PKC beta

Summary

Gene Symbol: PKC beta
Description: protein kinase C beta
Alias: PKC-beta, PKCB, PRKCB1, PRKCB2, protein kinase C beta type, PKC-B, protein kinase C, beta 1 polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     PKC beta

Top Publications

  1. Zum Büschenfelde C, Wagner M, Lutzny G, Oelsner M, Feuerstacke Y, Decker T, et al. Recruitment of PKC-betaII to lipid rafts mediates apoptosis-resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing ZAP-70. Leukemia. 2010;24:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that this compound is highly active in leukemic cells and augments the cytotoxic effects of standard chemotherapeutic drugs. ..
  2. Feng X, Becker K, Stribling S, Peters K, Hannun Y. Regulation of receptor-mediated protein kinase C membrane trafficking by autophosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:17024-34 pubmed
  3. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, et al. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:721-6 pubmed
    ..dramatic increase in the angiogenic response to oxygen-induced retinal ischemia in transgenic mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform and a significant decrease in retinal neovascularization in PKC beta isoform null mice...
  4. Gao T, Newton A. The turn motif is a phosphorylation switch that regulates the binding of Hsp70 to protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31585-92 pubmed
    ..Disruption of this interaction prevents re-phosphorylation and targets the enzyme for down-regulation. ..
  5. Dreikhausen U, Gorf K, Resch K, Szamel M. Protein kinase Cbeta1, a major regulator of TCR-CD28-activated signal transduction leading to IL-2 gene transcription and secretion. Int Immunol. 2003;15:1089-98 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a highly specific function of PKCbeta for regulation of TCR-CD28 induced-signaling, IL-2 gene expression and secretion in Jurkat T cells. ..
  6. Abrams S, Lakum T, Lin K, Jones G, Treweeke A, Farahani M, et al. B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is regulated by overexpressed active protein kinase CbetaII. Blood. 2007;109:1193-201 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that overexpressed active PKCbetaII plays a role in the regulation and outcome of BCR signals that can be important for the progression of CLL. ..
  7. Vallentin A, Mochly Rosen D. RBCK1, a protein kinase CbetaI (PKCbetaI)-interacting protein, regulates PKCbeta-dependent function. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1650-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that RBCK1 binds PKCbetaI and is a key regulator of PKCbetaI function in cells and that, together with PKCbetaII, the three proteins are essential for developmental hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. ..
  8. Kim J, Choi Y, Vallentin A, Hunrichs B, Hellerstein M, Peehl D, et al. Centrosomal PKCbetaII and pericentrin are critical for human prostate cancer growth and angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a PKCbetaII inhibitor such as betaIIV5-3 may be used to reduce prostate cancer growth by targeting both angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. ..
  9. Shi Y, Cosentino F, Camici G, Akhmedov A, Vanhoutte P, Tanner F, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein activates p66Shc via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, protein kinase C-beta, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data set the stage for the design of novel therapeutic tools to retard atherogenesis through the inhibition of p66(Shc). ..

More Information

Publications202 found, 100 shown here

  1. Oancea E, Meyer T. Protein kinase C as a molecular machine for decoding calcium and diacylglycerol signals. Cell. 1998;95:307-18 pubmed
    ..The properties of this molecular decoding machine make PKCgamma responsive to persistent diacylglycerol increases combined with high- but not low-frequency calcium spikes. ..
  2. Holler C, Pinon J, Denk U, Heyder C, Hofbauer S, Greil R, et al. PKCbeta is essential for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model: validation of PKCbeta as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2009;113:2791-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, targeting of PKCbeta with the specific inhibitor enzastaurin led to killing of human CLL samples in vitro. We thus propose that PKCbeta may be a relevant target for the treatment of CLL. ..
  3. Kang S, Wahl M, Chu J, Kitaura J, Kawakami Y, Kato R, et al. PKCbeta modulates antigen receptor signaling via regulation of Btk membrane localization. EMBO J. 2001;20:5692-702 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby reversible translocation of Btk/Tec kinases regulates the threshold for immunoreceptor signaling and thereby modulates lymphocyte activation. ..
  4. Su T, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries L, et al. PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:780-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define an essential role for PKC-beta in BCR survival signaling and highlight PKC-beta as a key therapeutic target for B-lineage malignancies. ..
  5. Becker K, Hannun Y. cPKC-dependent sequestration of membrane-recycling components in a subset of recycling endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52747-54 pubmed
    ..These results identify a novel site for cPKC translocation and define a novel function for the sustained activation of PKCalpha and betaII in regulation of recycling components. ..
  6. McSwine Kennick R, McKeegan E, Johnson M, Morin M. Phorbol diester-induced alterations in the expression of protein kinase C isozymes and their mRNAs. Analysis in wild-type and phorbol diester-resistant HL-60 cell clones. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15135-43 pubmed
  7. Cejas P, Carlson L, Zhang J, Padmanabhan S, Kolonias D, Lindner I, et al. Protein kinase C betaII plays an essential role in dendritic cell differentiation and autoregulates its own expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28412-23 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the regulation of PKC-betaII expression and signaling play critical roles in mediating progenitor to DC differentiation. ..
  8. Civallero M, Cosenza M, Grisendi G, Marcheselli L, Todoerti K, Sacchi S. Effects of enzastaurin, alone or in combination, on signaling pathway controlling growth and survival of B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, enzastaurin synergizes in its effects with chlorambucil and fludarabine, respectively. Taken together, our results strongly support clinical evaluation of enzastaurin in patients with B-cell lymphoma. ..
  9. Gustafsson Sheppard N, Heldring N, Dahlman Wright K. Estrogen receptor-?, RBCK1, and protein kinase C ? 1 cooperate to regulate estrogen receptor-? gene expression. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012;49:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligand-binding function of ER? does not influence the interaction with RBCK1. In summary, our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which ER? expression is modulated in breast cancer cells. ..
  10. Parada N, Cruikshank W, Danis H, Ryan T, Center D. IL-16- and other CD4 ligand-induced migration is dependent upon protein kinase C. Cell Immunol. 1996;168:100-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a role for PKC in CD4-mediated migratory responses. ..
  11. Whalen S, Gingras A, Amankwa L, Mader S, Branton P, Aebersold R, et al. Phosphorylation of eIF-4E on serine 209 by protein kinase C is inhibited by the translational repressors, 4E-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11831-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests a two-step model for the phosphorylation (and activation) of eIF4E by growth factors and hormones: first, dissociation of eIF4E from 4E-BPs, followed by eIF4E phosphorylation. ..
  12. Chung S, Polgar J, Reed G. Protein kinase C phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 in thrombin-activated human platelets. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25286-91 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that extracellular activation can be coupled through intracellular PKC signaling so as to modulate SNARE protein interactions involved in platelet exocytosis. ..
  13. Hilden T, Valmu L, Kärkkäinen S, Gahmberg C. Threonine phosphorylation sites in the beta 2 and beta 7 leukocyte integrin polypeptides. J Immunol. 2003;170:4170-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis by manual radiosequencing by Edman degradation established that threonine phosphorylation occurred in the same threonine triplet as in beta(2) phosphorylation. ..
  14. Carnevale K, Cathcart M. Protein kinase C beta is required for human monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25317-22 pubmed
  15. Philippi A, Roschmann E, Tores F, Lindenbaum P, Benajou A, Germain Leclerc L, et al. Haplotypes in the gene encoding protein kinase c-beta (PRKCB1) on chromosome 16 are associated with autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10:950-60 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data provide evidence that the PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p may be involved in the etiology of autism.
  16. Tatematsu K, Yoshimoto N, Okajima T, Tanizawa K, Kuroda S. Identification of ubiquitin ligase activity of RBCK1 and its inhibition by splice variant RBCK2 and protein kinase Cbeta. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that other RING proteins, such as Parkin, BRCA1, and RNF8, having the E3 activity, are also down-regulated by interaction with their RING-lacking splice variants and/or phosphorylation by protein kinases. ..
  17. Redden J, Le A, Singh A, Federkiewicz K, Smith S, Dodge Kafka K. Spatiotemporal regulation of PKC via interactions with AKAP7 isoforms. Biochem J. 2012;446:301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results of the present study suggests that AKAP7 could play an integral role in dictating PKC localization and function in tissues where the two proteins are co-expressed. ..
  18. Tsui C, Martínez Martín N, Gaya M, Maldonado P, Llorian M, Legrave N, et al. Protein Kinase C-? Dictates B Cell Fate by Regulating Mitochondrial Remodeling, Metabolic Reprogramming, and Heme Biosynthesis. Immunity. 2018;48:1144-1159.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study reveals mechanistic insights into the function of PKC? as a key regulator of B cell polarity and metabolic reprogramming that instructs B cell fate. ..
  19. Chowdhury I, Koyanagi Y, Kobayashi S, Hamamoto Y, Yoshiyama H, Yoshida T, et al. The phorbol ester TPA strongly inhibits HIV-1-induced syncytia formation but enhances virus production: possible involvement of protein kinase C pathway. Virology. 1990;176:126-32 pubmed
  20. Chen W, ten Berge D, Brown J, Ahn S, Hu L, Miller W, et al. Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4. Science. 2003;301:1391-4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanism for receptor recruitment of beta-arrestin and demonstrate that Dvl plays an important role in the endocytosis of frizzled, as well as in promoting signaling. ..
  21. Rashid G, Bernheim J, Green J, Benchetrit S. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase through protein kinase A and C pathways. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2831-7 pubmed
    ..PTH induces an increased activity of the eNOS system; probably both PKA and PKC pathways are involved in this activation. Such data may explain the vasodilation observed after acute treatment with PTH. ..
  22. Saba N, Levy L. Protein kinase C-beta inhibition induces apoptosis and inhibits cell cycle progression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-hodgkin lymphoma cells. J Investig Med. 2012;60:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations in BCBL-1 were unexpected in the absence of PKC?2 expression and implicate PKC?1 as a regulator in those cells. ..
  23. Lachance K, Barhdadi A, Mongrain I, Normand V, Zakrzewski M, Leblanc M, et al. PRKCB is associated with calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal dysfunction in heart transplant recipients. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22:336-43 pubmed publisher
  24. David M, Macías A, Moreno C, Prieto A, Martínez Mármol R, Vicente R, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity regulates functional effects of Kv?1.3 subunit on KV1.5 channels: identification of a cardiac Kv1.5 channelosome. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21416-28 pubmed publisher
    ..5, K(v)?1.3, the receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), PKC?I, PKC?II, and PKC? in HEK293 cells. A very similar K(v)1.5 channelosome was found in rat ventricular tissue but not in atrial tissue. ..
  25. Tamari F, Chen F, Li C, Chaudhari J, Ioannou Y. PKC activation in Niemann pick C1 cells restores subcellular cholesterol transport. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74169 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further support for the contribution of PKCs in NPC1 disease pathogenesis and suggest that PKCs may be targeted in future efforts to develop therapeutics for NPC1 disease. ..
  26. Carnicelli V, Lizzi A, Gualtieri G, Bozzi A, Franceschini N, Di Giulio A. Effects of azidothymidine on protein kinase C activity and expression in erythroleukemic cell K562 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell HSB-2. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2015;47:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, after 24 h exposure, the HSB-2 cell growth decreased less than K562 cell growth. ..
  27. Feng S, Li H, Wang S. Lower Hydrogen Sulfide Is Associated with Cardiovascular Mortality, Which Involves cPKCβII/Akt Pathway in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. Blood Purif. 2015;40:260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower plasma H₂S in CHD patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality, which may be mediated by the cPKCβII/Akt pathway and further VCAM-1/ICAM-1 upregulation. ..
  28. Coussens L, Parker P, Rhee L, Yang Feng T, Chen E, Waterfield M, et al. Multiple, distinct forms of bovine and human protein kinase C suggest diversity in cellular signaling pathways. Science. 1986;233:859-66 pubmed
    ..The corresponding genes are located on distinct human chromosomes; the possibility of even greater genetic complexity of this gene family is suggested by Northern and Southern hybridization analyses. ..
  29. Wells N, Fry A, Guano F, Norbury C, Hickson I. Cell cycle phase-specific phosphorylation of human topoisomerase II alpha. Evidence of a role for protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28357-63 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate protein kinase C in the cell cycle phase-dependent modulation of topoisomerase II alpha enzymatic activity in human cells. ..
  30. Mahajna J, King P, Parker P, Haley J. Autoregulation of cloned human protein kinase C beta and gamma gene promoters in U937 cells. DNA Cell Biol. 1995;14:213-22 pubmed
    ..The major PKC beta transcription initiation site was identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection...
  31. Pirags V, Assert R, Haupt K, Schatz H, Pfeiffer A. Activation of human platelet protein kinase C-beta 2 in vivo in response to acute hyperglycemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1996;104:431-40 pubmed
    ..of glucose and insulin in normal controls and in 19 NIDDM patients by determining membrane and cytosol levels of PKC beta 2 using immune blots...
  32. Siomboing X, Gressier B, Dine T, Brunet C, Luyckx M, Cazin M, et al. Investigation of the inhibitory effects of chelerythrine chloride on the translocation of the protein kinase C betaI, betaII, zeta in human neutrophils. Farmaco. 2001;56:859-65 pubmed
    ..Action on PKC was proved by a binding study and by showing the absence of translocation of this enzyme from the cytoplasm to the plasmic membrane during stimulation. ..
  33. Araki S, Ng D, Krolewski B, Wyrwicz L, Rogus J, Canani L, et al. Identification of a common risk haplotype for diabetic nephropathy at the protein kinase C-beta1 (PRKCB1) gene locus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:2015-24 pubmed
    ..It is thus plausible that DNA sequence differences in the protein kinase C-beta1 gene (PRKCB1), which encodes both betaI and betaII isoforms, may influence susceptibility to nephropathy...
  34. Gao T, Newton A. Invariant Leu preceding turn motif phosphorylation site controls the interaction of protein kinase C with Hsp70. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32461-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, Hsp70 binds a hydrophobic residue preceding the turn motif, protecting PKC from down-regulation and sustaining the signaling lifetime of the kinase. ..
  35. Clarke D, Sutcliffe A, Deacon K, Bradbury D, Corbett L, Knox A. PKCbetaII augments NF-kappaB-dependent transcription at the CCL11 promoter via p300/CBP-associated factor recruitment and histone H4 acetylation. J Immunol. 2008;181:3503-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a novel important biological role for PKCbetaIotaIota in NF-kappaB-mediated CCL11 transcription by p/CAF activation and histone H4 acetylation. ..
  36. Spindler K, Lindebjerg J, Lahn M, Kjaer Frifeldt S, Jakobsen A. Protein kinase C-beta II (PKC-beta II) expression in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:641-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of PKC-beta II staining in colorectal tumors deserves further evaluation. ..
  37. Gokmen Polar Y, Mehta R, Tuzmen S, Mousses S, Thorat M, Sanders K, et al. Differential subcellular expression of protein kinase C betaII in breast cancer: correlation with breast cancer subtypes. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests the necessity for assessing the subcellular localization of PKC?II in breast cancer subtypes when evaluating the possible effectiveness of PKC?II-targeting agents. ..
  38. Wu S, Teng M, Er L, Hsiao W, Hsu L, Yeh C, et al. Association between NF-?B Pathway Gene Variants and sICAM1 Levels in Taiwanese. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169516 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus expanded the repertoire of gene variants responsible for the regulation of sICAM1 levels in the Asian populations. ..
  39. Francke U, Darras B, Zander N, Kilimann M. Assignment of human genes for phosphorylase kinase subunits alpha (PHKA) to Xq12-q13 and beta (PHKB) to 16q12-q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1989;45:276-82 pubmed
    ..Several different autosomally inherited forms of PHK deficiency for which the PHKB could be a candidate gene have been described in humans and rats. ..
  40. Blume Jensen P, Siegbahn A, Stabel S, Heldin C, Ronnstrand L. Increased Kit/SCF receptor induced mitogenicity but abolished cell motility after inhibition of protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1993;12:4199-209 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PKC is involved in a negative feedback loop which regulates the Kit/SCF-R and that the activity of PKC determines whether the effect of SCF will be preferentially mitogenic or motogenic. ..
  41. Gregorio C, Repasky E, Fowler V, Black J. Dynamic properties of ankyrin in T lymphocytes: colocalization with spectrin and protein kinase C beta. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:345-58 pubmed
    ..that ankyrin colocalizes with spectrin and with the signal transducing molecule protein kinase C beta (PKC beta) in tissue-derived lymphocytes, suggesting a functional association between these molecules in the lymphocyte ..
  42. MacCallum D, Hall P. Biochemical characterization of pKi67 with the identification of a mitotic-specific form associated with hyperphosphorylation and altered DNA binding. Exp Cell Res. 1999;252:186-98 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that pKi67 localization is regulated by the action of cell cycle-specific kinase(s) and phosphatase(s). The data presented here provide a starting point for the analysis of pKi67 function and regulation. ..
  43. Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson E, Wilson S. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:1443-52 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells. ..
  44. Roman B, Geenen D, Leitges M, Buttrick P. PKC-beta is not necessary for cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2264-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PKC-beta expression is not necessary for the development of cardiac hypertrophy nor does its absence attenuate the hypertrophic response...
  45. Dellis O, Gangloff S, Paulais M, Tondelier D, Rona J, Brouillard F, et al. Inhibition of the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) current in Jurkat T cells by the HIV-1 envelope protein gp160. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6044-50 pubmed
    ..kinases and protein kinase Cs (PKCs), and by Gö 6976 (5 microm), an inhibitor acting especially on PKC alpha and PKC beta I...
  46. Chen D, Purohit A, Halilovic E, Doxsey S, Newton A. Centrosomal anchoring of protein kinase C betaII by pericentrin controls microtubule organization, spindle function, and cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4829-39 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel role for PKC betaII in cytokinesis and indicate that this function is mediated by an interaction with pericentrin at centrosomes. ..
  47. Jezyk M, Snyder J, Gershberg S, Worthylake D, Harden T, Sondek J. Crystal structure of Rac1 bound to its effector phospholipase C-beta2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:1135-40 pubmed
  48. Tang R, Yang C, Tao J, You Y, An N, Li S, et al. Epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by urinary proteins requires the activation of PKC-? and ?I isozymes. Cell Biol Int. 2011;35:953-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the present study suggested that PKC-? and -?I play critical roles in the EMT of RTECs in response to urinary proteins. ..
  49. Korchak H, Kilpatrick L. Roles for beta II-protein kinase C and RACK1 in positive and negative signaling for superoxide anion generation in differentiated HL60 cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8910-7 pubmed
    ..betaII-PKC complex. RACK1 may divert betaII-PKC to other signaling pathways requiring beta-PKC for signal transduction. Alternatively, RACK1 may sequester betaII-PKC to down-regulate O(2) generation. ..
  50. Kumar A, Hawkins K, Hannan M, Ganz M. Activation of PKC-beta(I) in glomerular mesangial cells is associated with specific NF-kappaB subunit translocation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;281:F613-9 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the NF-kappaB p65, but not NF-kappaB p50, expression and translocation pattern mirrors that of PKC-beta(I), which may be one important pathway by which signaling is enhanced in the high-glucose state...
  51. Shu X, Wu W, Mosteller R, Broek D. Sphingosine kinase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced activation of ras and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7758-68 pubmed
    ..These data highlight a novel mechanism by which SPK mediates signaling from PKC to Ras in a manner independent of Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. ..
  52. Chibber R, Ben Mahmud B, Mann G, Zhang J, Kohner E. Protein kinase C beta2-dependent phosphorylation of core 2 GlcNAc-T promotes leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion: a mechanism underlying capillary occlusion in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2003;52:1519-27 pubmed
  53. Szegedi A, Páyer E, Czifra G, Toth B, Schmidt E, Kovacs L, et al. Protein kinase C isoenzymes differentially regulate the differentiation-dependent expression of adhesion molecules in human epidermal keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:122-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Guo K, Li Y, Kang X, Sun L, Cui J, Gao D, et al. Role of PKCbeta in hepatocellular carcinoma cells migration and invasion in vitro: a potential therapeutic target. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..All the data suggest a key role of PKCbeta in HCC motility and PKCbeta may be a potential therapeutic target. ..
  55. Numaga T, Nishida M, Kiyonaka S, Kato K, Katano M, Mori E, et al. Ca2+ influx and protein scaffolding via TRPC3 sustain PKCbeta and ERK activation in B cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TRPC3 functions as both a Ca(2+)-permeable channel and a protein scaffold at the PM for downstream PKCbeta activation in B cells. ..
  56. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  57. Maharaj N, Wies E, Stoll A, Gack M. Conventional protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and PKC-? negatively regulate RIG-I antiviral signal transduction. J Virol. 2012;86:1358-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings demonstrate that PKC-?/?-induced RIG-I phosphorylation is a critical regulatory mechanism for controlling RIG-I antiviral signal transduction under normal conditions. ..
  58. Rempel L, Finco A, Maciel R, Bosquetti B, Alvarenga L, Souza W, et al. Effect of PKC-β Signaling Pathway on Expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in Different Cell Models in Response to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs). Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:1722-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Such mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets to reduce the harmful effects of AGEs in patients with chronic kidney disease. ..
  59. Zhang M, Sun F, Chen F, Zhou B, Duan Y, Su H, et al. Subcellular proteomic approach for identifying the signaling effectors of protein kinase C-β₂ under high glucose conditions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7247-62 pubmed publisher
  60. Amigo Jiménez I, Bailón E, Aguilera Montilla N, Terol M, García Marco J, García Pardo A. Bone marrow stroma-induced resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide involves Mcl-1 upregulation and is overcome by inhibiting the PI3Kδ or PKCβ signaling pathways. Oncotarget. 2015;6:44832-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL. ..
  61. Roszak J, Smok Pieniążek A, Stepnik M. Transcriptomic analysis of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway reveals the dual role of the c-Jun oncogene in cytotoxicity and the development of resistance in HL-60 leukemia cells in response to arsenic trioxide. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:1335-1342 pubmed publisher
    ..g., genes encoding cyclin D1 (CCND1), fork head box O1 (FOXO1), Jun oncogene (JUN), protein kinase C isoform B1 (PRKCB1), because their expression profiles were predominantly changed in the clones and/or the ATO-treated parental HL-60 ..
  62. Rabiee A, Kruger M, Ardenkjær Larsen J, Kahn C, Emanuelli B. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action. Cell Signal. 2018;47:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2...
  63. Herget T, Oehrlein S, Pappin D, Rozengurt E, Parker P. The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) is sequentially phosphorylated by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of protein kinase C. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:448-57 pubmed
    ..Conventional (c)PKC beta 1, novel (n)PKC delta and nPKC epsilon efficiently phosphorylated the MARCKS protein in vitro...
  64. Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19364-9 pubmed
    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..
  65. Jain N, Zhang T, Kee W, Li W, Cao X. Protein kinase C delta associates with and phosphorylates Stat3 in an interleukin-6-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:24392-400 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PKC delta is likely to be the kinase that phosphorylates Stat3 in response to IL-6 stimulation and suggest a possible regulatory role of PKC delta on Stat3 function. ..
  66. Strack V, Krutzfeldt J, Kellerer M, Ullrich A, Lammers R, Haring H. The Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by protein kinase C isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta. Biochemistry. 2002;41:603-8 pubmed
    ..bisindolylmaleimide and was not detectable when SHP2 was co-overexpressed with kinase negative mutants of PKC beta 1 and -beta 2...
  67. Zheng M, Zhang X, Guo S, Zhang X, Choi H, Lee M, et al. PKCβII inhibits the ubiquitination of β-arrestin2 in an autophosphorylation-dependent manner. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study suggests that the extent of β-arrestin ubiquitination and the autophosphorylation status of PKCs determine PKCβII-mediated inhibition of homologous regulatory processes of GPCRs. ..
  68. Becker K, Hannun Y. Isoenzyme-specific translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)betaII and not PKCbetaI to a juxtanuclear subset of recycling endosomes: involvement of phospholipase D. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28251-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results define specific biochemical and cellular actions of PKCbetaII when compared with PKCbetaI. ..
  69. Suzuki T, Seth A, Rao R. Role of phospholipase Cgamma-induced activation of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and PKCbetaI in epidermal growth factor-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3574-83 pubmed
    ..This study shows that PLCgamma-mediated activation of PKCepsilon and PKCbetaI and intracellular calcium is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde-induced insult. ..
  70. Osto E, Kouroedov A, Mocharla P, Akhmedov A, Besler C, Rohrer L, et al. Inhibition of protein kinase Cbeta prevents foam cell formation by reducing scavenger receptor A expression in human macrophages. Circulation. 2008;118:2174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonspecific inhibition of PKCbeta prevents LDL uptake in macrophages. These findings suggest that PKCbeta inhibitors may represent a novel class of antiatherosclerotic drugs. ..
  71. Thompson L, Fields A. betaII protein kinase C is required for the G2/M phase transition of cell cycle. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15045-53 pubmed
  72. Song C, Kim B, Hong H, Kim B, Kim Y, Lee H. Biphasic regulation of plasminogen activator/inhibitor by LDL in mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F423-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LDL, after prolonged incubations with HMC, causes a PA/inhibitor imbalance favoring accumulation of matrix. ..
  73. Montalvo L, Carmena M, Bolaños O, Rodriguez Henche N, Sanchez Chapado M, Prieto J. Effects of the antiandrogen flutamide on the expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Biosci Rep. 2004;24:11-21 pubmed
  74. Manno S, Takakuwa Y, Mohandas N. Modulation of erythrocyte membrane mechanical function by protein 4.1 phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7581-7 pubmed
    ..These findings have enabled us to define a regulatory role for 4.1R phosphorylation in dynamic regulation of red cell membrane properties. ..
  75. Shelton R, Hal Manier D, Lewis D. Protein kinases A and C in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from persons with major depression and normal controls. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:1223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data continue to support the significance of abnormalities of these two key kinases, and suggest linkages between molecular endophenotypes and specific clinical phenotypes. ..
  76. Lemeer S, Gholami A, Wu Z, Kuster B. Quantitative proteome profiling of human myoma and myometrium tissue reveals kinase expression signatures with potential for therapeutic intervention. Proteomics. 2015;15:356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, the receptor tyrosine kinase DDR1 holds future potential as a drug target owing to its strong links to collagen signaling and the excessive formation of extracellular matrix typical for leiomyomas in humans. ..
  77. Lemoine S, Puddu P, Durand C, Lepage O, Babatasi G, Ivascau C, et al. Signaling pathways involved in postconditioning-induced cardioprotection of human myocardium, in vitro. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:768-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PKC activation was upstream of the opening of mitoK(ATP) channels; p38 MAPK acted on PKC. Therefore, mitoK(ATP) and p38 MAPK seemed to be involved in two independent pathways. ..
  78. Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking. ..
  79. Cenciarelli C, Marei H, Felsani A, Casalbore P, Sica G, Puglisi M, et al. PDGFR? depletion attenuates glioblastoma stem cells features by modulation of STAT3, RB1 and multiple oncogenic signals. Oncotarget. 2016;7:53047-53063 pubmed publisher
    ..we observed the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and compensatory oncogenic signals such as EDN1, EDNRB, PRKCB1, PDGF-C and PDGF-D...
  80. Jakobovits A, Rosenthal A, Capon D. Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1990;9:1165-70 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that PKC regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation, suggesting a key role for the mitogenic induction of trans-activation in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth. ..
  81. Fields A, Bednarik D, Hess A, May W. Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor. Nature. 1988;333:278-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a possible role for HIV-induced CD4 phosphorylation in viral entry and identify a potential target for antiviral therapy. ..
  82. Burnette B, Yu G, Felsted R. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 gag proteins by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8698-703 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the identification of a highly conserved consensus PKC phosphorylation site motif in the HIV-1 gag protein at Ser111 and suggests that PKC phosphorylation plays an important role in gag protein function. ..
  83. Sauma S, Friedman E. Increased expression of protein kinase C beta activates ERK3. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11422-6 pubmed
    In a prior study, we have shown that stable transfection of expression plasmids for protein kinases C beta 1 (PKC beta 1) or PKC beta 2 into differentiated colon cancer cells led to elevated levels of PKC beta 1 or PKC beta 2 protein and ..
  84. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley L, Capitani S. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:332-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta. ..
  85. Fleming I, Elliott C, Buchanan F, Downes C, Exton J. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:12753-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylate Tiam1 in vivo, and that the latter kinase plays a key role in regulating the activity of this exchange factor in vitro. ..
  86. Tseng C, Ely B, Pong R, Wang Z, Zhou J, Hsieh J. The role of DOC-2/DAB2 protein phosphorylation in the inhibition of AP-1 activity. An underlying mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function in prostate cancer. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31981-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-regulated phosphorylation of DOC-2/DAB2 protein may help its growth inhibitory function. ..
  87. Broughman J, Sun L, Umar S, Sellin J, Morris A. Chronic PKC-beta2 activation in HT-29 Cl.19a colonocytes prevents cAMP-mediated ion secretion by inhibiting apical membrane CFTR targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G331-44 pubmed
    ..Thus PKC-beta2 is hypothesized to participate in the regulation of CFTR apical plasma membrane targeting within the constitutive cellular biosynthetic pathway. ..
  88. Lin Y, Lee H, Leu S, Tsai Y. The essentiality of PKCalpha and PKCbetaI translocation for CD14+monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and dendritic cells, respectively. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:429-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the cell fate commitment of CD14(+)monocytes towards MDMs or MoDCs appears to be steered by the selective activation of PKCalpha or PKCbeta(I), respectively. ..
  89. Lee S, Chung J, Park M, Joo H, Lee E, Cho E, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 inhibits protein kinase C-mediated p66shc phosphorylation and vasoconstriction. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..APE1 suppresses oxLDL-induced p66shc activation in endothelial cells by inhibiting PKC?II-mediated serine phosphorylation of p66shc, and mitigates vasoconstriction induced by activation of PKC. ..