PKC zeta


Gene Symbol: PKC zeta
Description: protein kinase C zeta
Alias: PKC-ZETA, PKC2, protein kinase C zeta type, nPKC-zeta
Species: human
Products:     PKC zeta

Top Publications

  1. Smith L, Chen L, Reyland M, DeVries T, Talanian R, Omura S, et al. Activation of atypical protein kinase C zeta by caspase processing and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40620-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that caspases process PKCzeta to carboxyl-terminal fragments that are catalytically active and that are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
  2. Coghlan M, Chou M, Carpenter C. Atypical protein kinases Clambda and -zeta associate with the GTP-binding protein Cdc42 and mediate stress fiber loss. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2880-9 pubmed
    ..N17 Rac did not block Ras-induced loss of stress fibers, nor did kinase-dead PKClambda block V12 Rac-stimulated loss of stress fibers. These results indicate that Cdc42 and Rac use different pathways to regulate stress fibers. ..
  3. Xin M, Gao F, May W, Flagg T, Deng X. Protein kinase Czeta abrogates the proapoptotic function of Bax through phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21268-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKCzeta may function as a physiological Bax kinase to directly phosphorylate and interact with Bax, which leads to sequestration of Bax in cytoplasm and abrogation of the proapoptotic function of Bax. ..
  4. Yu G, Shen F, Sturch S, Aquino A, Glazer R, Felsted R. Regulation of HIV-1 gag protein subcellular targeting by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:4792-6 pubmed
    ..This signal may provide a mechanism for the cellular regulation of virus development through modulation of gag protein-related developmental steps such as capsid targeting, assembly, encapsidation, budding, and maturation. ..
  5. Valkova C, Mertens C, Weisheit S, Imhof D, Liebmann C. Activation by tyrosine phosphorylation as a prerequisite for protein kinase C? to mediate epidermal growth factor receptor signaling to ERK. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:783-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterizes PKCzeta as a novel mitogenic downstream mediator of EGFR and indicates PKCzeta as a therapeutic target in some carcinomas. ..
  6. Cuschieri J, Umanskiy K, Solomkin J. PKC-zeta is essential for endotoxin-induced macrophage activation. J Surg Res. 2004;121:76-83 pubmed
    ..Although the mechanism of its activation remains unresolved, it appears that modulation of PKC-zeta activity during Gram-negative infections may limit associated inflammatory-induced morbidity. ..
  7. Yu L, Lv J, Jin L, Ding S, Ma X, Wang J, et al. Over-expression of protein kinase C?isoforms (?, ?, ? and ?) in squamous cervical cancer. Neoplasma. 2011;58:491-8 pubmed
    ..05). These findings indicate that protein kinase C isoforms expression in cervical lesions was associated with carcinogenesis and might play important roles throughout the process of cervical cancer development. ..
  8. Duran A, Diaz Meco M, Moscat J. Essential role of RelA Ser311 phosphorylation by zetaPKC in NF-kappaB transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 2003;22:3910-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the mechanism whereby zetaPKC regulates NF-kappaB activation in vivo. ..
  9. Della Peruta M, Giagulli C, Laudanna C, Scarpa A, Sorio C. RHOA and PRKCZ control different aspects of cell motility in pancreatic cancer metastatic clones. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that RHOA and PRKCZ, and their downstream effectors, can represent important pharmacological targets that could potentially control the highly metastatic attitude of PDAC. ..

More Information


  1. Laudanna C, Sorio C, Tecchio C, Butcher E, Bonora A, Bassi C, et al. Motility analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells reveals a role for the atypical zeta isoform of protein kinase C in cancer cell movement. Lab Invest. 2003;83:1155-63 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the disregulation of the function of atypical zeta PKC might be involved in the acquisition of an invasive and metastatic phenotype in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. ..
  2. Chou M, Hou W, Johnson J, Graham L, Lee M, Chen C, et al. Regulation of protein kinase C zeta by PI 3-kinase and PDK-1. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1069-77 pubmed
    Protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) is a member of the PKC family of enzymes and is involved in a wide range of physiological processes including mitogenesis, protein synthesis, cell survival and transcriptional regulation...
  3. Burnette B, Yu G, Felsted R. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 gag proteins by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8698-703 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the identification of a highly conserved consensus PKC phosphorylation site motif in the HIV-1 gag protein at Ser111 and suggests that PKC phosphorylation plays an important role in gag protein function. ..
  4. Teusch N, Lombardo E, Eddleston J, Knaus U. The low molecular weight GTPase RhoA and atypical protein kinase Czeta are required for TLR2-mediated gene transcription. J Immunol. 2004;173:507-14 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that multiple GTPase-regulated pathways emerge from stimulated Toll receptors, controlling different aspects of NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription. ..
  5. Muscella A, Storelli C, Marsigliante S. Atypical PKC-zeta and PKC-iota mediate opposing effects on MCF-7 Na+/K+ATPase activity. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:278-85 pubmed
    ..The effects of Ang II are opposite depending upon the presence of the serum-sensitive PKC-iota, with the inhibitory effect possibly due to the redistribution of sodium pump from plasma membrane to the inactive intracellular pool. ..
  6. Doornbos R, Theelen M, van der Hoeven P, van Blitterswijk W, Verkleij A, van Bergen en Henegouwen P. Protein kinase Czeta is a negative regulator of protein kinase B activity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8589-96 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results demonstrate that PKB interacts with PKCzeta in vivo and that PKCzeta acts as a negative regulator of PKB. ..
  7. Guo H, Gu F, Li W, Zhang B, Niu R, Fu L, et al. Reduction of protein kinase C zeta inhibits migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells. J Neurochem. 2009;109:203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that PKCzeta is a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma infiltration. ..
  8. Le Good J, Ziegler W, Parekh D, Alessi D, Cohen P, Parker P. Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1. Science. 1998;281:2042-5 pubmed
    ..The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression. ..
  9. Inoue T, Yoshida T, Shimizu Y, Kobayashi T, Yamasaki T, Toda Y, et al. Requirement of androgen-dependent activation of protein kinase Czeta for androgen-dependent cell proliferation in LNCaP Cells and its roles in transition to androgen-independent cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:3053-69 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that protein kinase Czeta/mammalian target of rapamycin/S6 kinase pathway plays an important role for the transition of androgen-dependent to androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. ..
  10. Datta K, Li J, Bhattacharya R, Gasparian L, Wang E, Mukhopadhyay D. Protein kinase C zeta transactivates hypoxia-inducible factor alpha by promoting its association with p300 in renal cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:456-62 pubmed
  11. Nazarenko I, Jenny M, Keil J, Gieseler C, Weisshaupt K, Sehouli J, et al. Atypical protein kinase C zeta exhibits a proapoptotic function in ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:919-34 pubmed publisher
  12. Kuroda S, Tokunaga C, Kiyohara Y, Higuchi O, Konishi H, Mizuno K, et al. Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31029-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the LIM domain is one of the targets of PKC and that the LIM-PKC interaction may shed light on undefined roles of LIM domain-containing proteins. ..
  13. Hodgkinson C, Mander A, Sale G. Identification of 80K-H as a protein involved in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking. Biochem J. 2005;388:785-93 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a model whereby insulin triggers the formation of a PKCzeta-80K-H-munc18c complex that enhances GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. ..
  14. Hernandez Pigeon H, Quillet Mary A, Louat T, Schambourg A, Humbert O, Selves J, et al. hMutS alpha is protected from ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation by atypical protein kinase C zeta phosphorylation. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:63-74 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that the atypical PKC zeta regulates ubiquitination, degradation, and levels of hMutS alpha proteins...
  15. Duran A, Rodriguez A, Martin P, Serrano M, Flores J, Leitges M, et al. Crosstalk between PKCzeta and the IL4/Stat6 pathway during T-cell-mediated hepatitis. EMBO J. 2004;23:4595-605 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Par-4-/- mice have increased sensitivity to ConA-induced liver damage and IL-4 signaling. This unveils a novel and critical involvement of PKCzeta in the IL-4/Stat6 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. ..
  16. Li X, Hahn C, Parsons M, Drew J, Vadas M, Gamble J. Role of protein kinase Czeta in thrombin-induced endothelial permeability changes: inhibition by angiopoietin-1. Blood. 2004;104:1716-24 pubmed
  17. Monick M, Carter A, Flaherty D, Peterson M, Hunninghake G. Protein kinase C zeta plays a central role in activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase by endotoxin in alveolar macrophages. J Immunol. 2000;165:4632-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the role of the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKC zeta, in LPS-induced activation of the ERK kinase pathway...
  18. Huang S, Ouyang N, Lin L, Chen L, Wu W, Su F, et al. HGF-induced PKC? activation increases functional CXCR4 expression in human breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29124 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, HGF may promote the invasiveness and metastasis of breast tumor xenografts in BALB/c-nu mice via the PKC?-mediated pathway, while suppression of PKC? by RNA interference may abrogate cancer cell spreading. ..
  19. Xiao H, Bai X, Wang Y, Kim H, Mak A, Liu M. MEK/ERK pathway mediates PKC activation-induced recruitment of PKC? and MMP-9 to podosomes. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PKC? may regulate MEK/ERK and JNK phosphorylation and in turn activated MEK/ERK and JNK may regulate the proteolytic activity of PDBu-induced podosomes by influencing the recruitment of PKC? and MMP-9 to podosomes...
  20. Valkov A, Sorbye S, Kilvaer T, Donnem T, Smeland E, Bremnes R, et al. The prognostic impact of TGF-?1, fascin, NF-?B and PKC-? expression in soft tissue sarcomas. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17507 pubmed publisher
    ..1-2.4, P?=?0.019) in addition to tumor depth, malignancy grade, metastasis at diagnosis, surgery and positive resection margins. Expression of TGF-?1 was significantly associated with aggressive behavior and shorter DSS in non-GIST STSs. ..
  21. Noda Y, Takeya R, Ohno S, Naito S, Ito T, Sumimoto H. Human homologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity protein PAR6 as an adaptor that links the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C. Genes Cells. 2001;6:107-19 pubmed
    ..Human PAR6 homologues most likely play an important role in the cell polarization of mammalian cells, by functioning as an adaptor protein that links activated Rac and Cdc42 to aPKC signalling. ..
  22. Mustafi R, Cerda S, Chumsangsri A, Fichera A, Bissonnette M. Protein Kinase-zeta inhibits collagen I-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and enhances apoptosis of human Caco-2 cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:683-94 pubmed
    ..The observed down-regulation of this growth-suppressing PKC isoform in colonic carcinogenesis would be predicted to contribute to tumorigenesis. ..
  23. Savkovic S, Koutsouris A, Hecht G. PKC zeta participates in activation of inflammatory response induced by enteropathogenic E. coli. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;285:C512-21 pubmed
    ..kinases (ERKs) participate in EPEC-induced NF-kappa B activation but that other signaling molecules such as PKC zeta may be involved...
  24. Song P, Xie Z, Wu Y, Xu J, Dong Y, Zou M. Protein kinase Czeta-dependent LKB1 serine 428 phosphorylation increases LKB1 nucleus export and apoptosis in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ONOO(-) enhanced PKCzeta nuclear import and LKB1 nuclear export. We conclude that PKCzeta mediates LKB1-dependent Akt inhibition in response to ONOO(-), resulting in endothelial apoptosis. ..
  25. Dang P, Fontayne A, Hakim J, el Benna J, Perianin A. Protein kinase C zeta phosphorylates a subset of selective sites of the NADPH oxidase component p47phox and participates in formyl peptide-mediated neutrophil respiratory burst. J Immunol. 2001;166:1206-13 pubmed
    ..Protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta), an atypical PKC isoform expressed abundantly in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), translocates to the ..
  26. Liu X, Ishida H, Raziuddin R, Miki T. Nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 interacts with the polarity protein complex Par6/Par3/protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) and regulates PKCzeta activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6665-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that ECT2 regulates the polarity complex Par6/Par3/PKCzeta and possibly plays a role in epithelial cell polarity. ..
  27. Guo H, Ma Y, Zhang B, Sun B, Niu R, Ying G, et al. Pivotal Advance: PKCzeta is required for migration of macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:911-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PKCzeta is required for CSF-1-induced chemotaxis of macrophages. Blocking activation of PKCzeta will be a novel strategy to inhibit cancer metastasis by blocking migration of cancer cells and macrophages. ..
  28. Leitges M, Sanz L, Martin P, Duran A, Braun U, Garcia J, et al. Targeted disruption of the zetaPKC gene results in the impairment of the NF-kappaB pathway. Mol Cell. 2001;8:771-80 pubmed
    ..Although in zetaPKC-/- EFs this kinase is not necessary for IKK activation, in lung, which abundantly expresses zetaPKC, IKK activation is inhibited. ..
  29. Zhou G, Seibenhener M, Wooten M. Nucleolin is a protein kinase C-zeta substrate. Connection between cell surface signaling and nucleus in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:31130-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the findings presented herein document that nucleolin is a target of PKC-zeta that serves to relay NGF signals from cell surface to nucleus in PC12 cells. ..
  30. Diaz Meco M, Municio M, Frutos S, Sanchez P, Lozano J, Sanz L, et al. The product of par-4, a gene induced during apoptosis, interacts selectively with the atypical isoforms of protein kinase C. Cell. 1996;86:777-86 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for the atypical PKC subspecies in the control of cell growth and survival. ..
  31. Petit I, Goichberg P, Spiegel A, Peled A, Brodie C, Seger R, et al. Atypical PKC-zeta regulates SDF-1-mediated migration and development of human CD34+ progenitor cells. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:168-76 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a central role for PKC-zeta in SDF-1-dependent regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell motility and development. ..
  32. Sanchez A, Malagarie Cazenave S, Olea N, Vara D, Cuevas C, Díaz Laviada I. Spisulosine (ES-285) induces prostate tumor PC-3 and LNCaP cell death by de novo synthesis of ceramide and PKCzeta activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the marine compound Spisulosine inhibits the growth of the prostate PC-3 and LNCaP cells through intracellular ceramide accumulation and PKCzeta activation. ..
  33. Kuribayashi K, Nakamura K, Tanaka M, Sato T, Kato J, Sasaki K, et al. Essential role of protein kinase C zeta in transducing a motility signal induced by superoxide and a chemotactic peptide, fMLP. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:1049-60 pubmed
    ..1, or a specific inhibitor of RhoGTPase in SASH1, hPMs, and J774.1. These results suggest a new approach for manipulation of inflammation as well as tumor cell invasion by targeting this novel signaling pathway. ..
  34. Zemlickova E, Johannes F, Aitken A, Dubois T. Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:39-47 pubmed
    ..We previously found that CPI-17 co-purified with casein kinase I in brain suggesting they are part of a complex and we now show that CPI-17 associates with the kinase domain of CKI isoforms. ..
  35. Libersan D, Merhi Y. Platelet P-selectin expression: requirement for protein kinase C, but not protein tyrosine kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89:1016-23 pubmed
    ..The novel epsilon and eta and atypical zeta, but not the conventional alpha and beta and the novel delta PKCs, may be involved in this process. ..
  36. Kim G, Nigro P, Fujiwara K, Abe J, Berk B. p62 binding to protein kinase C ? regulates tumor necrosis factor ?-induced apoptotic pathway in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2974-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a novel function of p62 that regulates the activity of PKC? by binding to PKC?, thereby activating the PKC?-JNK-caspase 3 apoptotic pathway in endothelial cells. ..
  37. Chamoux E, McManus S, Laberge G, Bisson M, Roux S. Involvement of kinase PKC-zeta in the p62/p62(P392L)-driven activation of NF-?B in human osteoclasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results highlight the importance of p62-associated PKC? in the overactive state of pagetic OCs and in the activation of NF-?B, particularly in the presence of the p62(P392L) mutation. ..
  38. Lin R, Taylor B, Simpson S, Charlesworth J, Ponsonby A, Pittas F, et al. Novel modulating effects of PKC family genes on the relationship between serum vitamin D and relapse in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014;85:399-404 pubmed publisher
  39. Seto K, Andrulis I. Atypical protein kinase C zeta: potential player in cell survival and cell migration of ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123528 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study describes PRKCZ as a potential regulatory component of the IGF1R and ITGB3 pathways and suggests that it may play critical roles in ovarian tumourigenesis. ..
  40. Scott G, Fricke A, Fender A, McClelland L, Jacobs S. Prostaglandin E2 regulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of PKCzeta. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3840-50 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PKCzeta activation plays a predominant role in regulation of PGE(2)-dependent melanocyte dendricity. ..
  41. Dasgupta A, Kim J, Manakkadan A, Arumugam T, Sajikumar S. Intermittent fasting promotes prolonged associative interactions during synaptic tagging/capture by altering the metaplastic properties of the CA1 hippocampal neurons. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2018;154:70-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, daily IF for 16?h or more can be considered to enhance the metaplastic properties of synapses by improving their associative interactions that might translate into animprovedmemoryformation. ..
  42. Park I, Wang J, Groopman J. HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes. Blood. 2001;97:352-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway. ..
  43. Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson E, Wilson S. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:1443-52 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells. ..
  44. Shenoy N, Gleich G, Thomas L. Eosinophil major basic protein stimulates neutrophil superoxide production by a class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C-zeta-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2003;171:3734-41 pubmed
  45. Shao Y, Lei Z, Wolf P, Gao Y, Guo Y, Zhang B. Zinc Supplementation, via GPR39, Upregulates PKC? to Protect Intestinal Barrier Integrity in Caco-2 Cells Challenged by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. J Nutr. 2017;147:1282-1289 pubmed publisher
    ..138).Conclusion: We demonstrated that zinc upregulates PKC? by activating GPR39 to enhance the abundance of ZO-1, thereby improving epithelial integrity in S. typhimurium-infected Caco-2 cells. ..
  46. Schecter A, Berman A, Yi L, Mosoian A, McManus C, Berman J, et al. HIV envelope gp120 activates human arterial smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10142-7 pubmed
    ..The activation of smooth muscle cells by gp120 may play an important role in the vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory responses to HIV infection. ..
  47. Thongon N, Nakkrasae L, Thongbunchoo J, Krishnamra N, Charoenphandhu N. Enhancement of calcium transport in Caco-2 monolayer through PKCzeta-dependent Cav1.3-mediated transcellular and rectifying paracellular pathways by prolactin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and PMCA, presumably through PI3K and PKC(zeta) pathways, while the enhanced voltage-dependent calcium transport occurred through PI3K and ROCK pathways. ..
  48. Umemori Y, Kuribayashi K, Nirasawa S, Kondoh T, Tanaka M, Kobayashi D, et al. Protein kinase C ? regulates survivin expression and inhibits apoptosis in colon cancer. Int J Oncol. 2014;45:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKC? regulates survivin expression levels and inhibits apoptosis in colon cancer cells. This study provides a rationale for targeting PKC? in combination with chemotherapy for colon cancer treatment. ..
  49. van Duijn C, Dekker M, Bonifati V, Galjaard R, Houwing Duistermaat J, Snijders P, et al. Park7, a novel locus for autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism, on chromosome 1p36. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:629-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that we have identified on chromosome 1 a second locus, PARK7, involved in autosomal recessive, early-onset parkinsonism. ..
  50. Park J, Kim H, Lee S, Wang X, Wang Y, Ifedigbo E, et al. Protein kinase C alpha and zeta differentially regulate death-inducing signaling complex formation in cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis. J Immunol. 2008;180:4668-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that modulation of PKC may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of smoke-related lung injury. ..
  51. van der Hoeven P, Van Der Wal J, Ruurs P, Van Dijk M, Van Blitterswijk J. 14-3-3 isotypes facilitate coupling of protein kinase C-zeta to Raf-1: negative regulation by 14-3-3 phosphorylation. Biochem J. 2000;345 Pt 2:297-306 pubmed
    ..We conclude that 14-3-3 facilitates coupling of PKC-zeta to Raf-1 in an isotype-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that 14-3-3 is a transient mediator of Raf-1 phosphorylation and activation by PKC-zeta. ..
  52. Minami T, Abid M, Zhang J, King G, Kodama T, Aird W. Thrombin stimulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC)-delta-NF-kappa B and PKC-zeta-GATA signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6976-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the endothelial cell-specific effect of thrombin on VCAM-1 expression involves the coordinate activity of PKC-delta-NF-kappaB and PKC-zeta-GATA signaling pathways. ..
  53. Chen Y, Tsai C, Shen C, Day C, Yeh Y, Chen R, et al. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;31:137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway. ..
  54. Pal S, Claffey K, Cohen H, Mukhopadhyay D. Activation of Sp1-mediated vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor transcription requires specific interaction with protein kinase C zeta. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26277-80 pubmed
    ..VPF/VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor, by interacting directly and specifically with protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) isoform in renal cell carcinoma. PKC zeta binds and phosphorylates the zinc finger region of Sp1...
  55. Fritzius T, Frey A, Schweneker M, Mayer D, Moelling K. WD-repeat-propeller-FYVE protein, ProF, binds VAMP2 and protein kinase Czeta. FEBS J. 2007;274:1552-66 pubmed
    ..VAMP2 is known to regulate docking and fusion of vesicles and to play a role in targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. The complex may be involved in vesicle cycling in various secretory pathways. ..
  56. Wang G, Krishnamurthy K, Umapathy N, Verin A, Bieberich E. The carboxyl-terminal domain of atypical protein kinase Czeta binds to ceramide and regulates junction formation in epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ceramide interaction with the C20zeta binding domain is a potential mechanism by which ceramide and aPKC regulate the formation of junctional complexes in epithelial cells. ..
  57. Langlois A, Chouinard F, Flamand N, Ferland C, Rola Pleszczynski M, Laviolette M. Crucial implication of protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, PKC-zeta, ERK-1/2, and p38 MAPK in migration of human asthmatic eosinophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:656-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting specific pathways may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. ..
  58. Park D, Kim Y, Kim H, Kim K, Lee Y, Choe J, et al. Hyaluronic acid promotes angiogenesis by inducing RHAMM-TGF? receptor interaction via CD44-PKC?. Mol Cells. 2012;33:563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..HDAC3 also exerted reduced expression of MMP-2. In this study, we provide a novel mechanism of HA-promoted angiogenesis, which involved RHAMM-TGF?RI signaling necessary for induction of PAI-1. ..
  59. Lear T, McKelvey A, Rajbhandari S, Dunn S, Coon T, Connelly W, et al. Ubiquitin E3 ligase FIEL1 regulates fibrotic lung injury through SUMO-E3 ligase PIAS4. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1029-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we developed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor toward FIEL1 that is highly effective in ameliorating fibrosis in mice. This study provides a basis for IPF therapeutic intervention by modulating PIAS4 protein abundance. ..
  60. Tippmer S, Quitterer U, Kolm V, Faussner A, Roscher A, Mosthaf L, et al. Bradykinin induces translocation of the protein kinase C isoforms alpha, epsilon, and zeta. Eur J Biochem. 1994;225:297-304 pubmed
    ..In this cell system similar results on PKC alpha, epsilon, and zeta were observed, suggesting that all three PKC isoforms are involved in signal transduction of the B2 receptor. ..
  61. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  62. Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19364-9 pubmed
    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..
  63. Huang X, Chen L, Doerner A, Pan W, Smith L, Huang S, et al. An atypical protein kinase C (PKC zeta) plays a critical role in lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappa B in human peripheral blood monocytes and macrophages. J Immunol. 2009;182:5810-5 pubmed publisher
  64. Sun H, Du W, Li Y, Zuo J, Wu G, Shen Y, et al. [Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PRKCZ gene]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2002;24:474-80 pubmed
    ..The haplotype formed by 5 SNPs in the PRKCZ gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes in Han population of China, which is confirmed from statistics to be a susceptibility gene for the disease. ..
  65. Kim C, Braud S, Isaac J, Roche K. Protein kinase C phosphorylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 on Serine 839 regulates Ca2+ oscillations. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25409-15 pubmed
    ..The Thr-840 residue is important only in that it is permissive for the PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-839. ..
  66. Prescott S, Irvine J, Dunstan J, Hii C, Ferrante A. Protein kinase Czeta: a novel protective neonatal T-cell marker that can be upregulated by allergy prevention strategies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:200-6 pubmed
    ..It has also demonstrated that fish oil can modulate expression of PKC isozymes in a potentially favorable direction. Protein kinase Czeta should be explored further as an early marker and potential target for disease prevention. ..
  67. Chowdhury I, Koyanagi Y, Kobayashi S, Hamamoto Y, Yoshiyama H, Yoshida T, et al. The phorbol ester TPA strongly inhibits HIV-1-induced syncytia formation but enhances virus production: possible involvement of protein kinase C pathway. Virology. 1990;176:126-32 pubmed
  68. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley L, Capitani S. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:332-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta. ..
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    ..Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms. ..
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