PKN2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PKN2
Description: protein kinase N2
Alias: PAK2, PRK2, PRKCL2, PRO2042, Pak-2, STK7, serine/threonine-protein kinase N2, PKN gamma, cardiolipin-activated protein kinase Pak2, protein kinase C-like 2, protein-kinase C-related kinase 2
Species: human
Products:     PKN2

Top Publications

  1. Quilliam L, Lambert Q, Mickelson Young L, Westwick J, Sparks A, Kay B, et al. Isolation of a NCK-associated kinase, PRK2, an SH3-binding protein and potential effector of Rho protein signaling. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:28772-6 pubmed
    ..the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP, a putative CDC42 effector) and a serine/threonine protein kinase (PRK2, closely related to the putative Rho effector PKN)...
  2. Vincent S, Settleman J. The PRK2 kinase is a potential effector target of both Rho and Rac GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeletal organization. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2247-56 pubmed
    ..Peptide microsequencing revealed that p140 is probably identical to the previously reported PRK2 kinase, a close relative of PKN...
  3. Wallace S, Magalhaes A, Hall A. The Rho target PRK2 regulates apical junction formation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This led to the identification of the serine-threonine kinase PRK2 (protein kinase C-related kinase 2, also called PKN2)...
  4. Palmer R, Ridden J, Parker P. Cloning and expression patterns of two members of a novel protein-kinase-C-related kinase family. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:344-51 pubmed
    ..These protein-kinase-C-related kinases, PRK1 and PRK2, display extensive identity to each other, revealing non-kinase domain similar regions. HR1 and HR2...
  5. Yu W, Liu J, Morrice N, Wettenhall R. Isolation and characterization of a structural homologue of human PRK2 from rat liver. Distinguishing substrate and lipid activator specificities. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10030-4 pubmed
    A homologue of human protein kinase C (PKC)-related kinase-2, PRK2, which had previously escaped identification in normal mammalian tissues, was isolated from rat liver as the protease-activated kinase (PAK) originally named PAK-2...
  6. Flynn P, Mellor H, Palmer R, Panayotou G, Parker P. Multiple interactions of PRK1 with RhoA. Functional assignment of the Hr1 repeat motif. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2698-705 pubmed
    ..motif is also found to confer RhoA binding activity to the only other fully cloned member of this kinase family, PRK2. Furthermore, the predictive value of this motif is established for an HR1a sequence derived from a Caenorhabditis ..
  7. Braverman L, Quilliam L. Identification of Grb4/Nckbeta, a src homology 2 and 3 domain-containing adapter protein having similar binding and biological properties to Nck. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5542-9 pubmed
    ..Nck and Grb4 proteins could associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and the SH3-binding proteins PAK, Sos1, and PRK2, and they synergized with v-Abl and Sos to induce gene expression via the transcription factor Elk-1...
  8. Lim W, Chen X, Liu J, Tan B, Zhou S, Smith A, et al. The C-terminus of PRK2/PKNgamma is required for optimal activation by RhoA in a GTP-dependent manner. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;479:170-8 pubmed publisher
    b>PRK2/PKNgamma is a Rho effector and a member of the protein kinase C superfamily of serine/threonine kinases...
  9. O Sullivan A, Mulvaney E, Kinsella B. Regulation of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) signalling by the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: Implications for thromboxane- and androgen- dependent neoplastic and epigenetic responses in prostate cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:838-856 pubmed publisher
    ..g of the KLK3/prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2 genes) through mechanisms involving TPα/TPβ mediated-PRK1 and PRK2, but not PRK3, signalling complexes...

More Information

Publications142 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lang E, Lang F. Mechanisms and pathophysiological significance of eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;39:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..g. ampk, gk, pak2, ck1α, jak3, pkc, p38-mapk)...
  2. Tegtmeyer N, Neddermann M, Asche C, Backert S. Subversion of host kinases: a key network in cellular signaling hijacked by Helicobacter pylori CagA. Mol Microbiol. 2017;105:358-372 pubmed publisher
    ..kinases (c-Met and EGFR) and non-receptor kinases (Src, Abl, Csk, aPKC, Par1, PI3K, Akt, FAK, GSK-3, JAK, PAK1, PAK2 and MAP kinases), manipulating a selection of fundamental processes in the human gastric epithelium such as cell ..
  3. Gavillet M, Martinod K, Renella R, Wagner D, Williams D. A key role for Rac and Pak signaling in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) formation defines a new potential therapeutic target. Am J Hematol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We validated the importance of Pak using Pak2?/? PMNs, which demonstrated significantly impaired histone H3 citrullination and NETosis...
  4. Lv C, Wang H, Tong Y, Yin H, Wang D, Yan Z, et al. The function of BTG3 in colorectal cancer cells and its possible signaling pathway. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018;144:295-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting revealed that BTG3 knockdown upregulated PAK2, RPS6KA5, YWHAB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 protein levels, but downregulated ..
  5. Nedeljkovic I, Lahousse L, Carnero Montoro E, Faiz A, Vonk J, de Jong K, et al. COPD GWAS variant at 19q13.2 in relation with DNA methylation and gene expression. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..42% mediated through cg11298343, and in lung tissue, in cis and trans (NUMBL, EGLN2, DNMT3A, LOC101929709 and PAK2)...
  6. Lyons J, Brubaker D, Ghazi P, Baldwin K, Edwards A, Boukhali M, et al. Integrated in vivo multiomics analysis identifies p21-activated kinase signaling as a driver of colitis. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical inhibition of Pak1 and Pak2 with FRAX597 suppressed active colitis in mice...
  7. Barry D, Xu K, Meadows S, Zheng Y, Norden P, Davis G, et al. Cdc42 is required for cytoskeletal support of endothelial cell adhesion during blood vessel formation in mice. Development. 2015;142:3058-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify Cdc42 effectors Pak2/4 and N-WASP, as well as the actomyosin machinery, to be crucial for EC actin organization...
  8. Whalley H, Porter A, Diamantopoulou Z, White G, Castañeda Saucedo E, Malliri A. Cdk1 phosphorylates the Rac activator Tiam1 to activate centrosomal Pak and promote mitotic spindle formation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7437 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we show that both Pak1 and Pak2 counteract centrosome separation in a kinase-dependent manner and demonstrate that they act downstream of Tiam1...
  9. Copley Salem C, Ulrich C, Quilici D, Schlauch K, Buxton I, Burkin H. Mechanical strain induced phospho-proteomic signaling in uterine smooth muscle cells. J Biomech. 2018;73:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical strain leads to the direct activation of ERK1/2, HSPB1, and MYL9, in addition to phosphorylation of PAK2, vimentin, DOCK1, PPP1R12A, and PTPN11 at previously unannotated sites...
  10. Ding Y, Li Y, Lu L, Zhang R, Zeng L, Wang L, et al. Inhibition of Nischarin Expression Promotes Neurite Outgrowth through Regulation of PAK Activity. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144948 pubmed publisher
    ..interacts with p21-activated kinase 1/2 (PAK1/2) and negatively regulates phosphorylation of both PAK1 and PAK2. The stimulation of neurite growth observed in cells with decreased levels of Nischarin is partially abolished by ..
  11. Sero J, Bakal C. Multiparametric Analysis of Cell Shape Demonstrates that ?-PIX Directly Couples YAP Activation to Extracellular Matrix Adhesion. Cell Syst. 2017;4:84-96.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (GAPs), together with targeted chemical perturbations, we found that ?-PIX, a Rac1/Ccd42 GEF, and PAK2, a Rac1/Cdc42 effector, drive both YAP activation and cell-ECM adhesion turnover during cell spreading...
  12. Matsunuma R, Chan D, Kim B, Singh P, Han A, Saltzman A, et al. DPYSL3 modulates mitosis, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in claudin-low breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E11978-E11987 pubmed publisher
    ..DPYSL3 also suppressed the expression of EMT regulators SNAIL and TWIST and opposed p21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2)-dependent migration...
  13. Chung L, Park Y, Zheng Y, Brodsky I, Hearing P, Kastner D, et al. The Yersinia Virulence Factor YopM Hijacks Host Kinases to Inhibit Type III Effector-Triggered Activation of the Pyrin Inflammasome. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;20:296-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, YopM recruits and activates the host kinases PRK1 and PRK2 to negatively regulate pyrin by phosphorylation...
  14. Xu R, Qin N, Xu X, Sun X, Chen X, Zhao J. Inhibitory effect of SLIT2 on granulosa cell proliferation mediated by the CDC42-PAKs-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway in the prehierarchical follicles of the chicken ovary. Sci Rep. 2018;8:9168 pubmed publisher
    ..kinases were completely abrogated by knocking down endogenous PAK1 and partially abrogated by the knockdown of PAK2 and PAK3 in the GCs...
  15. Tejera E, Cruz Monteagudo M, Burgos G, Sánchez M, Sánchez Rodríguez A, Pérez Castillo Y, et al. Consensus strategy in genes prioritization and combined bioinformatics analysis for preeclampsia pathogenesis. BMC Med Genomics. 2017;10:50 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach actually identifies well known genes related with pathogenesis. However, genes like HSP90, PAK2, CD247 and others included in the first 1% of the prioritized list need to be further explored in preeclampsia ..
  16. Joseph G, Hung M, Goel A, Hong M, Rieder M, Beckmann N, et al. Late-onset megaconial myopathy in mice lacking group I Paks. Skelet Muscle. 2019;9:5 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that Pak1 and Pak2 function redundantly to promote skeletal myoblast differentiation during postnatal development and regeneration in ..
  17. Lo P, Maeda A, Kodama T, Takakura C, Yoneyama T, Sakai R, et al. The novel immunosuppressant prenylated quinolinecarboxylic acid-18 (PQA-18) suppresses macrophage differentiation and cytotoxicity in xenotransplantation. Immunobiology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..It has been reported that prenylated quinolinecarboxylic acid-18 (PQA-18), a p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) inhibitor, exerts an immunosuppressive function on T cells...
  18. Ghatak S, Misra S, Moreno Rodrigue R, Hascall V, Leone G, Markwald R. Periostin/β1integrin interaction regulates p21-activated kinases in valvular interstitial cell survival and in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2019;1863:813-829 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Pak1, but not Pak2 and Pak4, is a critical mediator of VIC survival and actin organization, and that the molecular signaling ..
  19. Kosoff R, Aslan J, Kostyak J, Dulaimi E, Chow H, Prudnikova T, et al. Pak2 restrains endomitosis during megakaryopoiesis and alters cytoskeleton organization. Blood. 2015;125:2995-3005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify Pak2 as an essential effector of megakaryocyte maturation, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation...
  20. Shinya E, Shimizu M, Owaki A, Paoletti S, Mori L, De Libero G, et al. Hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) are involved in the down-regulation of CD1a lipid antigen presentation by HIV-1 Nef in dendritic cells. Virology. 2016;487:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the involvement of the association of Nef with hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), and that Hck, which is expressed strongly in iDCs, augmented this mutual interaction...
  21. Radu M, Rawat S, Beeser A, Iliuk A, Tao W, Chernoff J. ArhGAP15, a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein, plays a dual role in inhibiting small GTPase signaling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..protein microarray screen to identify the Rac-specific GAP, ArhGAP15, as a substrate of the Rac effectors Pak1 and Pak2. In addition to serving as a substrate of Pak1/2, we found that ArhGAP15, via its PH domain, bound to these kinases...
  22. Liu X, Taftaf R, Kawaguchi M, Chang Y, Chen W, Entenberg D, et al. Homophilic CD44 Interactions Mediate Tumor Cell Aggregation and Polyclonal Metastasis in Patient-Derived Breast Cancer Models. Cancer Discov. 2019;9:96-113 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of CD44 effectively prevented tumor cell aggregation and decreased PAK2 levels...
  23. Elsherif L, Ozler M, Zayed M, Shen J, Chernoff J, Faber J, et al. Potential compensation among group I PAK members in hindlimb ischemia and wound healing. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112239 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, however, we observed a notable increase in PAK2 expression and phosphorylation in ischemic gastrocnemius tissue from PAK1-/- but not PAK1+/+ mice...
  24. Ha B, Morse E, Turk B, Boggon T. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:12975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6)...
  25. O Hagan K, Choi J, Pryshchep O, Chernoff J, Phee H. Pak2 Links TCR Signaling Strength to the Development of Regulatory T Cells and Maintains Peripheral Tolerance. J Immunol. 2015;195:1564-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show a novel role for the actin cytoskeletal remodeling protein, p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), in Treg development and homeostasis...
  26. Hoa L, Kulaberoglu Y, Gundogdu R, Cook D, Mavis M, Gomez M, et al. The characterisation of LATS2 kinase regulation in Hippo-YAP signalling. Cell Signal. 2016;28:488-497 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, LATS2-PIF, a LATS2 variant containing the PRK2 HM, acts as a hyperactive LATS2 kinase that efficiently phosphorylates YAP1 and inhibits the transcriptional co-..
  27. Joshi S, Platanias L. Mnk kinase pathway: Cellular functions and biological outcomes. World J Biol Chem. 2014;5:321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the ..
  28. Imle A, Abraham L, Tsopoulidis N, Hoflack B, Saksela K, Fackler O. Association with PAK2 Enables Functional Interactions of Lentiviral Nef Proteins with the Exocyst Complex. MBio. 2015;6:e01309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This relies on the assembly of a labile multiprotein complex including the host kinase PAK2 that Nef usurps to phosphorylate and inactivate the actin-severing factor cofilin...
  29. Radu M, Lyle K, Hoeflich K, Villamar Cruz O, Koeppen H, Chernoff J. p21-Activated Kinase 2 Regulates Endothelial Development and Function through the Bmk1/Erk5 Pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3990-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..there is no consensus on the endothelial function of individual Pak isoforms, in particular p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), the main Pak isoform expressed in endothelial cells...
  30. Xiao T, Li W, Wang X, Xu H, Yang J, WU Q, et al. Estrogen-regulated feedback loop limits the efficacy of estrogen receptor-targeted breast cancer therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:7869-7878 pubmed publisher
    ..breast cancer resistant to endocrine therapy and with the poorest outcomes, the p21 protein-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) becomes activated and drives estrogen-independent growth...
  31. Ogura M, Kikuchi H, Suzuki T, Yamaki J, Homma M, Oshima Y, et al. Prenylated quinolinecarboxylic acid derivative suppresses immune response through inhibition of PAK2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016;105:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that PQA-18 inhibits kinase activity of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2)...
  32. Chang Y, Park K, Lee J, Han K. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals PAK2 as a therapeutic target for lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;505:187-193 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identified PAK2 as a therapeutic target from the network analysis and validated that PAK2 knockdown and PAK inhibitor treatment ..
  33. Lee S, Moon J, Pak B, Kim G, Lee W, Cho H, et al. HA1077 displays synergistic activity with daclatasvir against hepatitis C virus and suppresses the emergence of NS5A resistance-associated substitutions in mice. Sci Rep. 2018;8:12469 pubmed publisher
    The kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2), which phosphorylates hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA polymerase, is a proviral factor enhancing HCV replication...
  34. Schmidt S, Willers J, Riecker S, Möller K, Schuchardt J, Hahn A. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cytoskeleton: an open-label intervention study. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:4 pubmed publisher
    ..of cytoskeleton-associated genes, in particular three GTPases (RAC1, RHOA, CDC42), three kinases (ROCK1, PAK2, LIMK), two Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASL, WASF2) as well as actin related protein 2/3 complex (ARPC2, ..
  35. Tornavaca O, Chia M, Dufton N, Almagro L, Conway D, Randi A, et al. ZO-1 controls endothelial adherens junctions, cell-cell tension, angiogenesis, and barrier formation. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:821-38 pubmed publisher
    ..to stress fibers, reduced tension on VE-cadherin and loss of junctional mechanotransducers such as vinculin and PAK2, and induced vinculin dissociation from the α-catenin-VE-cadherin complex...
  36. Jacob R, Johnson A, Pawlak E, Dirk B, Van Nynatten L, Haeryfar S, et al. The interaction between HIV-1 Nef and adaptor protein-2 reduces Nef-mediated CD4+ T cell apoptosis. Virology. 2017;509:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, disrupting the Nef:PAK2 interaction motifs (NefH89A or NefF191A) reduced apoptosis...
  37. Cheng T, Yang Y, Wang H, Tien Y, Shun C, Huang H, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis through phosphorylation and stabilization of PAK2 protein. Oncogene. 2018;37:1730-1742 pubmed publisher
    ..Further survey for PKM2-associated proteins identified PAK2 as a possible phosphorylation target in PDAC...
  38. Ran M, Weng B, Cao R, Li Z, Peng F, Luo H, et al. miR-26a inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells by targeting the PAK2 gene. Reprod Domest Anim. 2018;53:1375-1385 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, p21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) gene was determined as one target gene of miR-26a by luciferase reporter assay, and miR-26a repressed the PAK2 ..
  39. Wang Y, Zeng C, Li J, Zhou Z, Ju X, Xia S, et al. PAK2 Haploinsufficiency Results in Synaptic Cytoskeleton Impairment and Autism-Related Behavior. Cell Rep. 2018;24:2029-2041 pubmed publisher
    ..The serine/threonine kinase PAK2 is a critical regulator of cytoskeleton dynamics...
  40. Luo S, Rubinsztein D. Huntingtin promotes cell survival by preventing Pak2 cleavage. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..When cells are exposed to Fas-related signals, the ubiquitously expressed p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) can be activated via cleavage by caspases to release a constitutively active C-terminal fragment, which mediates ..
  41. Hsu R, Tsai M, Hsieh Y, Lyu P, Yu J. Identification of MYO18A as a novel interacting partner of the PAK2/betaPIX/GIT1 complex and its potential function in modulating epithelial cell migration. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:287-301 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the mechanisms underlying this regulation, we herein used a proteomic approach to identify PAK2-interacting proteins in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells...
  42. Danno S, Kubouchi K, Mehruba M, Abe M, Natsume R, Sakimura K, et al. PKN2 is essential for mouse embryonic development and proliferation of mouse fibroblasts. Genes Cells. 2017;22:220-236 pubmed publisher
    b>PKN2, a member of the protein kinase N (PKN) family, has been suggested by in vitro culture cell experiments to bind to Rho/Rac GTPases and contributes to cell-cell contact and cell migration...
  43. Cheng Y, Zhu Y, Xu J, Yang M, Chen P, Xu W, et al. PKN2 in colon cancer cells inhibits M2 phenotype polarization of tumor-associated macrophages via regulating DUSP6-Erk1/2 pathway. Mol Cancer. 2018;17:13 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase N2 (PKN2) is a PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase. PKN2 is required for tumor cell migration, invasion and apoptosis...
  44. Quétier I, Marshall J, Spencer Dene B, Lachmann S, Casamassima A, Franco C, et al. Knockout of the PKN Family of Rho Effector Kinases Reveals a Non-redundant Role for PKN2 in Developmental Mesoderm Expansion. Cell Rep. 2016;14:440-448 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe knockouts of all three mouse PKN isoforms and reveal that PKN2 loss results in lethality at embryonic day 10 (E10), with associated cardiovascular and morphogenetic defects...
  45. Gęgotek A, Domingues P, Skrzydlewska E. Proteins involved in the antioxidant and inflammatory response in rutin-treated human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA or UVB irradiation. J Dermatol Sci. 2018;90:241-252 pubmed publisher
    ..g., IL-17F, PAK2, and YWHAZ)...
  46. Siu M, Kong D, Ngai S, Chan H, Jiang L, Wong E, et al. p21-Activated Kinases 1, 2 and 4 in Endometrial Cancers: Effects on Clinical Outcomes and Cell Proliferation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133467 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, expression of Pak1, p-Pak2 Ser20, Pak4, pPak4 Ser474 in 21 normal endometrium, 16 hyperplastic endometrium without atypia, 17 atypical complex ..
  47. Reddy P, Radu M, Xu K, Wood J, Harris C, Chernoff J, et al. p21-activated kinase 2 regulates HSPC cytoskeleton, migration, and homing via CDC42 activation and interaction with β-Pix. Blood. 2016;127:1967-75 pubmed publisher
    ..C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) effector p21-activated kinase (Pak2) has been implicated in HSPC homing and engraftment...
  48. Hiroyasu S, Stimac G, Hopkinson S, Jones J. Loss of ?-PIX inhibits focal adhesion disassembly and promotes keratinocyte motility via myosin light chain activation. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:2329-2343 pubmed publisher
    ..leading edge of cells at the wound front, but also in the cells following the front, while p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a regulator of MLC kinase (MYLK), is mislocalized...
  49. Edlinger L, Berger Becvar A, Menzl I, Hoermann G, Greiner G, Grundschober E, et al. Expansion of BCR/ABL1+ cells requires PAK2 but not PAK1. Br J Haematol. 2017;179:229-241 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that PAK1 and PAK2 are the critical isoforms in a BCR/ABL1+ haematopoietic malignancy...
  50. Hyland P, Lin S, Hu N, Zhang H, Wang L, Su H, et al. Genetic variants in fas signaling pathway genes and risk of gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Among examined genes in the Fas signaling pathway, MAP2K4, FAF1, MAPK8, CASP10, CASP8, CFLAR, MAP2K1, CAP8AP2, PAK2 and IKBKB were associated with risk of GC (nominal p < 0...
  51. Cook D, Hoa L, Gómez V, Gomez M, Hergovich A. Constitutively active NDR1-PIF kinase functions independent of MST1 and hMOB1 signalling. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, the analyses of these variants revealed that NDR1-PIF, an NDR1 variant containing the PRK2 hydrophobic motif, remains hyperactive independent of hMOB1/NDR1-PIF complex formation...
  52. Zeng Y, Broxmeyer H, Staser K, Chitteti B, Park S, Hahn S, et al. Pak2 regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1630-41 pubmed publisher
    p21-Activated kinase 2 (Pak2), a serine/threonine kinase, has been previously shown to be essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment...
  53. Kock G, Dicks M, Yip K, Kohl B, Pütz S, Heumann R, et al. Molecular Basis of Class III Ligand Recognition by PDZ3 in Murine Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPN13. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:4275-4292 pubmed publisher
    ..apo form and in complex with its physiological ligand, the carboxy-terminus of protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy...
  54. Guo Y, Kenney S, Muller C, Adams S, Rutledge T, Romero E, et al. R-Ketorolac Targets Cdc42 and Rac1 and Alters Ovarian Cancer Cell Behaviors Critical for Invasion and Metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015;14:2215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, GTPase inhibition by R-ketorolac reduces downstream p21-activated kinases (PAK1/PAK2) effector activation by >80%...
  55. Yun C, You S, Kim J, Chung J, Han S, Shin E, et al. p21-activated kinase 4 critically regulates melanogenesis via activation of the CREB/MITF and β-catenin/MITF pathways. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:1385-1394 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the role of PAK4 in melanogenesis. Melanocytes express both PAK2 and PAK4 isoforms, but only RNA interference knockdown of PAK4 significantly influenced α-melanocyte-stimulating ..
  56. Narayanan K, Chopra V, Rosas H, Malarick K, Hersch S. Rho Kinase Pathway Alterations in the Brain and Leukocytes in Huntington's Disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:2132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of Rho kinase pathway genes, including RhoA (Ras homolog family member A), ROCK1 (Rho-associated kinase1), PRK2 (protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2), Profilin1, cofilin1, MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase target subunit 1), and ..
  57. Lin W, Huang J, Yuan Z, Feng S, Xie Y, Ma W. Protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine selectively inhibits proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2022 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrated that PKN2, one of the PKC subtypes, was highly expressed in TNBC cell lines, and knocking down PKN2 in TNBC cells inhibited ..
  58. Eron S, Raghupathi K, Hardy J. Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic Activity by Two Distinct Mechanisms. Structure. 2017;25:27-39 pubmed publisher
    ..During dysregulation, PAK2 kinase plays an alternative anti-apoptotic role, phosphorylating caspase-7 and promoting unfettered cell growth ..
  59. Nuche Berenguer B, Jensen R. Gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors can activate P21 activated kinase 2 in pancreatic acinar cells by novel mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:2371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Only PAK2 was present in acini...
  60. Bowers S, Norden P, Davis G. Molecular Signaling Pathways Controlling Vascular Tube Morphogenesis and Pericyte-Induced Tube Maturation in 3D Extracellular Matrices. Adv Pharmacol. 2016;77:241-80 pubmed publisher
    ..integrins, MT1-MMP, extracellular matrix, Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, k-Ras, Rap1b, and key downstream effectors including Pak2, Pak4, IQGAP1, MRCK?, and Rasip1...
  61. Macek P, Cliff M, Embrey K, Holdgate G, Nissink J, Panova S, et al. Myc phosphorylation in its basic helix-loop-helix region destabilizes transient α-helical structures, disrupting Max and DNA binding. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:9301-9310 pubmed publisher
    ..of Thr-52 and Ser-62 in the Myc transactivation domain linked to its degradation, P21 (RAC1)-activated kinase 2 (PAK2)-mediated phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in the C-terminal basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (..
  62. Gupta A, Ajith A, Singh S, Panday R, Samaiya A, Shukla S. PAK2-c-Myc-PKM2 axis plays an essential role in head and neck oncogenesis via regulating Warburg effect. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:825 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles of head and neck cancer (HNC), wherein a highly significant overexpression of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) was identified which was further validated in HNC patients...
  63. Richard A, Corvol J, Debs R, Reach P, Tahiri K, Carpentier W, et al. Transcriptome Analysis of Peripheral Blood in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Patients Identifies TNFR1 and TLR Pathways in the IVIg Response. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e3370 pubmed publisher
    ..8, P?=?1.7E-7, FDR?=?0.004; p21 protein-activated kinase 2 [PAK2]: FC?=?1.66, P?=?2.6E-5, FDR?=?0.03; TNF-?-induced protein 8-like protein 1 [TNFAIP8L1]: P?=?1.00E-05, FDR?=?0...
  64. Hsu R, Hsieh Y, Yang T, Chiang Y, Kan C, Lin Y, et al. Binding of the extreme carboxyl-terminus of PAK-interacting exchange factor ? (?PIX) to myosin 18A (MYO18A) is required for epithelial cell migration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:2513-27 pubmed publisher
    The PAK2/?PIX/GIT1 (p21-activated kinase 2/PAK-interacting exchange factor-?/G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1) complex has been shown to distribute to both membrane ruffles and focal adhesions of cells, where it plays an ..
  65. Joseph G, Lu M, Radu M, Lee J, Burden S, Chernoff J, et al. Group I Paks Promote Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation In Vivo and In Vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The group I Paks Pak1 and Pak2 are related protein kinases and direct effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1...
  66. Supper V, Hartl I, Boulegue C, Ohradanova Repic A, Stockinger H. Dynamic Interaction- and Phospho-Proteomics Reveal Lck as a Major Signaling Hub of CD147 in T Cells. J Immunol. 2017;198:2468-2478 pubmed publisher
    ..and led to the identification of key signaling hubs around the G proteins RAP1B and GNB1, the kinases PKC?, PAK2, Lck, and CDK1, and the chaperone HSPA5...
  67. Zhang Y, Wester L, He J, Geiger T, Moerkens M, Siddappa R, et al. IGF1R signaling drives antiestrogen resistance through PAK2/PIX activation in luminal breast cancer. Oncogene. 2018;37:1869-1884 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance suppressors BMPR1B, CDK10, CDK5, EIF2AK1, and MAP2K5, and the tamoxifen resistance inducers CHEK1, PAK2, RPS6KC1, TTK, and TXK. The p21-activated kinase 2, PAK2, is the strongest resistance inducer...
  68. Koo K, Kwon H. MicroRNA miR-4779 suppresses tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through direct targeting of PAK2 and CCND3. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:77 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and the putative survival factors PAK2 and CCND3 were identified as direct targets of miR-4779...
  69. Alves M, Fuhler G, Queiroz K, Scholma J, Goorden S, Anink J, et al. PAK2 is an effector of TSC1/2 signaling independent of mTOR and a potential therapeutic target for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14534 pubmed publisher
    ..of wild-type and Tsc2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were generated, revealing a prominent role for PAK2 in signal transduction downstream of TSC1/2...
  70. Durani L, Jaafar F, Tan J, Tajul Arifin K, Mohd Yusof Y, Wan Ngah W, et al. Targeting genes in insulin-associated signalling pathway, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell differentiation pathways by tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts. Clin Ter. 2015;166:e365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TRF treatment also caused up-regulation of FOXO3A in all age groups of cells (p<0.05). The expression of TP53, PAK2 and CDKN2A was significantly increased in senescent HDFs and treatment with TRF significantly down-regulated TP53 ..
  71. Zhang X, Zhang X, Wang T, Wang L, Tan Z, Wei W, et al. MicroRNA-26a is a key regulon that inhibits progression and metastasis of c-Myc/EZH2 double high advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2018;426:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, miR-26a suppresses migration of HCC by targeting p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a critical kinase linking Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization...
  72. Fuller S, Osborne S, Leonard S, Hardyman M, Vaniotis G, Allen B, et al. Cardiac protein kinases: the cardiomyocyte kinome and differential kinase expression in human failing hearts. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;108:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Slk, Stk24, Oxsr1). Expression of Akt1/2/3, BRaf, ERK1/2, Map2k1, Map3k8, Map4k4, MST1/3, p38-MAPK, PKCδ, Pkn2, Ripk1/2, Tnni3k, and Zak was confirmed by immunoblotting...
  73. Lee S, Hwang J, Jeong H, Yoo M, Go G, Lee J, et al. PKN2 and Cdo interact to activate AKT and promote myoblast differentiation. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2431 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PKN2/PRK2) is implicated in regulation of various biological processes, including cell migration, adhesion and death...
  74. Norden P, Kim D, Barry D, CLEAVER O, Davis G. Cdc42 and k-Ras Control Endothelial Tubulogenesis through Apical Membrane and Cytoskeletal Polarization: Novel Stimulatory Roles for GTPase Effectors, the Small GTPases, Rac2 and Rap1b, and Inhibitory Influence of Arhgap31 and Rasa1. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147758 pubmed publisher
    ..has been obtained concerning these issues, including the role of Cdc42 and Rac1 and their effectors such as Pak2, Pak4, Par6b, and co-regulators such as integrins, MT1-MMP and Par3; many key questions remain that are necessary ..
  75. Chang J, Ni Y, Han L, Sinnett Smith J, Jacamo R, Rey O, et al. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) phosphorylation on Ser203 by type I p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates PKD1 localization. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9523-9539 pubmed publisher
    ..different mechanisms abrogated PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 2) siRNA-mediated knockdown of PAK1 and PAK2 in IEC-18 and Swiss 3T3 cells blunted PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 3) phosphorylation of Ser203
  76. Hernández S, Figueroa D, Correa S, Díaz A, Aguayo D, Villanueva R. Phosphorylation at the N-terminal finger subdomain of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), named NS5B, is phosphorylated by the cellular protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) at two serine residues (Ser29 and Ser42) of the finger subdomain (genotype 1b)...
  77. O Hagan K, Zhao J, Pryshchep O, Wang C, Phee H. Pak2 Controls Acquisition of NKT Cell Fate by Regulating Expression of the Transcription Factors PLZF and Egr2. J Immunol. 2015;195:5272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we report that the cytoskeletal remodeling protein, p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), was essential for NKT cell development...
  78. Peng X, He Q, Li G, Ma J, Zhong T. Rac1-PAK2 pathway is essential for zebrafish heart regeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:637-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that PAK2 and PAK4 expression is induced in cardiomyocytes and vessels, respectively, following zebrafish heart injury...
  79. Tajadura Ortega V, Garg R, Allen R, Owczarek C, Bright M, Kean S, et al. An RNAi screen of Rho signalling networks identifies RhoH as a regulator of Rac1 in prostate cancer cell migration. BMC Biol. 2018;16:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to RhoH depletion, PAK2 depletion increases cell spread area and reduces cell migration...
  80. Hao S, Luo C, Abukiwan A, Wang G, He J, Huang L, et al. miR-137 inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells by targeting PAK2. Exp Dermatol. 2015;24:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Using SiLAD, we discovered that miR-137 significantly downregulated the expression rate of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) in melanoma cells...
  81. Shuang T, Wang M, Shi C, Zhou Y, Wang D. Down-regulated expression of miR-134 contributes to paclitaxel resistance in human ovarian cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, Pak2 was identified as a direct target of miR-134, and Pak2-specific siRNA increased cell inhibition rate and promoted ..
  82. Nuche Berenguer B, Ramos Álvarez I, Jensen R. The p21-activated kinase, PAK2, is important in the activation of numerous pancreatic acinar cell signaling cascades and in the onset of early pancreatitis events. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1122-36 pubmed publisher
    In a recent study we explored Group-1-p21-activated kinases (GP.1-PAKs) in rat pancreatic acini. Only PAK2 was present; it was activated by gastrointestinal-hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a PKC-, Src- and small-GTPase-..
  83. Rajagopalan P, Nanjappa V, Patel K, Jain A, Mangalaparthi K, Patil A, et al. Role of protein kinase N2 (PKN2) in cigarette smoke-mediated oncogenic transformation of oral cells. J Cell Commun Signal. 2018;12:709-721 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed overexpression and hyperphosphorylation of protein kinase N2 (PKN2) in smoke exposed cells as well as in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines established from smokers...
  84. Cleret Buhot A, Zhang Y, Planas D, Goulet J, Monteiro P, Gosselin A, et al. Identification of novel HIV-1 dependency factors in primary CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells via a genome-wide transcriptional approach. Retrovirology. 2015;12:102 pubmed publisher
    ..using the NCBI HIV Interaction Database revealed a set of Th17-specific HIV dependency factors (HDFs): PARG, PAK2, KLF2, ITGB7, PTEN, ATG16L1, Alix/AIP1/PDCD6IP, LGALS3, JAK1, TRIM8, MALT1, FOXO3, ARNTL/BMAL1, ABCB1/MDR1, ..
  85. Fuchsova B, Alvarez Juliá A, Rizavi H, Frasch A, Pandey G. Expression of p21-activated kinases 1 and 3 is altered in the brain of subjects with depression. Neuroscience. 2016;333:331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), mRNA levels and coexpression of the group I PAKs: PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3 as well as of their activators: RAC1, CDC42 and ARHGEF7 were examined in postmortem samples from the PFC (..
  86. McDonald C, Vacratsis P, Bliska J, Dixon J. The yersinia virulence factor YopM forms a novel protein complex with two cellular kinases. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Results demonstrate that two kinases, protein kinase C-like 2 (PRK2) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (RSK1), interact directly with YopM...
  87. Mishra J, Cohen D, Zamperone A, Nesic D, MUESCH A, Stein M. CagA of Helicobacter pylori interacts with and inhibits the serine-threonine kinase PRK2. Cell Microbiol. 2015;17:1670-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the effect of CagA on protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2), which acts downstream of Rho GTPases and is known to affect cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell polarity...
  88. Varshney P, Dey C. Resveratrol regulates neuronal glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity via P21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;485:372-378 pubmed publisher
    We have recently reported P21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a serine/threonine kinase as a negative regulator of neuronal glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity...
  89. Ruby M, Riedl I, Massart J, Åhlin M, Zierath J. Protein kinase N2 regulates AMP kinase signaling and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E483-E491 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis ..
  90. Shao Y, Qi Y, Huang Y, Liu Z, Ma Y, Guo X, et al. Human cytomegalovirus miR-US4-5p promotes apoptosis via downregulation of p21-activated kinase 2 in cultured cells. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:4171-4178 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study first identified p21?activated kinase 2 (PAK2) as a target of hcmv?miR?US4?5p, via hybrid polymerase chain reaction, which was further verified using a ..
  91. Sun W, Vincent S, Settleman J, Johnson G. MEK kinase 2 binds and activates protein kinase C-related kinase 2. Bifurcation of kinase regulatory pathways at the level of an MAPK kinase kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:24421-8 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid screening was performed to identify proteins that bind MEKK2. Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) was found to bind MEKK2; PRK2 has been previously shown to bind RhoA and the Src homology 3 domain of Nck...
  92. Hodgkinson C, Sale G. Regulation of both PDK1 and the phosphorylation of PKC-zeta and -delta by a C-terminal PRK2 fragment. Biochemistry. 2002;41:561-9 pubmed
    ..PKC-zeta, PKC-delta, and PRK2 were identified as interactors of PDK1...