Gene Symbol: PKM
Description: pyruvate kinase M1/2
Alias: CTHBP, HEL-S-30, OIP3, PK3, PKM2, TCB, THBP1, pyruvate kinase PKM, OIP-3, OPA-interacting protein 3, PK, muscle type, cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein, epididymis secretory protein Li 30, p58, pyruvate kinase 2/3, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, pyruvate kinase, muscle, thyroid hormone-binding protein 1, thyroid hormone-binding protein, cytosolic, tumor M2-PK
Species: human
Products:     PKM

Top Publications

  1. Dombrauckas J, Santarsiero B, Mesecar A. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2005;44:9417-29 pubmed
  2. Vander Heiden M, Christofk H, Schuman E, Subtelny A, Sharfi H, HARLOW E, et al. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of pyruvate kinase M2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:1118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer cells universally express the M2 isoform of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), and previous work has demonstrated that PKM2 expression is necessary for aerobic glycolysis and cell ..
  3. Gupta V, Bamezai R. Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein. Protein Sci. 2010;19:2031-44 pubmed publisher
    ..M2 isoform (PKM2) is exclusively expressed in embryonic and adult dividing/tumor cells...
  4. Liu A, Xu Z, Shek F, Wong K, Lee N, Poon R, et al. miR-122 targets pyruvate kinase M2 and affects metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86872 pubmed publisher
    ..We found isoform M2 (PKM2) is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 ..
  5. Yang W, Zheng Y, Xia Y, Ji H, Chen X, Guo F, et al. ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of PKM2 promotes the Warburg effect. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1295-304 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is upregulated in multiple cancer types and contributes to the Warburg effect by unclear mechanisms...
  6. Yang W, Xia Y, Cao Y, Zheng Y, Bu W, Zhang L, et al. EGFR-induced and PKCε monoubiquitylation-dependent NF-κB activation upregulates PKM2 expression and promotes tumorigenesis. Mol Cell. 2012;48:771-84 pubmed publisher
    Many types of human tumor cells have overexpressed pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). However, the mechanism underlying this increased PKM2 expression remains to be defined...
  7. Day A, Judd T, Lemberg D, Leach S. Fecal M2-PK in children with Crohn's disease: a preliminary report. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:2166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of M2PK are required in additional settings with larger cohorts of children with CD and with comparison to other stool markers. ..
  8. Gui D, Lewis C, Vander Heiden M. Allosteric regulation of PKM2 allows cellular adaptation to different physiological states. Sci Signal. 2013;6:pe7 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) activity is subject to complex allosteric regulation...
  9. Yang W, Xia Y, Ji H, Zheng Y, Liang J, Huang W, et al. Nuclear PKM2 regulates ?-catenin transactivation upon EGFR activation. Nature. 2011;480:118-22 pubmed publisher
    The embryonic pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is highly expressed in human cancer. In contrast to the established role of PKM2 in aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, its non-metabolic functions remain elusive...

More Information


  1. Sun Q, Chen X, Ma J, Peng H, Wang F, Zha X, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin up-regulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 is critical for aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..For a largely unknown regulatory mechanism, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is exclusively expressed in embryonic, proliferating, and tumor cells, and plays an essential role in ..
  2. Díaz Jullien C, Moreira D, Sarandeses C, Covelo G, Barbeito P, Freire M. The M2-type isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase phosphorylates prothymosin ? in proliferating lymphocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This association can be shifted to a tetrameric form by fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate, which results in a decrease in ProT?K activity. ..
  3. Gupta V, Kalaiarasan P, Faheem M, Singh N, Iqbal M, Bamezai R. Dominant negative mutations affect oligomerization of human pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme and promote cellular growth and polyploidy. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16864-73 pubmed publisher
    ..and functional implication of the two heterozygous mutations (H391Y and K422R) of human pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme (PKM(2)) observed earlier in a Bloom syndrome background...
  4. Israelsen W, Dayton T, Davidson S, Fiske B, Hosios A, Bellinger G, et al. PKM2 isoform-specific deletion reveals a differential requirement for pyruvate kinase in tumor cells. Cell. 2013;155:397-409 pubmed publisher
    The pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) is expressed in cancer and plays a role in regulating anabolic metabolism...
  5. Lee J, Kim H, Han Y, Kim J. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..MS (mass spectrometry) and isolated a novel Oct-4-interacting protein, pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2 or M2-PK)...
  6. Goonetilleke K, Mason J, Siriwardana P, King N, France M, Siriwardena A. Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma tumor M2 pyruvate kinase in periampullary cancer: evidence for a novel biological marker of adverse prognosis. Pancreas. 2007;34:318-24 pubmed
    ..An elevated Tu-M2-PK more than 27 U/mL measured on admission in suspected periampullary cancer is a predictor of adverse prognosis in periampullary cancer. ..
  7. Lv L, Xu Y, Zhao D, Li F, Wang W, Sasaki N, et al. Mitogenic and oncogenic stimulation of K433 acetylation promotes PKM2 protein kinase activity and nuclear localization. Mol Cell. 2013;52:340-52 pubmed publisher
    Alternative splicing of the PKM2 gene produces two isoforms, M1 and M2, which are preferentially expressed in adult and embryonic tissues, respectively...
  8. Akhtar K, Gupta V, Koul A, Alam N, Bhat R, Bamezai R. Differential behavior of missense mutations in the intersubunit contact domain of the human pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11971-81 pubmed publisher
  9. Mazurek S, Grimm H, Boschek C, Vaupel P, Eigenbrodt E. Pyruvate kinase type M2: a crossroad in the tumor metabolome. Br J Nutr. 2002;87 Suppl 1:S23-9 pubmed
    ..Pyruvate produced in glycolysis and glutaminolysis is used for the synthesis of lactate, glutamate and fatty acids thereby releasing the hydrogen produced in the glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction. ..
  10. Wu S, Le H. Dual roles of PKM2 in cancer metabolism. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013;45:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of PK type M2 (PKM2) is increased and facilitates lactate production in cancer cells, which determines whether the glucose carbons are ..
  11. Chaneton B, Hillmann P, Zheng L, Martin A, Maddocks O, Chokkathukalam A, et al. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2. Nature. 2012;491:458-462 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of serine and glycine...
  12. Dhar D, Olde Damink S, Brindley J, Godfrey A, Chapman M, Sandanayake N, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a novel diagnostic marker and predicts tumor progression in human biliary tract cancer. Cancer. 2013;119:575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Bile M2-PK is a novel tumor marker for BTC and correlates with tumor aggressiveness and poor outcome. Short hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of M2-PK indicates the potential of M2-PK as a therapeutic target. ..
  13. Luo W, Semenza G. Emerging roles of PKM2 in cell metabolism and cancer progression. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012;23:560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression is increased and facilitates lactate production in cancer cells...
  14. Wang H, Hsieh Y, Cheng W, Lin C, Lin Y, Yang S, et al. JMJD5 regulates PKM2 nuclear translocation and reprograms HIF-1?-mediated glucose metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..JMJD5 interacts directly with pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM)2 to modulate metabolic flux in cancer cells...
  15. Gao X, Wang H, Yang J, Liu X, Liu Z. Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates gene transcription by acting as a protein kinase. Mol Cell. 2012;45:598-609 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate by transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus...
  16. Zhan C, Shi Y, Lu C, Wang Q. Pyruvate kinase M2 is highly correlated with the differentiation and the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2013;26:746-53 pubmed publisher
    It's frequently stated that the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and Warburg effect are important for cancer development by accumulating more raw materials for macromolecule biosynthesis...
  17. Anitha M, Kaur G, Baquer N, Bamezai R. Dominant negative effect of novel mutations in pyruvate kinase-M2. DNA Cell Biol. 2004;23:442-9 pubmed
    ..The importance of these mutations in Bloom syndrome cells, however, remains to be elucidated, and can only be conjectured. ..
  18. Gao X, Wang H, Yang J, Chen J, Jie J, Li L, et al. Reciprocal regulation of protein kinase and pyruvate kinase activities of pyruvate kinase M2 by growth signals. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15971-9 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is an enzyme-catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate in the glycolysis pathway...
  19. Luo W, Hu H, Chang R, Zhong J, Knabel M, O Meally R, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Cell. 2011;145:732-44 pubmed publisher
    The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene...
  20. Dang C. PKM2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glutamine metabolism signal a different view of the Warburg effect. Sci Signal. 2009;2:pe75 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) directly phosphorylates pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), resulting in reduced conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, which is further catabolized to lactate by ..
  21. Yang Z, Zou Q, Yuan Y, Li J, Liang L, Zeng G, et al. PKM2 and ACVR 1C are prognostic markers for poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer. Clin Transl Oncol. 2014;16:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (PKM2) and activin A receptor type IC (ACVR 1C) in 46 squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and 80 ..
  22. Kefas B, Comeau L, Erdle N, Montgomery E, Amos S, Purow B. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a target of the tumor-suppressive microRNA-326 and regulates the survival of glioma cells. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:1102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational target gene prediction revealed pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2) as another target of miRNA-326. PKM2 has recently been shown to play a key role in cancer cell metabolism...
  23. Zhou C, Li X, Sun H, Zhang B, Han Y, Jiang Y, et al. Pyruvate kinase type M2 is upregulated in colorectal cancer and promotes proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:775-82 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2) has been reported to be involved in aerobic glycolysis and cell growth in various tumors...
  24. Christofk H, Vander Heiden M, Wu N, Asara J, Cantley L. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. Nature. 2008;452:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides...
  25. David C, Chen M, Assanah M, Canoll P, Manley J. HnRNP proteins controlled by c-Myc deregulate pyruvate kinase mRNA splicing in cancer. Nature. 2010;463:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The embryonic pyruvate kinase isoform, PKM2, is almost universally re-expressed in cancer, and promotes aerobic glycolysis, whereas the adult isoform, PKM1, ..
  26. Yang W, Xia Y, Hawke D, Li X, Liang J, Xing D, et al. PKM2 phosphorylates histone H3 and promotes gene transcription and tumorigenesis. Cell. 2012;150:685-96 pubmed publisher
    Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is essential for the Warburg effect. In addition to its well-established role in aerobic glycolysis, PKM2 directly regulates gene transcription...
  27. Teng Y, Ai Z, Wang Y, Wang J, Luo L. Proteomic identification of PKM2 and HSPA5 as potential biomarkers for predicting high-risk endometrial carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-two proteins were identified by MS analysis. PKM2 and HSPA5 were elevated in the high-risk EC tissues compared with both the low-risk EC and normal endometrial ..
  28. Clower C, Chatterjee D, Wang Z, Cantley L, Vander Heiden M, Krainer A. The alternative splicing repressors hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB influence pyruvate kinase isoform expression and cell metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the links between alternative splicing and cancer, and begin to define some of the factors responsible for the switch to aerobic glycolysis. ..
  29. Stetak A, Veress R, Ovadi J, Csermely P, Keri G, Ullrich A. Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1602-8 pubmed
    ..Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis that is converted to a less active dimer form of PKM2 isoenzyme during oncogenesis...
  30. Wang Z, Chatterjee D, Jeon H, Akerman M, Vander Heiden M, Cantley L, et al. Exon-centric regulation of pyruvate kinase M alternative splicing via mutually exclusive exons. J Mol Cell Biol. 2012;4:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of alternative splicing of a key regulator of the Warburg effect, and also have implications for other genes with a similar pattern of alternative splicing. ..
  31. Zhang X, He C, He C, Chen B, Liu Y, Kong M, et al. Nuclear PKM2 expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2013;209:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to investigate the relationship between pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression and the prognosis of patients with ESCC...
  32. Hardt P, Toepler M, Ngoumou B, Rupp J, Kloer H. Measurement of fecal pyruvate kinase type M2 (tumor M2-PK) concentrations in patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, colorectal adenomas and controls. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:851-3 pubmed
    ..The measurement of fecal Tumor M2-PK concentrations might provide an interesting screening tool for colorectal cancer. Further studies comparing the determination of Tumor M2-PK in stool to occult blood in stool are in progress. ..
  33. Cortes Cros M, Hemmerlin C, Ferretti S, Zhang J, Gounarides J, Yin H, et al. M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase is dispensable for tumor maintenance and growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in tumors there is a predominance of expression of the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2)...
  34. Eigenbrodt E, Basenau D, Holthusen S, Mazurek S, Fischer G. Quantification of tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase (Tu M2-PK) in human carcinomas. Anticancer Res. 1997;17:3153-6 pubmed
    ..001). The values for the 50%-percentiles (median) of blood donors were 10.8 U/ml and 55.0 U/ml for colon carcinoma. ..
  35. Goldberg M, Sharp P. Pyruvate kinase M2-specific siRNA induces apoptosis and tumor regression. J Exp Med. 2012;209:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyruvate kinase (PK) exists in M1 (PKM1) and M2 (PKM2) isoforms...
  36. Chiavarina B, Whitaker Menezes D, Martinez Outschoorn U, Witkiewicz A, Birbe R, Howell A, et al. Pyruvate kinase expression (PKM1 and PKM2) in cancer-associated fibroblasts drives stromal nutrient production and tumor growth. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;12:1101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..normal human fibroblasts were genetically-engineered to express the two isoforms of pyruvate kinase M (PKM1 and PKM2), a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway...
  37. Keller K, Tan I, Lee Y. SAICAR stimulates pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and promotes cancer cell survival in glucose-limited conditions. Science. 2012;338:1069-72 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) plays an important role in the growth and metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in stress conditions...
  38. Anastasiou D, Poulogiannis G, Asara J, Boxer M, Jiang J, Shen M, et al. Inhibition of pyruvate kinase M2 by reactive oxygen species contributes to cellular antioxidant responses. Science. 2011;334:1278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) through oxidation of Cys(358)...
  39. Vander Heiden M, Locasale J, Swanson K, Sharfi H, Heffron G, Amador Noguez D, et al. Evidence for an alternative glycolytic pathway in rapidly proliferating cells. Science. 2010;329:1492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes the metabolism of glucose by aerobic glycolysis and contributes to anabolic metabolism...
  40. Hitosugi T, Kang S, Vander Heiden M, Chung T, Elf S, Lythgoe K, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation inhibits PKM2 to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y(105))...
  41. Puentes Jácome L, Edwards E. A switch of chlorinated substrate causes emergence of a previously undetected native Dehalobacter population in an established Dehalococcoides-dominated chloroethene-dechlorinating enrichment culture. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2017;93: pubmed publisher
    ..the chlorobenzene dehalogenation capability of the KB-1 enrichment culture using 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB)...
  42. Wubbolts R, Leckie R, Veenhuizen P, Schwarzmann G, Mobius W, Hoernschemeyer J, et al. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of human B cell-derived exosomes. Potential implications for their function and multivesicular body formation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10963-72 pubmed
  43. Xiangyun Y, Xiaomin N, Linping G, Yunhua X, Ziming L, Yongfeng Y, et al. Desuccinylation of pyruvate kinase M2 by SIRT5 contributes to antioxidant response and tumor growth. Oncotarget. 2017;8:6984-6993 pubmed publisher
    Tumor cells trends to express high level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)...
  44. Son S, Kim S, Moon E, Kim D, Pyo S, Um S. Prognostic significance and function of the vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit V1E1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:49334-49348 pubmed publisher
    ..the V-ATPase V1E1 gene, and identified a correlation between levels of V-ATPase V1E1 mRNA and Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) in ESCC...
  45. Christensen D, Calder P, Houghton F. GLUT3 and PKM2 regulate OCT4 expression and support the hypoxic culture of human embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17500 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, PKM2, a rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis displayed a nuclear localisation in hESCs and silencing PKM2 did not alter ..
  46. Fang B, Zhang M, Ge K, Xing H, Ren F. α-Lactalbumin-oleic acid complex kills tumor cells by inducing excess energy metabolism but inhibiting mRNA expression of the related enzymes. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:4853-4863 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may help clarify the mechanism of apoptosis induced by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial destruction. ..
  47. Chao R, Shi J, Jain A, Hirokawa T, Khope A, Schow C, et al. Forward bias operation of silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for RF applications. Opt Express. 2017;25:23181-23190 pubmed publisher
    ..5 dB.Hz2/3). We demonstrate through an analytical dc transfer curve the existence of simultaneous high gain and OIP3 and verify the theoretical results with measurement under forward bias at a bias point of around +0.9 V.
  48. Cheng K, Hao M. Metformin Inhibits TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via PKM2 Relative-mTOR/p70s6k Signaling Pathway in Cervical Carcinoma Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAIL2), phosphorylation of p70s6k (p-p70s6k) and -Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) Results: TGF-?1 promoted proliferation and migration, and it attenuated apoptosis compared with cells treated with ..
  49. Bolanos J. Bioenergetics and redox adaptations of astrocytes to neuronal activity. J Neurochem. 2016;139 Suppl 2:115-125 pubmed publisher
    ..5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), pyruvate kinase muscle isoform-2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4), lactate dehydrogenase-B, or monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4)...
  50. He C, Bian Y, Xue Y, Liu Z, Zhou K, Yao C, et al. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21524 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1)...
  51. Li C, Zhao Z, Zhou Z, Liu R. PKM2 Promotes Cell Survival and Invasion Under Metabolic Stress by Enhancing Warburg Effect in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:767-73 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2) is an essential enzyme involved in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and promotes the translation between glycolytic flux and biosynthesis of cellular building blocks...
  52. Dong T, Yan Y, Chai H, Chen S, Xiong X, Sun D, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 affects liver cancer cell behavior through up-regulation of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in culture. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;69:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The pyruvate kinase promotes aerobic glycolysis, and the pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) is highly expressed in many cancer cells...
  53. Bahr B, Price M, Merrill D, Mejia C, Call L, Bearss D, et al. Different expression of placental pyruvate kinase in normal, preeclamptic and intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies. Placenta. 2014;35:883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined they account for 20% of preterm deliveries. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a metabolism enzyme found in developing embryonic and cancer tissues...
  54. Iansante V, Choy P, Fung S, Liu Y, Chai J, Dyson J, et al. PARP14 promotes the Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting JNK1-dependent PKM2 phosphorylation and activation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7882 pubmed publisher
    ..glycolysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by maintaining low activity of the pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), a key regulator of the Warburg effect...
  55. Giannoni E, Taddei M, Morandi A, Comito G, Calvani M, Bianchini F, et al. Targeting stromal-induced pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation impairs oxphos and prostate cancer metastatic spread. Oncotarget. 2015;6:24061-74 pubmed
    ..We herein establish a novel role for pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), an established effector of Warburg-like glycolytic behavior, in OXPHOS metabolism induced by CAFs...
  56. Yarushkin A, Kazantseva Y, Prokopyeva E, Markova D, Pustylnyak Y, Pustylnyak V. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:1099-105 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation...
  57. Yang P, Li Z, Fu R, Wu H, Li Z. Pyruvate kinase M2 facilitates colon cancer cell migration via the modulation of STAT3 signalling. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms and roles of PKM1 and PKM2 in the regulation of CRC cell migration and cell adhesion remain elusive...
  58. Liang J, Cao R, Wang X, Zhang Y, Wang P, Gao H, et al. Mitochondrial PKM2 regulates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by stabilizing Bcl2. Cell Res. 2017;27:329-351 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) catalyzes the last step of glycolysis and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that PKM2 also regulates apoptosis...
  59. Marjanovic S, Eriksson I, Nelson B. Expression of a new set of glycolytic isozymes in activated human peripheral lymphocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1087:1-6 pubmed
    ..Increased specific activities and the appearance of the new isozyme forms both occur relatively late, and are probably associated with the G1 or S phase of the cell cycle. ..
  60. Giannakopoulos N, Luo J, Papov V, Zou W, Lenschow D, Jacobs B, et al. Proteomic identification of proteins conjugated to ISG15 in mouse and human cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:496-506 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that ISGylation targets proteins found in several fundamentally important cellular pathways and will contribute to understanding the physiologic role of interferon-induced ISG15 and ISG15 conjugation. ..
  61. Landt S, Jeschke S, Koeninger A, Thomas A, Heusner T, Korlach S, et al. Tumor-specific correlation of tumor M2 pyruvate kinase in pre-invasive, invasive and recurrent cervical cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:375-81 pubmed
    ..001). Tu-M2-PK can be used as a marker to differentiate between malignant and premalignant cervical lesions. In addition, the concentration of Tu-M2-PK correlates with the clinical stage of the disease. ..
  62. Shulman R, Rothman D. The Glycogen Shunt Maintains Glycolytic Homeostasis and the Warburg Effect in Cancer. Trends Cancer. 2017;3:761-767 pubmed publisher
    ..The model also explains the need for the active tetramer and inactive dimer forms of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) in cancer cells, similar to the two forms of Pyk2p in yeast, as critical for regulating the glycogen shunt flux...
  63. Cuozzo S, Sineli P, Dávila Costa J, Tortella G. Streptomyces sp. is a powerful biotechnological tool for the biodegradation of HCH isomers: biochemical and molecular basis. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2017;:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB), or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB); 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB), or 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB); 1,3-DCB; and 1,2-DCB...
  64. Hosseini Nasab S, Jooya N, Esmaeili A, Zarrin Khameh N, Diaz Arrastia C, Momeni M. Using Pyruvate Kinase as a Predictor for Patient With Endometrial Cancer Having Complex Hyperplasia With Atypia to Prevent Hysterectomy and Preserve Fertility: Retrospective Immunohistochemical Study. Reprod Sci. 2017;:1933719117741371 pubmed publisher
    ..To validate pyruvate kinase isoform 1 (PKM1) and pyruvate kinase isoform 2 (PKM2) as a histological biomarker to predict the progression of endometrial hyperplasia into invasive cancer status.
  65. Kosugi M, Ahmad R, Alam M, Uchida Y, Kufe D. MUC1-C oncoprotein regulates glycolysis and pyruvate kinase M2 activity in cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28234 pubmed publisher
    Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is regulated by multiple effectors that include Akt and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed by human breast and other carcinomas...
  66. Qiao W, Luo F, Lomheim L, Mack E, Ye S, Wu J, et al. Natural attenuation and anaerobic benzene detoxification processes at a chlorobenzene-contaminated industrial site inferred from field investigations and microcosm studies. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The main contaminants were 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) reaching concentrations up to 7300 µg/L, dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and benzene...