PKC epsilon


Gene Symbol: PKC epsilon
Description: protein kinase C epsilon
Alias: PKCE, nPKC-epsilon, protein kinase C epsilon type
Species: human
Products:     PKC epsilon

Top Publications

  1. Hu B, Shen B, Su Y, Geard C, Balajee A. Protein kinase C epsilon is involved in ionizing radiation induced bystander response in human cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we extended our investigation to yet another important member of PKC family, PKC epsilon (PKCepsilon)...
  2. Omary M, Baxter G, Chou C, Riopel C, Lin W, Strulovici B. PKC epsilon-related kinase associates with and phosphorylates cytokeratin 8 and 18. J Cell Biol. 1992;117:583-93 pubmed
    ..Immunoblot analysis of CK8/18 immunoprecipitates using an anti-PKC epsilon specific antibody showed that the 40-kD species, and not native PKC epsilon (90 kD) associated with the ..
  3. Crosby D, Poole A. Interaction of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Ctheta in platelets. Cross-talk between tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9958-65 pubmed
    ..We propose a reciprocal feedback interaction between Btk and PKCtheta; in platelets, in which PKCtheta; positively modulates activity of Btk, which in turn feeds back negatively upon PKCtheta;. ..
  4. Wu D, Thakore C, Wescott G, McCubrey J, Terrian D. Integrin signaling links protein kinase Cepsilon to the protein kinase B/Akt survival pathway in recurrent prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:8659-72 pubmed
  5. Pan Q, Bao L, Teknos T, Merajver S. Targeted disruption of protein kinase C epsilon reduces cell invasion and motility through inactivation of RhoA and RhoC GTPases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9379-84 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determine the downstream signaling pathway mediated by PKC epsilon to promote an aggressive HNSCC phenotype...
  6. Gorshkova I, He D, Berdyshev E, Usatuyk P, Burns M, Kalari S, et al. Protein kinase C-epsilon regulates sphingosine 1-phosphate-mediated migration of human lung endothelial cells through activation of phospholipase D2, protein kinase C-zeta, and Rac1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of this pathway is necessary to stimulate the migration of lung endothelial cells, a key component of the angiogenic process. ..
  7. Pears C, Thornber K, Auger J, Hughes C, Grygielska B, Protty M, et al. Differential roles of the PKC novel isoforms, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, in mouse and human platelets. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3793 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a reciprocal relationship in levels of the novel PKC isoforms delta and epsilon in human and mouse platelets and a selective role for PKCepsilon in signalling through GPVI. ..
  8. Gandellini P, Folini M, Longoni N, Pennati M, Binda M, Colecchia M, et al. miR-205 Exerts tumor-suppressive functions in human prostate through down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2287-95 pubmed publisher
  9. Besson A, Wilson T, Yong V. The anchoring protein RACK1 links protein kinase Cepsilon to integrin beta chains. Requirements for adhesion and motility. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22073-84 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results provide a novel mechanistic link between PKC activation and integrin-mediated adhesion and motility. ..

More Information

Publications149 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tachado S, Mayhew M, Wescott G, Foreman T, Goodwin C, McJilton M, et al. Regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis in protein kinase C epsilon-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:785-97 pubmed
    ..We propose that PKCepsilon directly interacts with actin to stimulate polymerization and the extension of membrane protrusions that transformed NIH3T3 cells use in vivo to penetrate and degrade surrounding tissue boundaries. ..
  2. McJilton M, Van Sikes C, Wescott G, Wu D, Foreman T, Gregory C, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with Bax and promotes survival of human prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:7958-68 pubmed
    ..Considered in their entirety, our data suggest that an association of PKCepsilon with Bax may neutralize apoptotic signals propagated through a mitochondrial death-signaling pathway. ..
  3. Suzuki T, Seth A, Rao R. Role of phospholipase Cgamma-induced activation of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and PKCbetaI in epidermal growth factor-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3574-83 pubmed
    ..This study shows that PLCgamma-mediated activation of PKCepsilon and PKCbetaI and intracellular calcium is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde-induced insult. ..
  4. Bourguignon L, Spevak C, Wong G, Xia W, Gilad E. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with protein kinase C(epsilon) promotes oncogenic signaling by the stem cell marker Nanog and the Production of microRNA-21, leading to down-regulation of the tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, anti-apoptosis, and chemotherap. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this newly discovered HA-CD44 signaling pathway should provide important drug targets for sensitizing tumor cell apoptosis and overcoming chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer cells. ..
  5. Hämälistö S, Pouwels J, De Franceschi N, Saari M, Ivarsson Y, Zimmermann P, et al. A ZO-1/?5?1-integrin complex regulates cytokinesis downstream of PKC? in NCI-H460 cells plated on fibronectin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70696 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results identify a novel regulatory pathway involving the interplay between ZO-1, ?5-integrin and PKC? in the late stages of mammalian cell division. ..
  6. Castrillo A, Pennington D, Otto F, Parker P, Owen M, Bosca L. Protein kinase Cepsilon is required for macrophage activation and defense against bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1231-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of PKCepsilon, host defense against bacterial infection is severely compromised, resulting in an increased incidence of mortality. ..
  7. Shankar E, Krishnamurthy S, Paranandi R, Basu A. PKCepsilon induces Bcl-2 by activating CREB. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:883-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, knockdown of CREB sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death. These results suggest that PKCepsilon regulates Bcl-2 induction through activation of the transcription factor CREB. ..
  8. Kang J, Park Y, Lee D, Kim J, Kim M, Bak Y, et al. Intracellular interaction of interleukin (IL)-32? with protein kinase C? (PKC? ) and STAT3 protein augments IL-6 production in THP-1 promonocytic cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that the intracellular interaction of IL-32? with PKC? and STAT3 promotes STAT3 binding to the IL-6 promoter by enforcing STAT3 phosphorylation, which results in increased production of IL-6. ..
  9. Chen L, Hahn H, Wu G, Chen C, Liron T, Schechtman D, et al. Opposing cardioprotective actions and parallel hypertrophic effects of delta PKC and epsilon PKC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11114-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, reduction in cardiac damage caused by ischemia by perfusion of selective regulator peptides of PKC through the coronary arteries constitutes a major step toward developing a therapeutic agent for acute cardiac ischemia. ..
  10. Saurin A, Durgan J, Cameron A, Faisal A, Marber M, Parker P. The regulated assembly of a PKCepsilon complex controls the completion of cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a new regulatory mechanism that controls exit from cytokinesis, which has implications for carcinogenesis. ..
  11. Gobbi G, Mirandola P, Carubbi C, Micheloni C, Malinverno C, Lunghi P, et al. Phorbol ester-induced PKCepsilon down-modulation sensitizes AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cell differentiation. Blood. 2009;113:3080-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the use of TRAIL in combination with phorbol esters (or possibly more specific PKCepsilon down-modulators) might represent a significative improvement of our therapeutic arsenal against AML. ..
  12. Bae K, Wang H, Jiang G, Chen M, Lu L, Xiao L. Protein kinase C epsilon is overexpressed in primary human non-small cell lung cancers and functionally required for proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells in a p21/Cip1-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6053-63 pubmed
    ..In this study, we showed for the first time by immunohistochemistry that overexpression of PKC epsilon was detected in the vast majority (>90%) of primary human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) compared with ..
  13. Gobbi G, Mirandola P, Sponzilli I, Micheloni C, Malinverno C, Cocco L, et al. Timing and expression level of protein kinase C epsilon regulate the megakaryocytic differentiation of human CD34 cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:2322-9 pubmed
  14. Ding L, Wang H, Lang W, Xiao L. Protein kinase C-epsilon promotes survival of lung cancer cells by suppressing apoptosis through dysregulation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35305-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest an important role for PKC-epsilon in regulating survival of lung cancer cells. ..
  15. Choi D, Wang D, Yu G, Zhu G, Kharazia V, Paredes J, et al. PKCepsilon increases endothelin converting enzyme activity and reduces amyloid plaque pathology in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8215-20 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that increased neuronal PKCepsilon activity can promote Abeta clearance and reduce AD neuropathology through increased endothelin-converting enzyme activity. ..
  16. Lu D, Huang J, Basu A. Protein kinase Cepsilon activates protein kinase B/Akt via DNA-PK to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22799-807 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PKCepsilon activates Akt via DNA-PK to mediate its antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, we report for the first time that DNA-PK can regulate receptor-initiated apoptosis via Akt. ..
  17. Newton P, Messing R. The substrates and binding partners of protein kinase Cepsilon. Biochem J. 2010;427:189-96 pubmed publisher
  18. Graness A, Adomeit A, Heinze R, Wetzker R, Liebmann C. A novel mitogenic signaling pathway of bradykinin in the human colon carcinoma cell line SW-480 involves sequential activation of a Gq/11 protein, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase beta, and protein kinase Cepsilon. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32016-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results add a novel possibility to the emerging picture of multiple pathways linking G protein-coupled receptors to MAPK. ..
  19. Allen T, Krueger K, Hunter W, Agrawal D. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor-1 requires protein kinase C-epsilon, PI3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to protect human vascular smooth muscle cells from apoptosis. Immunol Cell Biol. 2005;83:651-67 pubmed
    ..These results indicate for the first time that IGF-1 can protect human VSMC via multiple signals, including PKC-epsilon, PI3-K and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. ..
  20. Perlis R, Huang J, Purcell S, Fava M, Rush A, Sullivan P, et al. Genome-wide association study of suicide attempts in mood disorder patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..They nonetheless provide suggestive evidence for multiple loci, which merit further investigation. ..
  21. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  22. Lee S, Kim D, Choi B, Ha H, Kim K. Regulation of p53 by activated protein kinase C-delta during nitric oxide-induced dopaminergic cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2215-24 pubmed
    ..These findings may be expanded to provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms of Parkinson disease. ..
  23. Galuska D, Pirkmajer S, Barres R, Ekberg K, Wahren J, Chibalin A. C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28294 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, only physiological concentrations of C-peptide elicit this effect. ..
  24. Salo Mullen E, Lynn P, Wang L, Walsh M, Gopalan A, Shia J, et al. Contiguous gene deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21 as a cause of Lynch syndrome. Fam Cancer. 2018;17:71-77 pubmed publisher
  25. Kiss Z, Garamszegi N. Overexpression of protein kinase C-epsilon enhances the stimulatory effect of ethanol on phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 1993;333:229-32 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that PKC-epsilon is a potential positive regulator of the PtdEtn-hydrolyzing PLC activity, and that the functional interaction between PKC-epsilon and PLC is facilitated by ethanol. ..
  26. Bennasser Y, Yamina B, Contreras X, Xavier C, Moreau M, Marc M, et al. [HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway]. J Soc Biol. 2001;195:319-26 pubmed
    ..Using microspectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we also show that Tat induces a calcium influx. ..
  27. Schonhoff C, Yamazaki A, Hohenester S, Webster C, Bouscarel B, Anwer M. PKC{epsilon}-dependent and -independent effects of taurolithocholate on PI3K/PKB pathway and taurocholate uptake in HuH-NTCP cell line. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TLC-induced inhibition of PKB, but not of TC uptake, is mediated via nPKCepsilon. Activation of nPKCepsilon and inhibition of TC uptake by TLC are not mediated via the PI3K/PKB pathway. ..
  28. Géczy T, Olah A, Toth B, Czifra G, Szöllosi A, Szabo T, et al. Protein kinase C isoforms have differential roles in the regulation of human sebocyte biology. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings strongly argue for the fact that certain PKCs have pivotal, isoform-specific, differential, and antagonistic roles in the regulation of human sebaceous gland-derived sebocyte biology. ..
  29. Dumont O, Mylroie H, Bauer A, Calay D, Sperone A, Thornton C, et al. Protein kinase C? activity induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes via an ERK1/2- and NF-?B-dependent pathway to enhance vascular protection. Biochem J. 2012;447:193-204 pubmed
  30. Jakobovits A, Rosenthal A, Capon D. Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1990;9:1165-70 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that PKC regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation, suggesting a key role for the mitogenic induction of trans-activation in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth. ..
  31. Tourkina E, Gooz P, Pannu J, Bonner M, Scholz D, Hacker S, et al. Opposing effects of protein kinase Calpha and protein kinase Cepsilon on collagen expression by human lung fibroblasts are mediated via MEK/ERK and caveolin-1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13879-87 pubmed
    ..The combined results demonstrate that a branched signaling pathway involving MEK, ERK, PKCepsilon, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 regulates collagen expression in normal lung tissue and is perturbed during fibrosis. ..
  32. Jiao J, Garg V, Yang B, Elton T, Hu K. Protein kinase C-epsilon induces caveolin-dependent internalization of vascular adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels. Hypertension. 2008;52:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides a novel mechanistic insight into how K(ATP) channels are regulated in vascular smooth muscle cells...
  33. Alshafie W, Chappe F, Li M, Anini Y, Chappe V. VIP regulates CFTR membrane expression and function in Calu-3 cells by increasing its interaction with NHERF1 and P-ERM in a VPAC1- and PKC?-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;307:C107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows the cellular mechanism by which prolonged VIP stimulation of airway epithelial cells regulates CFTR-dependent secretions. ..
  34. Gumus M, Ozgur A, Tutar L, Dişli A, Koca I, Tutar Y. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors in Human Breast Cancer and Its Metastasis. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2016;17:1231-1245 pubmed
    ..Benzodiazepine derivatives presented here display anticancer activity. The compounds effect on both breast cancer and endothelial cell lines show their potential as drug templates to inhibit breast cancer and its metastasis. ..
  35. Gupta S, Aggarwal S, Kim C, Gollapudi S. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 recombinant gp120 induces changes in protein kinase C isozymes--a preliminary report. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1994;16:197-204 pubmed
    ..The most striking change was observed in PKC-zeta isozymes levels. This study for the first time demonstrates that HIV-1 gp120 affects calcium-independent PKC isozymes in U937 cells. ..
  36. Tozser J, Bagossi P, Boross P, Louis J, Majerova E, Oroszlan S, et al. Effect of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation on retroviral proteinase substrates. Eur J Biochem. 1999;265:423-9 pubmed
  37. Ling M, Trollér U, Zeidman R, Lundberg C, Larsson C. Induction of neurites by the regulatory domains of PKCdelta and epsilon is counteracted by PKC catalytic activity and by the RhoA pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2004;292:135-50 pubmed
  38. Slevogt H, Maqami L, Vardarowa K, Beermann W, Hocke A, Eitel J, et al. Differential regulation of Moraxella catarrhalis-induced interleukin-8 response by protein kinase C isoforms. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it was shown that Moraxella catarrhalis infection activates protein kinase C and its isoforms alpha, epsilon and theta, which differentially regulate interleukin-8 transcription in human pulmonary epithelial cells. ..
  39. Maraldi T, Riccio M, Sena P, Marzona L, Nicoli A, La Marca A, et al. MATER protein as substrate of PKCepsilon in human cumulus cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Since PKCepsilon is known to collaborate with antiapoptotic signalling pathways, this suggests a novel mechanism for the function of MATER in follicular maturation. ..
  40. Pany S, You Y, Das J. Curcumin Inhibits Protein Kinase C? Activity by Binding to Its C1 Domain. Biochemistry. 2016;55:6327-6336 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that curcumin binds to the C1 domain of PKC? and highlight the importance of this domain in achieving PKC isoform selectivity. ..
  41. Kuroda S, Tokunaga C, Kiyohara Y, Higuchi O, Konishi H, Mizuno K, et al. Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31029-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the LIM domain is one of the targets of PKC and that the LIM-PKC interaction may shed light on undefined roles of LIM domain-containing proteins. ..
  42. Mendez C, Leibiger I, Leibiger B, Høy M, Gromada J, Berggren P, et al. Rapid association of protein kinase C-epsilon with insulin granules is essential for insulin exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44753-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that association of PKC-epsilon with insulin granule membranes represents an important component of the secretory network because it is essential for insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. ..
  43. Pardo O, Wellbrock C, Khanzada U, Aubert M, Arozarena I, Davidson S, et al. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKCepsilon, B-Raf and S6K2. EMBO J. 2006;25:3078-88 pubmed
    ..However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. ..
  44. Koh W, Mahan R, Davis G. Cdc42- and Rac1-mediated endothelial lumen formation requires Pak2, Pak4 and Par3, and PKC-dependent signaling. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:989-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals novel regulators that control the signaling events mediating the crucial lumen formation step in vascular morphogenesis. ..
  45. Mei B, Li W, Cheng X, Liu X, Gu E, Zhang Y. Activating mu-opioid receptors in the spinal cord mediates the cardioprotective effect of remote preconditioning of trauma. Cardiol J. 2017;24:314-323 pubmed publisher
    ..molecule 1 (ICAM-1), plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCe) in myocardial cell membranes, and adenosine release in the spinal cord...
  46. Ruegg C, Strand M. A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium influx. Cell Immunol. 1991;137:1-13 pubmed
  47. Lanni C, Mazzucchelli M, Porrello E, Govoni S, Racchi M. Differential involvement of protein kinase C alpha and epsilon in the regulated secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:3068-75 pubmed
    ..The response to carbachol is instead completely blocked in PKCepsilon-deficient cells suggesting the importance of PKCepsilon in coupling cholinergic receptors with APP metabolism. ..
  48. Di Marcantonio D, Martinez E, Sidoli S, Vadaketh J, Nieborowska Skorska M, Gupta A, et al. Protein Kinase C Epsilon Is a Key Regulator of Mitochondrial Redox Homeostasis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24:608-618 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 608-18. ©2017 AACR. ..
  49. Ku N, Omary M. Identification of the major physiologic phosphorylation site of human keratin 18: potential kinases and a role in filament reorganization. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:161-71 pubmed
    ..Our results show that ser-52 is the major physiologic phosphorylation site of human K18 in interphase cells, and that its phosphorylation may play an in vivo role in filament reorganization. ..
  50. Park I, Wang J, Groopman J. HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes. Blood. 2001;97:352-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway. ..
  51. Xu Y, Li Z, Zhang C, Zhang S, Ji Y, Chen F. Knockdown of PKCε expression inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and decreases invasiveness of human glioma cells partially through Stat3. J Mol Neurosci. 2015;55:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKCε has the potential to be an attractive therapeutic target for glioma therapy. ..
  52. Lee A, Wu D, Dadgar J, Wang D, McMahon T, Messing R. PKCε phosphorylates α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors and promotes recovery from desensitization. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:4430-41 pubmed publisher
  53. Yao L, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T. The pleckstrin homology domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase interacts with protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9175-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of protein kinase C with pharmacological agents resulted in an enhancement of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk induced by mast cell activation. ..
  54. Ilan N, Cheung L, Pinter E, Madri J. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), a scaffolding molecule for selected catenin family members whose binding is mediated by different tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21435-43 pubmed
    ..These data further support the concept that PECAM-1 functions as a binder and modulator of catenins and provides a molecular mechanism for previously reported PECAM-1/cytoskeleton interactions. ..
  55. Chen T, Li J, Xu M, Zhao Q, Hou Y, Yao L, et al. PKCε phosphorylates MIIP and promotes colorectal cancer metastasis through inhibition of RelA deacetylation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:939 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors unravel a mechanism through which EGF stimulation induces MIIP phosphorylation, leading to MIIP interacting with RelA-this prevents RelA deactylation and enhances transcriptional activity, facilitating metastasis. ..
  56. Seth A, Yan F, Polk D, Rao R. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G1060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. ..
  57. Raghuraman G, Zuniga M, Yuan H, Zhou W. PKC? mediates resistin-induced NADPH oxidase activation and inflammation leading to smooth muscle cell dysfunction and intimal hyperplasia. Atherosclerosis. 2016;253:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the PKC?-Nox pathway may represent a novel strategy in managing resistin-associated atherosclerotic complications. ..
  58. Kim E, Raval A, Perez Pinzon M. Preconditioning mediated by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after varepsilonPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance. ..
  59. Nunnari G, Smith J, Daniel R. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer. ..
  60. Caino M, Lopez Haber C, Kim J, Mochly Rosen D, Kazanietz M. Proteins kinase C? is required for non-small cell lung carcinoma growth and regulates the expression of apoptotic genes. Oncogene. 2012;31:2593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results strongly suggest that PKC? is required for NSCLC cell survival and maintenance of NSCLC tumor growth. Therefore, PKC? may represent an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLC. ..
  61. Scruggs S, Wang D, Ping P. PRKCE gene encoding protein kinase C-epsilon-Dual roles at sarcomeres and mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. Gene. 2016;590:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the role of PKC? in regulating myocardial function in physiological and pathological states has been documented in both cardioprotection and cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  62. Wang C, Constantinescu S, MacEwan D, Strulovici B, Dekker L, Parker P, et al. Interferon alpha induces protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-epsilon) gene expression and a 4.7-kb PKC-epsilon-related transcript. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6944-8 pubmed
  63. Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen A, Pedersen S, Duch M. HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:141-51 pubmed
    ..Here we review the multitude of functions exerted by Nef and discuss the functional domains of the protein in terms of cellular interaction partners and the effect of nef mutations in the course of AIDS disease progression. ..
  64. Kilts J, Grocott H, Kwatra M. G alpha(q)-coupled receptors in human atrium function through protein kinase C epsilon and delta. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:267-76 pubmed
    ..We find that stimulation of G alpha(q)-coupled receptors in human atrium activates PKC epsilon and delta only, under both acute (5 min) and longer (35 min) stimulations...
  65. Valkova C, Maerz S, Imhof D, Liebmann C. Protein kinase Cepsilon may act as EGF-inducible scaffold protein for phospholipase Cgamma1. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1830-43 pubmed
    ..Thereby the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 via the EGFR may be facilitated. This is a novel function of PKCepsilon upstream of PLCgamma1 and a novel paradigm for the EGF-induced formation of multi-protein complexes. ..
  66. Zuvich R, McCauley J, Oksenberg J, Sawcer S, De Jager P, Aubin C, et al. Genetic variation in the IL7RA/IL7 pathway increases multiple sclerosis susceptibility. Hum Genet. 2010;127:525-35 pubmed publisher
    ..2009). These results help to further delineate the genetic architecture of MS and validate our pathway approach as an effective method to identify novel associations in a complex disease. ..
  67. Hu C, Cheng C, Pan S, Wu J, Wu W. PKC mediates fluctuant ERK-paxillin signaling for hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of hepatoma cell HepG2. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PKC is critical for mediating HGF-induced fluctuant ERK-paxillin signaling during cell migration, probably via triggering endosomal degradation of c-Met. ..
  68. Brändlin I, Eiseler T, Salowsky R, Johannes F. Protein kinase C(mu) regulation of the JNK pathway is triggered via phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and protein kinase C(epsilon). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45451-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that differentially activated kinase cascades involving PDK1 and novel PKC isotypes are responsible for the regulation of PKC(mu) activity and consequently inhibit the JNK pathway. ..
  69. Maeno Hikichi Y, Chang S, Matsumura K, Lai M, Lin H, Nakagawa N, et al. A PKC epsilon-ENH-channel complex specifically modulates N-type Ca2+ channels. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:468-75 pubmed
  70. Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E. HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta. FASEB J. 2002;16:546-54 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms. ..
  71. Levran O, Peles E, Randesi M, Correa Da Rosa J, Ott J, Rotrosen J, et al. Synaptic Plasticity and Signal Transduction Gene Polymorphisms and Vulnerability to Drug Addictions in Populations of European or African Ancestry. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2015;21:898-904 pubmed publisher
  72. Sen A, Hongpaisan J, Wang D, Nelson T, Alkon D. Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) Promotes Synaptogenesis through Membrane Accumulation of the Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16462-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKC? promotes synaptogenesis by activating PSD-95 phosphorylation directly through JNK1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and also by inducing expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin. ..
  73. Baines C, Song C, Zheng Y, Wang G, Zhang J, Wang O, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with and inhibits the permeability transition pore in cardiac mitochondria. Circ Res. 2003;92:873-80 pubmed
    ..This in turn inhibits the pathological function of the pore and contributes to PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection. ..
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    ..These data continue to support the significance of abnormalities of these two key kinases, and suggest linkages between molecular endophenotypes and specific clinical phenotypes. ..
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    ..7 ?M) but not other PKC isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulating PKC? by VIP or PMA increases membrane insertion and activity of WT- and F508del-CFTR. ..
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    ..These data demonstrate that Galpha12 and Galpha13 are phosphorylated under in vivo conditions and that this phosphorylation involves protein kinase C. ..
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    ..We conclude that the binding of filamin A to vimentin and protein kinase Cepsilon is an essential regulatory step for the trafficking and activation of beta1 integrins and cell spreading on collagen. ..
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    ..Moreover, this pathway should be considered as a target for understanding the molecular mechanism of IVD degeneration and for therapeutic restoration of degenerated disks. ..
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    ..These results suggest that Nef may alter astrocytic functions by interfering with PKC expression and activation and contribute to the restriction of HIV-1 replication in astrocytes. ..
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    ..These results suggest that PKC may link a range of stimuli to the activation of VRs. ..
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    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the C1 and C2 domains of PKCepsilon both contain a binding site for ADAM12. These studies show that PKCepsilon plays a critical role in the regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression. ..
  86. Montalvo L, Carmena M, Bolaños O, Rodriguez Henche N, Sanchez Chapado M, Prieto J. Effects of the antiandrogen flutamide on the expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Biosci Rep. 2004;24:11-21 pubmed
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    ..These findings suggest that PKC-mediated activation of NCKX2 is sensitive to mutation of multiple PKC consensus sites via a mechanism that may involve several phosphorylation events. ..
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    ..These events may be prevented by expressing molecules that bind peripherin at the same site as PKCepsilon. ..
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    ..This study therefore identifies the scaffold protein MyD88 as the link coupling TLRs to PKCepsilon recruitment, phosphorylation, and downstream signaling. ..
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    ..These results demonstrate that PKCepsilon can induce distinctly different signaling from the Golgi and from the plasma membrane. ..
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    ..Conventional (c)PKC beta 1, novel (n)PKC delta and nPKC epsilon efficiently phosphorylated the MARCKS protein in vitro...
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    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..