PKC epsilon

Summary

Gene Symbol: PKC epsilon
Description: protein kinase C epsilon
Alias: PKCE, nPKC-epsilon, protein kinase C epsilon type
Species: human
Products:     PKC epsilon

Top Publications

  1. Hu B, Shen B, Su Y, Geard C, Balajee A. Protein kinase C epsilon is involved in ionizing radiation induced bystander response in human cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we extended our investigation to yet another important member of PKC family, PKC epsilon (PKCepsilon)...
  2. Omary M, Baxter G, Chou C, Riopel C, Lin W, Strulovici B. PKC epsilon-related kinase associates with and phosphorylates cytokeratin 8 and 18. J Cell Biol. 1992;117:583-93 pubmed
    ..Immunoblot analysis of CK8/18 immunoprecipitates using an anti-PKC epsilon specific antibody showed that the 40-kD species, and not native PKC epsilon (90 kD) associated with the ..
  3. Crosby D, Poole A. Interaction of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Ctheta in platelets. Cross-talk between tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9958-65 pubmed
    ..We propose a reciprocal feedback interaction between Btk and PKCtheta; in platelets, in which PKCtheta; positively modulates activity of Btk, which in turn feeds back negatively upon PKCtheta;. ..
  4. Wu D, Thakore C, Wescott G, McCubrey J, Terrian D. Integrin signaling links protein kinase Cepsilon to the protein kinase B/Akt survival pathway in recurrent prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:8659-72 pubmed
  5. Pan Q, Bao L, Teknos T, Merajver S. Targeted disruption of protein kinase C epsilon reduces cell invasion and motility through inactivation of RhoA and RhoC GTPases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9379-84 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determine the downstream signaling pathway mediated by PKC epsilon to promote an aggressive HNSCC phenotype...
  6. Gorshkova I, He D, Berdyshev E, Usatuyk P, Burns M, Kalari S, et al. Protein kinase C-epsilon regulates sphingosine 1-phosphate-mediated migration of human lung endothelial cells through activation of phospholipase D2, protein kinase C-zeta, and Rac1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of this pathway is necessary to stimulate the migration of lung endothelial cells, a key component of the angiogenic process. ..
  7. Pears C, Thornber K, Auger J, Hughes C, Grygielska B, Protty M, et al. Differential roles of the PKC novel isoforms, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, in mouse and human platelets. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3793 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a reciprocal relationship in levels of the novel PKC isoforms delta and epsilon in human and mouse platelets and a selective role for PKCepsilon in signalling through GPVI. ..
  8. Gandellini P, Folini M, Longoni N, Pennati M, Binda M, Colecchia M, et al. miR-205 Exerts tumor-suppressive functions in human prostate through down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2287-95 pubmed publisher
  9. Besson A, Wilson T, Yong V. The anchoring protein RACK1 links protein kinase Cepsilon to integrin beta chains. Requirements for adhesion and motility. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22073-84 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results provide a novel mechanistic link between PKC activation and integrin-mediated adhesion and motility. ..

More Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tachado S, Mayhew M, Wescott G, Foreman T, Goodwin C, McJilton M, et al. Regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis in protein kinase C epsilon-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:785-97 pubmed
    ..We propose that PKCepsilon directly interacts with actin to stimulate polymerization and the extension of membrane protrusions that transformed NIH3T3 cells use in vivo to penetrate and degrade surrounding tissue boundaries. ..
  2. McJilton M, Van Sikes C, Wescott G, Wu D, Foreman T, Gregory C, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with Bax and promotes survival of human prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:7958-68 pubmed
    ..Considered in their entirety, our data suggest that an association of PKCepsilon with Bax may neutralize apoptotic signals propagated through a mitochondrial death-signaling pathway. ..
  3. Suzuki T, Seth A, Rao R. Role of phospholipase Cgamma-induced activation of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and PKCbetaI in epidermal growth factor-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3574-83 pubmed
    ..This study shows that PLCgamma-mediated activation of PKCepsilon and PKCbetaI and intracellular calcium is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde-induced insult. ..
  4. Bourguignon L, Spevak C, Wong G, Xia W, Gilad E. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with protein kinase C(epsilon) promotes oncogenic signaling by the stem cell marker Nanog and the Production of microRNA-21, leading to down-regulation of the tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, anti-apoptosis, and chemotherap. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this newly discovered HA-CD44 signaling pathway should provide important drug targets for sensitizing tumor cell apoptosis and overcoming chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer cells. ..
  5. Hämälistö S, Pouwels J, De Franceschi N, Saari M, Ivarsson Y, Zimmermann P, et al. A ZO-1/?5?1-integrin complex regulates cytokinesis downstream of PKC? in NCI-H460 cells plated on fibronectin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70696 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results identify a novel regulatory pathway involving the interplay between ZO-1, ?5-integrin and PKC? in the late stages of mammalian cell division. ..
  6. Castrillo A, Pennington D, Otto F, Parker P, Owen M, Bosca L. Protein kinase Cepsilon is required for macrophage activation and defense against bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1231-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of PKCepsilon, host defense against bacterial infection is severely compromised, resulting in an increased incidence of mortality. ..
  7. Shankar E, Krishnamurthy S, Paranandi R, Basu A. PKCepsilon induces Bcl-2 by activating CREB. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:883-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, knockdown of CREB sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death. These results suggest that PKCepsilon regulates Bcl-2 induction through activation of the transcription factor CREB. ..
  8. Kang J, Park Y, Lee D, Kim J, Kim M, Bak Y, et al. Intracellular interaction of interleukin (IL)-32? with protein kinase C? (PKC? ) and STAT3 protein augments IL-6 production in THP-1 promonocytic cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that the intracellular interaction of IL-32? with PKC? and STAT3 promotes STAT3 binding to the IL-6 promoter by enforcing STAT3 phosphorylation, which results in increased production of IL-6. ..
  9. Chen L, Hahn H, Wu G, Chen C, Liron T, Schechtman D, et al. Opposing cardioprotective actions and parallel hypertrophic effects of delta PKC and epsilon PKC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11114-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, reduction in cardiac damage caused by ischemia by perfusion of selective regulator peptides of PKC through the coronary arteries constitutes a major step toward developing a therapeutic agent for acute cardiac ischemia. ..
  10. Saurin A, Durgan J, Cameron A, Faisal A, Marber M, Parker P. The regulated assembly of a PKCepsilon complex controls the completion of cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a new regulatory mechanism that controls exit from cytokinesis, which has implications for carcinogenesis. ..
  11. Gobbi G, Mirandola P, Carubbi C, Micheloni C, Malinverno C, Lunghi P, et al. Phorbol ester-induced PKCepsilon down-modulation sensitizes AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cell differentiation. Blood. 2009;113:3080-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the use of TRAIL in combination with phorbol esters (or possibly more specific PKCepsilon down-modulators) might represent a significative improvement of our therapeutic arsenal against AML. ..
  12. Bae K, Wang H, Jiang G, Chen M, Lu L, Xiao L. Protein kinase C epsilon is overexpressed in primary human non-small cell lung cancers and functionally required for proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells in a p21/Cip1-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6053-63 pubmed
    ..In this study, we showed for the first time by immunohistochemistry that overexpression of PKC epsilon was detected in the vast majority (>90%) of primary human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) compared with ..
  13. Gobbi G, Mirandola P, Sponzilli I, Micheloni C, Malinverno C, Cocco L, et al. Timing and expression level of protein kinase C epsilon regulate the megakaryocytic differentiation of human CD34 cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:2322-9 pubmed
  14. Ding L, Wang H, Lang W, Xiao L. Protein kinase C-epsilon promotes survival of lung cancer cells by suppressing apoptosis through dysregulation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35305-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest an important role for PKC-epsilon in regulating survival of lung cancer cells. ..
  15. Choi D, Wang D, Yu G, Zhu G, Kharazia V, Paredes J, et al. PKCepsilon increases endothelin converting enzyme activity and reduces amyloid plaque pathology in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8215-20 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that increased neuronal PKCepsilon activity can promote Abeta clearance and reduce AD neuropathology through increased endothelin-converting enzyme activity. ..
  16. Lu D, Huang J, Basu A. Protein kinase Cepsilon activates protein kinase B/Akt via DNA-PK to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22799-807 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PKCepsilon activates Akt via DNA-PK to mediate its antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, we report for the first time that DNA-PK can regulate receptor-initiated apoptosis via Akt. ..
  17. Newton P, Messing R. The substrates and binding partners of protein kinase Cepsilon. Biochem J. 2010;427:189-96 pubmed publisher
  18. Kuroda S, Tokunaga C, Kiyohara Y, Higuchi O, Konishi H, Mizuno K, et al. Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31029-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the LIM domain is one of the targets of PKC and that the LIM-PKC interaction may shed light on undefined roles of LIM domain-containing proteins. ..
  19. Mendez C, Leibiger I, Leibiger B, Høy M, Gromada J, Berggren P, et al. Rapid association of protein kinase C-epsilon with insulin granules is essential for insulin exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44753-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that association of PKC-epsilon with insulin granule membranes represents an important component of the secretory network because it is essential for insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. ..
  20. Pardo O, Wellbrock C, Khanzada U, Aubert M, Arozarena I, Davidson S, et al. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKCepsilon, B-Raf and S6K2. EMBO J. 2006;25:3078-88 pubmed
    ..However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. ..
  21. Koh W, Mahan R, Davis G. Cdc42- and Rac1-mediated endothelial lumen formation requires Pak2, Pak4 and Par3, and PKC-dependent signaling. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:989-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals novel regulators that control the signaling events mediating the crucial lumen formation step in vascular morphogenesis. ..
  22. Mei B, Li W, Cheng X, Liu X, Gu E, Zhang Y. Activating mu-opioid receptors in the spinal cord mediates the cardioprotective effect of remote preconditioning of trauma. Cardiol J. 2017;24:314-323 pubmed publisher
    ..molecule 1 (ICAM-1), plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCe) in myocardial cell membranes, and adenosine release in the spinal cord...
  23. Ruegg C, Strand M. A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium influx. Cell Immunol. 1991;137:1-13 pubmed
  24. Lanni C, Mazzucchelli M, Porrello E, Govoni S, Racchi M. Differential involvement of protein kinase C alpha and epsilon in the regulated secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:3068-75 pubmed
    ..The response to carbachol is instead completely blocked in PKCepsilon-deficient cells suggesting the importance of PKCepsilon in coupling cholinergic receptors with APP metabolism. ..
  25. Di Marcantonio D, Martinez E, Sidoli S, Vadaketh J, Nieborowska Skorska M, Gupta A, et al. Protein Kinase C Epsilon Is a Key Regulator of Mitochondrial Redox Homeostasis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24:608-618 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 608-18. ©2017 AACR. ..
  26. Ku N, Omary M. Identification of the major physiologic phosphorylation site of human keratin 18: potential kinases and a role in filament reorganization. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:161-71 pubmed
    ..Our results show that ser-52 is the major physiologic phosphorylation site of human K18 in interphase cells, and that its phosphorylation may play an in vivo role in filament reorganization. ..
  27. Park I, Wang J, Groopman J. HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes. Blood. 2001;97:352-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway. ..
  28. Lee A, Wu D, Dadgar J, Wang D, McMahon T, Messing R. PKCε phosphorylates α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors and promotes recovery from desensitization. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:4430-41 pubmed publisher
  29. Yao L, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T. The pleckstrin homology domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase interacts with protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9175-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of protein kinase C with pharmacological agents resulted in an enhancement of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk induced by mast cell activation. ..
  30. Ilan N, Cheung L, Pinter E, Madri J. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), a scaffolding molecule for selected catenin family members whose binding is mediated by different tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21435-43 pubmed
    ..These data further support the concept that PECAM-1 functions as a binder and modulator of catenins and provides a molecular mechanism for previously reported PECAM-1/cytoskeleton interactions. ..
  31. Chen T, Li J, Xu M, Zhao Q, Hou Y, Yao L, et al. PKCε phosphorylates MIIP and promotes colorectal cancer metastasis through inhibition of RelA deacetylation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:939 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors unravel a mechanism through which EGF stimulation induces MIIP phosphorylation, leading to MIIP interacting with RelA-this prevents RelA deactylation and enhances transcriptional activity, facilitating metastasis. ..
  32. Seth A, Yan F, Polk D, Rao R. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G1060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. ..
  33. Raghuraman G, Zuniga M, Yuan H, Zhou W. PKC? mediates resistin-induced NADPH oxidase activation and inflammation leading to smooth muscle cell dysfunction and intimal hyperplasia. Atherosclerosis. 2016;253:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the PKC?-Nox pathway may represent a novel strategy in managing resistin-associated atherosclerotic complications. ..
  34. Kim E, Raval A, Perez Pinzon M. Preconditioning mediated by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after varepsilonPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance. ..
  35. Nunnari G, Smith J, Daniel R. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer. ..
  36. Caino M, Lopez Haber C, Kim J, Mochly Rosen D, Kazanietz M. Proteins kinase C? is required for non-small cell lung carcinoma growth and regulates the expression of apoptotic genes. Oncogene. 2012;31:2593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results strongly suggest that PKC? is required for NSCLC cell survival and maintenance of NSCLC tumor growth. Therefore, PKC? may represent an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLC. ..
  37. Scruggs S, Wang D, Ping P. PRKCE gene encoding protein kinase C-epsilon-Dual roles at sarcomeres and mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. Gene. 2016;590:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the role of PKC? in regulating myocardial function in physiological and pathological states has been documented in both cardioprotection and cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  38. Wang C, Constantinescu S, MacEwan D, Strulovici B, Dekker L, Parker P, et al. Interferon alpha induces protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-epsilon) gene expression and a 4.7-kb PKC-epsilon-related transcript. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6944-8 pubmed
  39. Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen A, Pedersen S, Duch M. HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:141-51 pubmed
    ..Here we review the multitude of functions exerted by Nef and discuss the functional domains of the protein in terms of cellular interaction partners and the effect of nef mutations in the course of AIDS disease progression. ..
  40. Kilts J, Grocott H, Kwatra M. G alpha(q)-coupled receptors in human atrium function through protein kinase C epsilon and delta. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:267-76 pubmed
    ..We find that stimulation of G alpha(q)-coupled receptors in human atrium activates PKC epsilon and delta only, under both acute (5 min) and longer (35 min) stimulations...
  41. Valkova C, Maerz S, Imhof D, Liebmann C. Protein kinase Cepsilon may act as EGF-inducible scaffold protein for phospholipase Cgamma1. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1830-43 pubmed
    ..Thereby the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 via the EGFR may be facilitated. This is a novel function of PKCepsilon upstream of PLCgamma1 and a novel paradigm for the EGF-induced formation of multi-protein complexes. ..
  42. Zuvich R, McCauley J, Oksenberg J, Sawcer S, De Jager P, Aubin C, et al. Genetic variation in the IL7RA/IL7 pathway increases multiple sclerosis susceptibility. Hum Genet. 2010;127:525-35 pubmed publisher
    ..2009). These results help to further delineate the genetic architecture of MS and validate our pathway approach as an effective method to identify novel associations in a complex disease. ..
  43. Hu C, Cheng C, Pan S, Wu J, Wu W. PKC mediates fluctuant ERK-paxillin signaling for hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of hepatoma cell HepG2. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PKC is critical for mediating HGF-induced fluctuant ERK-paxillin signaling during cell migration, probably via triggering endosomal degradation of c-Met. ..
  44. Brändlin I, Eiseler T, Salowsky R, Johannes F. Protein kinase C(mu) regulation of the JNK pathway is triggered via phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and protein kinase C(epsilon). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45451-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that differentially activated kinase cascades involving PDK1 and novel PKC isotypes are responsible for the regulation of PKC(mu) activity and consequently inhibit the JNK pathway. ..
  45. Maeno Hikichi Y, Chang S, Matsumura K, Lai M, Lin H, Nakagawa N, et al. A PKC epsilon-ENH-channel complex specifically modulates N-type Ca2+ channels. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:468-75 pubmed
  46. Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E. HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta. FASEB J. 2002;16:546-54 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms. ..
  47. Levran O, Peles E, Randesi M, Correa Da Rosa J, Ott J, Rotrosen J, et al. Synaptic Plasticity and Signal Transduction Gene Polymorphisms and Vulnerability to Drug Addictions in Populations of European or African Ancestry. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2015;21:898-904 pubmed publisher
  48. Sen A, Hongpaisan J, Wang D, Nelson T, Alkon D. Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) Promotes Synaptogenesis through Membrane Accumulation of the Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16462-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKC? promotes synaptogenesis by activating PSD-95 phosphorylation directly through JNK1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and also by inducing expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin. ..
  49. Baines C, Song C, Zheng Y, Wang G, Zhang J, Wang O, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with and inhibits the permeability transition pore in cardiac mitochondria. Circ Res. 2003;92:873-80 pubmed
    ..This in turn inhibits the pathological function of the pore and contributes to PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection. ..
  50. Shelton R, Hal Manier D, Lewis D. Protein kinases A and C in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from persons with major depression and normal controls. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:1223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data continue to support the significance of abnormalities of these two key kinases, and suggest linkages between molecular endophenotypes and specific clinical phenotypes. ..
  51. Alcolado N, Conrad D, Rafferty S, Chappe F, Chappe V. VIP-dependent increase in F508del-CFTR membrane localization is mediated by PKC?. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ?M) but not other PKC isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulating PKC? by VIP or PMA increases membrane insertion and activity of WT- and F508del-CFTR. ..
  52. Offermanns S, Hu Y, Simon M. Galpha12 and galpha13 are phosphorylated during platelet activation. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26044-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Galpha12 and Galpha13 are phosphorylated under in vivo conditions and that this phosphorylation involves protein kinase C. ..
  53. Chen L, Doerner A, Lehmann P, Huang S, Zhong G, Pan Z. A novel protein kinase C (PKCepsilon) is required for fMet-Leu-Phe-induced activation of NF-kappaB in human peripheral blood monocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22497-501 pubmed
  54. Holden N, Squires P, Kaur M, Bland R, Jones C, Newton R. Phorbol ester-stimulated NF-kappaB-dependent transcription: roles for isoforms of novel protein kinase C. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1338-48 pubmed publisher
  55. Kim H, Nakamura F, Lee W, Hong C, Perez Sala D, McCulloch C. Regulation of cell adhesion to collagen via beta1 integrins is dependent on interactions of filamin A with vimentin and protein kinase C epsilon. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1829-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the binding of filamin A to vimentin and protein kinase Cepsilon is an essential regulatory step for the trafficking and activation of beta1 integrins and cell spreading on collagen. ..
  56. Toledo R, Sekiya T, Horvath A, Faucz F, Fragoso M, Longuini V, et al. Assessing the emerging oncogene protein kinase C epsilon as a candidate gene in families with Carney complex-2. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;76:147-8 pubmed publisher
  57. Mirandola P, Gobbi G, Masselli E, Micheloni C, Di Marcantonio D, Queirolo V, et al. Protein kinase C? regulates proliferation and cell sensitivity to TGF-1? of CD4+ T lymphocytes: implications for Hashimoto thyroiditis. J Immunol. 2011;187:4721-32 pubmed publisher
  58. Tsirimonaki E, Fedonidis C, Pneumaticos S, Tragas A, Michalopoulos I, Mangoura D. PKC? signalling activates ERK1/2, and regulates aggrecan, ADAMTS5, and miR377 gene expression in human nucleus pulposus cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82045 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this pathway should be considered as a target for understanding the molecular mechanism of IVD degeneration and for therapeutic restoration of degenerated disks. ..
  59. Ambrosini E, Slepko N, Kohleisen B, Shumay E, Erfle V, Aloisi F, et al. HIV-1 Nef alters the expression of betaII and epsilon isoforms of protein kinase C and the activation of the long terminal repeat promoter in human astrocytoma cells. Glia. 1999;27:143-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Nef may alter astrocytic functions by interfering with PKC expression and activation and contribute to the restriction of HIV-1 replication in astrocytes. ..
  60. Premkumar L, Ahern G. Induction of vanilloid receptor channel activity by protein kinase C. Nature. 2000;408:985-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PKC may link a range of stimuli to the activation of VRs. ..
  61. Sundberg C, Thodeti C, Kveiborg M, Larsson C, Parker P, Albrechtsen R, et al. Regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression by protein kinase C epsilon. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51601-11 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the C1 and C2 domains of PKCepsilon both contain a binding site for ADAM12. These studies show that PKCepsilon plays a critical role in the regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression. ..
  62. Montalvo L, Carmena M, Bolaños O, Rodriguez Henche N, Sanchez Chapado M, Prieto J. Effects of the antiandrogen flutamide on the expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Biosci Rep. 2004;24:11-21 pubmed
  63. Lee J, Visser F, Lee J, Lee K, Soh J, Ho W, et al. Protein kinase C-dependent enhancement of activity of rat brain NCKX2 heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39205-16 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that PKC-mediated activation of NCKX2 is sensitive to mutation of multiple PKC consensus sites via a mechanism that may involve several phosphorylation events. ..
  64. Sunesson L, Hellman U, Larsson C. Protein kinase Cepsilon binds peripherin and induces its aggregation, which is accompanied by apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16653-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These events may be prevented by expressing molecules that bind peripherin at the same site as PKCepsilon. ..
  65. Faisal A, Saurin A, Gregory B, Foxwell B, Parker P. The scaffold MyD88 acts to couple protein kinase Cepsilon to Toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies the scaffold protein MyD88 as the link coupling TLRs to PKCepsilon recruitment, phosphorylation, and downstream signaling. ..
  66. Garczarczyk D, Toton E, Biedermann V, Rosivatz E, Rechfeld F, Rybczynska M, et al. Signal transduction of constitutively active protein kinase C epsilon. Cell Signal. 2009;21:745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that PKCepsilon can induce distinctly different signaling from the Golgi and from the plasma membrane. ..
  67. Herget T, Oehrlein S, Pappin D, Rozengurt E, Parker P. The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) is sequentially phosphorylated by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of protein kinase C. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:448-57 pubmed
    ..Conventional (c)PKC beta 1, novel (n)PKC delta and nPKC epsilon efficiently phosphorylated the MARCKS protein in vitro...
  68. Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19364-9 pubmed
    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..
  69. Goerke A, Sakai N, Gutjahr E, Schlapkohl W, Mushinski J, Haller H, et al. Induction of apoptosis by protein kinase C delta is independent of its kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32054-62 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that distinct protein kinase C isozymes induce apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. More importantly, they show that some protein kinase C effector functions are independent of the catalytic activity. ..
  70. Wei J, Davis K, Wu H, Wu J. Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 and its physiological implications. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6182-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutation of T91 to aspartic acid or glutamic acid mimics the effect of phosphorylation. A model depicting the effect of phosphorylation on GAD activity upon neuronal stimulation is also proposed...
  71. Fortin S, Le Mercier M, Camby I, Spiegl Kreinecker S, Berger W, Lefranc F, et al. Galectin-1 is implicated in the protein kinase C epsilon/vimentin-controlled trafficking of integrin-beta1 in glioblastoma cells. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The understanding of molecular mediators such as galectin-1 and the pathways through which they drive the cell invasion so descriptive of GBM is anticipated to reveal potential therapeutic targets that promote glioma malignancy. ..
  72. Yang W, Xia Y, Cao Y, Zheng Y, Bu W, Zhang L, et al. EGFR-induced and PKC? monoubiquitylation-dependent NF-?B activation upregulates PKM2 expression and promotes tumorigenesis. Mol Cell. 2012;48:771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the distinct regulation of NF-?B by EGF, in contrast to TNF-?, and the importance of the metabolic cooperation between the EGFR and NF-?B pathways in PKM2 upregulation and tumorigenesis. ..
  73. Chen Z, Tang H, Qayyum R, Schick U, Nalls M, Handsaker R, et al. Genome-wide association analysis of red blood cell traits in African Americans: the COGENT Network. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2529-38 pubmed publisher
  74. Zhang X, Li D, Li M, Ye M, Ding L, Cai H, et al. MicroRNA-146a targets PRKCE to modulate papillary thyroid tumor development. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:257-67 pubmed publisher
  75. Burnette B, Yu G, Felsted R. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 gag proteins by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8698-703 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the identification of a highly conserved consensus PKC phosphorylation site motif in the HIV-1 gag protein at Ser111 and suggests that PKC phosphorylation plays an important role in gag protein function. ..
  76. Ivaska J, Bosca L, Parker P. PKCepsilon is a permissive link in integrin-dependent IFN-gamma signalling that facilitates JAK phosphorylation of STAT1. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:363-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKCepsilon functions as a central point of integration through which integrin engagement exerts a permissive input on IFN-gamma signalling. ..
  77. Sheng Y, Liu H, Xu M, Jiang S, Ding R, Lu W. [Apoptosis induction and phosphorylated protein kinase C epsilon expression in 32D cells by sera from patients with aplastic anemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;29:296-9 pubmed
    ..45 +/- 0.51)% vs (3.24 +/- 0.56)%, P > 0.05]. Sera from both SAA and NSAA patients could upregulate the expression of pPKC epsilon in 32D cells. The SAA sera induce apoptosis in 32D cells significantly, but the latter do not. ..
  78. Gobbi G, Di Marcantonio D, Micheloni C, Carubbi C, Galli D, Vaccarezza M, et al. TRAIL up-regulation must be accompanied by a reciprocal PKC? down-regulation during differentiation of colonic epithelial cell: implications for colorectal cancer cell differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:630-8 pubmed publisher
  79. Zhu H, Moriasi C, Zhang M, Zhao Y, Zou M. Phosphorylation of serine 399 in LKB1 protein short form by protein kinase C? is required for its nucleocytoplasmic transport and consequent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:16495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, similar to Ser-428/431 (in LKB1(L)), Ser-399 (in LKB1(S)) is a PKC?-dependent phosphorylation site essential for nucleocytoplasmic export of LKB1(S) and consequent AMPK activation. ..
  80. Huang B, Fu S, Fan W, Wang Z, Chen Z, Guo S, et al. PKC? inhibits isolation and stemness of side population cells via the suppression of ABCB1 transporter and PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK signaling in renal cell carcinoma cell line 769P. Cancer Lett. 2016;376:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKC? may work as an important mediator in cancer stem cell pathogenesis of renal cell cancer. ..
  81. Rey O, Reeve J, Zhukova E, Sinnett Smith J, Rozengurt E. G protein-coupled receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the activation loop of protein kinase D: dependence on plasma membrane translocation and protein kinase Cepsilon. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34361-72 pubmed
    ..Based on these and previous results, we propose a model of GPCR-mediated PKD regulation that integrates its changes in distribution, catalytic activity, and multisite phosphorylation. ..
  82. ter Horst K, Gilijamse P, Versteeg R, Ackermans M, Nederveen A, la Fleur S, et al. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1997-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans. ..
  83. Zidovetzki R, Wang J, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Hofman F. Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:825-33 pubmed
    ..Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia. ..
  84. Doble B, Ping P, Kardami E. The epsilon subtype of protein kinase C is required for cardiomyocyte connexin-43 phosphorylation. Circ Res. 2000;86:293-301 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PKC mediates the FGF-2-induced effects on cardiac GJs and that PKCepsilon likely interacts with and phosphorylates cardiac Cx43 at sites of intercellular contact. ..
  85. Durgan J, Cameron A, Saurin A, Hanrahan S, Totty N, Messing R, et al. The identification and characterization of novel PKCepsilon phosphorylation sites provide evidence for functional cross-talk within the PKC superfamily. Biochem J. 2008;411:319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our current findings identify three new phosphorylation sites that contribute to the isoform-specific function of PKCepsilon and highlight a novel and direct means of cross-talk between different members of the PKC superfamily. ..
  86. Basu N, Kole L, Basu M, Chakraborty K, Mitra P, Owens I. The major chemical-detoxifying system of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases requires regulated phosphorylation supported by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23048-61 pubmed publisher
  87. Mylroie H, Dumont O, Bauer A, Thornton C, Mackey J, Calay D, et al. PKCε-CREB-Nrf2 signalling induces HO-1 in the vascular endothelium and enhances resistance to inflammation and apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the potent protective actions of HO-1, we propose that this mechanism is an important contributor to the emerging role of PKCε in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and resistance to injury. ..
  88. Wu D, Terrian D. Regulation of caveolin-1 expression and secretion by a protein kinase cepsilon signaling pathway in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40449-55 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that PKCepsilon may advance the recurrence of human prostate cancer by promoting the expression of several important downstream effectors of disease progression. ..
  89. Robu V, Pfeiffer E, Robia S, Balijepalli R, Pi Y, Kamp T, et al. Localization of functional endothelin receptor signaling complexes in cardiac transverse tubules. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48154-61 pubmed
    ..Compartmentation of ET-1 signaling complexes may explain the discordant effects of ET-1 versus bath applied PKC activators and may contribute to both the specificity and diversity of the cardiac actions of ET-1. ..
  90. Diouf B, Collazos A, Labesse G, Macari F, Choquet A, Clair P, et al. A 20-amino acid module of protein kinase C{epsilon} involved in translocation and selective targeting at cell-cell contacts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 3CTS is involved in the modulation of translocation via its 14-3-3-binding site, in cytoplasmic desequestration via the alpha-helix, and in selective PKCepsilon targeting at the cell-cell contact via Glu-374. ..
  91. Filone C, Hanna S, Caino M, Bambina S, Doms R, Cherry S. Rift valley fever virus infection of human cells and insect hosts is promoted by protein kinase C epsilon. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15483 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data show that inhibition of cellular factors required for early steps in the infection cycle including PKC? can block RVFV infection, and may represent a starting point for the development of anti-RVFV therapeutics. ..