracellular pathogens...
  30. Activation of Innate Immunity by Small Ribonucleoprotein
    Westley Reeves; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..innate immunity by binding to dsRNA binding proteins such as TLR3 and/or the dsRNA dependent protein kinase (PKR), causing increased production of type I interferon (IFN) leading to an antiviral response...