PKC beta


Gene Symbol: PKC beta
Description: protein kinase C beta
Alias: PKC-beta, PKCB, PRKCB1, PRKCB2, protein kinase C beta type, PKC-B, protein kinase C, beta 1 polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     PKC beta

Top Publications

  1. Zum Büschenfelde C, Wagner M, Lutzny G, Oelsner M, Feuerstacke Y, Decker T, et al. Recruitment of PKC-betaII to lipid rafts mediates apoptosis-resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing ZAP-70. Leukemia. 2010;24:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that this compound is highly active in leukemic cells and augments the cytotoxic effects of standard chemotherapeutic drugs. ..
  2. Feng X, Becker K, Stribling S, Peters K, Hannun Y. Regulation of receptor-mediated protein kinase C membrane trafficking by autophosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:17024-34 pubmed
  3. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, et al. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:721-6 pubmed
    ..dramatic increase in the angiogenic response to oxygen-induced retinal ischemia in transgenic mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform and a significant decrease in retinal neovascularization in PKC beta isoform null mice...
  4. Gao T, Newton A. The turn motif is a phosphorylation switch that regulates the binding of Hsp70 to protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31585-92 pubmed
    ..Disruption of this interaction prevents re-phosphorylation and targets the enzyme for down-regulation. ..
  5. Dreikhausen U, Gorf K, Resch K, Szamel M. Protein kinase Cbeta1, a major regulator of TCR-CD28-activated signal transduction leading to IL-2 gene transcription and secretion. Int Immunol. 2003;15:1089-98 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a highly specific function of PKCbeta for regulation of TCR-CD28 induced-signaling, IL-2 gene expression and secretion in Jurkat T cells. ..
  6. Abrams S, Lakum T, Lin K, Jones G, Treweeke A, Farahani M, et al. B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is regulated by overexpressed active protein kinase CbetaII. Blood. 2007;109:1193-201 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that overexpressed active PKCbetaII plays a role in the regulation and outcome of BCR signals that can be important for the progression of CLL. ..
  7. Vallentin A, Mochly Rosen D. RBCK1, a protein kinase CbetaI (PKCbetaI)-interacting protein, regulates PKCbeta-dependent function. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1650-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that RBCK1 binds PKCbetaI and is a key regulator of PKCbetaI function in cells and that, together with PKCbetaII, the three proteins are essential for developmental hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. ..
  8. Kim J, Choi Y, Vallentin A, Hunrichs B, Hellerstein M, Peehl D, et al. Centrosomal PKCbetaII and pericentrin are critical for human prostate cancer growth and angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a PKCbetaII inhibitor such as betaIIV5-3 may be used to reduce prostate cancer growth by targeting both angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. ..
  9. Shi Y, Cosentino F, Camici G, Akhmedov A, Vanhoutte P, Tanner F, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein activates p66Shc via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, protein kinase C-beta, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data set the stage for the design of novel therapeutic tools to retard atherogenesis through the inhibition of p66(Shc). ..

More Information

Publications166 found, 100 shown here

  1. Oancea E, Meyer T. Protein kinase C as a molecular machine for decoding calcium and diacylglycerol signals. Cell. 1998;95:307-18 pubmed
    ..The properties of this molecular decoding machine make PKCgamma responsive to persistent diacylglycerol increases combined with high- but not low-frequency calcium spikes. ..
  2. Holler C, Pinon J, Denk U, Heyder C, Hofbauer S, Greil R, et al. PKCbeta is essential for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model: validation of PKCbeta as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2009;113:2791-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, targeting of PKCbeta with the specific inhibitor enzastaurin led to killing of human CLL samples in vitro. We thus propose that PKCbeta may be a relevant target for the treatment of CLL. ..
  3. Kang S, Wahl M, Chu J, Kitaura J, Kawakami Y, Kato R, et al. PKCbeta modulates antigen receptor signaling via regulation of Btk membrane localization. EMBO J. 2001;20:5692-702 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby reversible translocation of Btk/Tec kinases regulates the threshold for immunoreceptor signaling and thereby modulates lymphocyte activation. ..
  4. Su T, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries L, et al. PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:780-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define an essential role for PKC-beta in BCR survival signaling and highlight PKC-beta as a key therapeutic target for B-lineage malignancies. ..
  5. Becker K, Hannun Y. cPKC-dependent sequestration of membrane-recycling components in a subset of recycling endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52747-54 pubmed
    ..These results identify a novel site for cPKC translocation and define a novel function for the sustained activation of PKCalpha and betaII in regulation of recycling components. ..
  6. Francke U, Darras B, Zander N, Kilimann M. Assignment of human genes for phosphorylase kinase subunits alpha (PHKA) to Xq12-q13 and beta (PHKB) to 16q12-q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1989;45:276-82 pubmed
    ..Several different autosomally inherited forms of PHK deficiency for which the PHKB could be a candidate gene have been described in humans and rats. ..
  7. Blume Jensen P, Siegbahn A, Stabel S, Heldin C, Ronnstrand L. Increased Kit/SCF receptor induced mitogenicity but abolished cell motility after inhibition of protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1993;12:4199-209 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PKC is involved in a negative feedback loop which regulates the Kit/SCF-R and that the activity of PKC determines whether the effect of SCF will be preferentially mitogenic or motogenic. ..
  8. Gregorio C, Repasky E, Fowler V, Black J. Dynamic properties of ankyrin in T lymphocytes: colocalization with spectrin and protein kinase C beta. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:345-58 pubmed
    ..that ankyrin colocalizes with spectrin and with the signal transducing molecule protein kinase C beta (PKC beta) in tissue-derived lymphocytes, suggesting a functional association between these molecules in the lymphocyte ..
  9. MacCallum D, Hall P. Biochemical characterization of pKi67 with the identification of a mitotic-specific form associated with hyperphosphorylation and altered DNA binding. Exp Cell Res. 1999;252:186-98 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that pKi67 localization is regulated by the action of cell cycle-specific kinase(s) and phosphatase(s). The data presented here provide a starting point for the analysis of pKi67 function and regulation. ..
  10. Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson E, Wilson S. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:1443-52 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells. ..
  11. Roman B, Geenen D, Leitges M, Buttrick P. PKC-beta is not necessary for cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2264-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PKC-beta expression is not necessary for the development of cardiac hypertrophy nor does its absence attenuate the hypertrophic response...
  12. Dellis O, Gangloff S, Paulais M, Tondelier D, Rona J, Brouillard F, et al. Inhibition of the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) current in Jurkat T cells by the HIV-1 envelope protein gp160. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6044-50 pubmed
    ..kinases and protein kinase Cs (PKCs), and by Gö 6976 (5 microm), an inhibitor acting especially on PKC alpha and PKC beta I...
  13. Chen D, Purohit A, Halilovic E, Doxsey S, Newton A. Centrosomal anchoring of protein kinase C betaII by pericentrin controls microtubule organization, spindle function, and cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4829-39 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel role for PKC betaII in cytokinesis and indicate that this function is mediated by an interaction with pericentrin at centrosomes. ..
  14. Jezyk M, Snyder J, Gershberg S, Worthylake D, Harden T, Sondek J. Crystal structure of Rac1 bound to its effector phospholipase C-beta2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:1135-40 pubmed
  15. Tang R, Yang C, Tao J, You Y, An N, Li S, et al. Epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by urinary proteins requires the activation of PKC-? and ?I isozymes. Cell Biol Int. 2011;35:953-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the present study suggested that PKC-? and -?I play critical roles in the EMT of RTECs in response to urinary proteins. ..
  16. Korchak H, Kilpatrick L. Roles for beta II-protein kinase C and RACK1 in positive and negative signaling for superoxide anion generation in differentiated HL60 cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8910-7 pubmed
    ..betaII-PKC complex. RACK1 may divert betaII-PKC to other signaling pathways requiring beta-PKC for signal transduction. Alternatively, RACK1 may sequester betaII-PKC to down-regulate O(2) generation. ..
  17. Kumar A, Hawkins K, Hannan M, Ganz M. Activation of PKC-beta(I) in glomerular mesangial cells is associated with specific NF-kappaB subunit translocation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;281:F613-9 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the NF-kappaB p65, but not NF-kappaB p50, expression and translocation pattern mirrors that of PKC-beta(I), which may be one important pathway by which signaling is enhanced in the high-glucose state...
  18. Shu X, Wu W, Mosteller R, Broek D. Sphingosine kinase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced activation of ras and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7758-68 pubmed
    ..These data highlight a novel mechanism by which SPK mediates signaling from PKC to Ras in a manner independent of Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. ..
  19. Chibber R, Ben Mahmud B, Mann G, Zhang J, Kohner E. Protein kinase C beta2-dependent phosphorylation of core 2 GlcNAc-T promotes leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion: a mechanism underlying capillary occlusion in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2003;52:1519-27 pubmed
  20. Szegedi A, Páyer E, Czifra G, Toth B, Schmidt E, Kovacs L, et al. Protein kinase C isoenzymes differentially regulate the differentiation-dependent expression of adhesion molecules in human epidermal keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:122-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Guo K, Li Y, Kang X, Sun L, Cui J, Gao D, et al. Role of PKCbeta in hepatocellular carcinoma cells migration and invasion in vitro: a potential therapeutic target. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..All the data suggest a key role of PKCbeta in HCC motility and PKCbeta may be a potential therapeutic target. ..
  22. Numaga T, Nishida M, Kiyonaka S, Kato K, Katano M, Mori E, et al. Ca2+ influx and protein scaffolding via TRPC3 sustain PKCbeta and ERK activation in B cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TRPC3 functions as both a Ca(2+)-permeable channel and a protein scaffold at the PM for downstream PKCbeta activation in B cells. ..
  23. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  24. Maharaj N, Wies E, Stoll A, Gack M. Conventional protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and PKC-? negatively regulate RIG-I antiviral signal transduction. J Virol. 2012;86:1358-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings demonstrate that PKC-?/?-induced RIG-I phosphorylation is a critical regulatory mechanism for controlling RIG-I antiviral signal transduction under normal conditions. ..
  25. Rempel L, Finco A, Maciel R, Bosquetti B, Alvarenga L, Souza W, et al. Effect of PKC-β Signaling Pathway on Expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in Different Cell Models in Response to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs). Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:1722-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Such mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets to reduce the harmful effects of AGEs in patients with chronic kidney disease. ..
  26. Zhang M, Sun F, Chen F, Zhou B, Duan Y, Su H, et al. Subcellular proteomic approach for identifying the signaling effectors of protein kinase C-β₂ under high glucose conditions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7247-62 pubmed publisher
  27. Amigo Jiménez I, Bailón E, Aguilera Montilla N, Terol M, García Marco J, García Pardo A. Bone marrow stroma-induced resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide involves Mcl-1 upregulation and is overcome by inhibiting the PI3Kδ or PKCβ signaling pathways. Oncotarget. 2015;6:44832-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL. ..
  28. Roszak J, Smok Pieniążek A, Stepnik M. Transcriptomic analysis of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway reveals the dual role of the c-Jun oncogene in cytotoxicity and the development of resistance in HL-60 leukemia cells in response to arsenic trioxide. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:1335-1342 pubmed publisher
    ..g., genes encoding cyclin D1 (CCND1), fork head box O1 (FOXO1), Jun oncogene (JUN), protein kinase C isoform B1 (PRKCB1), because their expression profiles were predominantly changed in the clones and/or the ATO-treated parental HL-60 ..
  29. Rabiee A, Kruger M, Ardenkjær Larsen J, Kahn C, Emanuelli B. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action. Cell Signal. 2018;47:1-15 pubmed publisher signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2...
  30. Herget T, Oehrlein S, Pappin D, Rozengurt E, Parker P. The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) is sequentially phosphorylated by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of protein kinase C. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:448-57 pubmed
    ..Conventional (c)PKC beta 1, novel (n)PKC delta and nPKC epsilon efficiently phosphorylated the MARCKS protein in vitro...
  31. Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19364-9 pubmed
    ..g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion. ..
  32. Jain N, Zhang T, Kee W, Li W, Cao X. Protein kinase C delta associates with and phosphorylates Stat3 in an interleukin-6-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:24392-400 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PKC delta is likely to be the kinase that phosphorylates Stat3 in response to IL-6 stimulation and suggest a possible regulatory role of PKC delta on Stat3 function. ..
  33. Strack V, Krutzfeldt J, Kellerer M, Ullrich A, Lammers R, Haring H. The Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by protein kinase C isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta. Biochemistry. 2002;41:603-8 pubmed
    ..bisindolylmaleimide and was not detectable when SHP2 was co-overexpressed with kinase negative mutants of PKC beta 1 and -beta 2...
  34. Zheng M, Zhang X, Guo S, Zhang X, Choi H, Lee M, et al. PKCβII inhibits the ubiquitination of β-arrestin2 in an autophosphorylation-dependent manner. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study suggests that the extent of β-arrestin ubiquitination and the autophosphorylation status of PKCs determine PKCβII-mediated inhibition of homologous regulatory processes of GPCRs. ..
  35. Becker K, Hannun Y. Isoenzyme-specific translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)betaII and not PKCbetaI to a juxtanuclear subset of recycling endosomes: involvement of phospholipase D. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28251-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results define specific biochemical and cellular actions of PKCbetaII when compared with PKCbetaI. ..
  36. Suzuki T, Seth A, Rao R. Role of phospholipase Cgamma-induced activation of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and PKCbetaI in epidermal growth factor-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3574-83 pubmed
    ..This study shows that PLCgamma-mediated activation of PKCepsilon and PKCbetaI and intracellular calcium is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde-induced insult. ..
  37. Osto E, Kouroedov A, Mocharla P, Akhmedov A, Besler C, Rohrer L, et al. Inhibition of protein kinase Cbeta prevents foam cell formation by reducing scavenger receptor A expression in human macrophages. Circulation. 2008;118:2174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonspecific inhibition of PKCbeta prevents LDL uptake in macrophages. These findings suggest that PKCbeta inhibitors may represent a novel class of antiatherosclerotic drugs. ..
  38. Thompson L, Fields A. betaII protein kinase C is required for the G2/M phase transition of cell cycle. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15045-53 pubmed
  39. Song C, Kim B, Hong H, Kim B, Kim Y, Lee H. Biphasic regulation of plasminogen activator/inhibitor by LDL in mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F423-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LDL, after prolonged incubations with HMC, causes a PA/inhibitor imbalance favoring accumulation of matrix. ..
  40. Montalvo L, Carmena M, Bolaños O, Rodriguez Henche N, Sanchez Chapado M, Prieto J. Effects of the antiandrogen flutamide on the expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Biosci Rep. 2004;24:11-21 pubmed
  41. Manno S, Takakuwa Y, Mohandas N. Modulation of erythrocyte membrane mechanical function by protein 4.1 phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7581-7 pubmed
    ..These findings have enabled us to define a regulatory role for 4.1R phosphorylation in dynamic regulation of red cell membrane properties. ..
  42. Shelton R, Hal Manier D, Lewis D. Protein kinases A and C in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from persons with major depression and normal controls. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:1223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data continue to support the significance of abnormalities of these two key kinases, and suggest linkages between molecular endophenotypes and specific clinical phenotypes. ..
  43. Lemeer S, Gholami A, Wu Z, Kuster B. Quantitative proteome profiling of human myoma and myometrium tissue reveals kinase expression signatures with potential for therapeutic intervention. Proteomics. 2015;15:356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, the receptor tyrosine kinase DDR1 holds future potential as a drug target owing to its strong links to collagen signaling and the excessive formation of extracellular matrix typical for leiomyomas in humans. ..
  44. Lemoine S, Puddu P, Durand C, Lepage O, Babatasi G, Ivascau C, et al. Signaling pathways involved in postconditioning-induced cardioprotection of human myocardium, in vitro. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:768-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PKC activation was upstream of the opening of mitoK(ATP) channels; p38 MAPK acted on PKC. Therefore, mitoK(ATP) and p38 MAPK seemed to be involved in two independent pathways. ..
  45. Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking. ..
  46. Cenciarelli C, Marei H, Felsani A, Casalbore P, Sica G, Puglisi M, et al. PDGFR? depletion attenuates glioblastoma stem cells features by modulation of STAT3, RB1 and multiple oncogenic signals. Oncotarget. 2016;7:53047-53063 pubmed publisher
    ..we observed the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and compensatory oncogenic signals such as EDN1, EDNRB, PRKCB1, PDGF-C and PDGF-D...
  47. Jakobovits A, Rosenthal A, Capon D. Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C. EMBO J. 1990;9:1165-70 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that PKC regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation, suggesting a key role for the mitogenic induction of trans-activation in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth. ..
  48. Fields A, Bednarik D, Hess A, May W. Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor. Nature. 1988;333:278-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a possible role for HIV-induced CD4 phosphorylation in viral entry and identify a potential target for antiviral therapy. ..
  49. Burnette B, Yu G, Felsted R. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 gag proteins by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8698-703 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the identification of a highly conserved consensus PKC phosphorylation site motif in the HIV-1 gag protein at Ser111 and suggests that PKC phosphorylation plays an important role in gag protein function. ..
  50. Sauma S, Friedman E. Increased expression of protein kinase C beta activates ERK3. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11422-6 pubmed
    In a prior study, we have shown that stable transfection of expression plasmids for protein kinases C beta 1 (PKC beta 1) or PKC beta 2 into differentiated colon cancer cells led to elevated levels of PKC beta 1 or PKC beta 2 protein and ..
  51. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley L, Capitani S. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:332-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta. ..
  52. Fleming I, Elliott C, Buchanan F, Downes C, Exton J. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:12753-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylate Tiam1 in vivo, and that the latter kinase plays a key role in regulating the activity of this exchange factor in vitro. ..
  53. Tseng C, Ely B, Pong R, Wang Z, Zhou J, Hsieh J. The role of DOC-2/DAB2 protein phosphorylation in the inhibition of AP-1 activity. An underlying mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function in prostate cancer. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31981-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-regulated phosphorylation of DOC-2/DAB2 protein may help its growth inhibitory function. ..
  54. Broughman J, Sun L, Umar S, Sellin J, Morris A. Chronic PKC-beta2 activation in HT-29 Cl.19a colonocytes prevents cAMP-mediated ion secretion by inhibiting apical membrane CFTR targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G331-44 pubmed
    ..Thus PKC-beta2 is hypothesized to participate in the regulation of CFTR apical plasma membrane targeting within the constitutive cellular biosynthetic pathway. ..
  55. Lin Y, Lee H, Leu S, Tsai Y. The essentiality of PKCalpha and PKCbetaI translocation for CD14+monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and dendritic cells, respectively. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:429-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the cell fate commitment of CD14(+)monocytes towards MDMs or MoDCs appears to be steered by the selective activation of PKCalpha or PKCbeta(I), respectively. ..
  56. Lee S, Chung J, Park M, Joo H, Lee E, Cho E, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 inhibits protein kinase C-mediated p66shc phosphorylation and vasoconstriction. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..APE1 suppresses oxLDL-induced p66shc activation in endothelial cells by inhibiting PKC?II-mediated serine phosphorylation of p66shc, and mitigates vasoconstriction induced by activation of PKC. ..
  57. Farren M, Carlson L, Netherby C, Lindner I, Li P, Gabrilovich D, et al. Tumor-induced STAT3 signaling in myeloid cells impairs dendritic cell generation by decreasing PKC?II abundance. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra16 pubmed publisher
  58. Bullenkamp J, Gäken J, Festy F, Chong E, Ng T, Tavassoli M. Apoptin interacts with and regulates the activity of protein kinase C beta in cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2015;20:831-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct interaction between the two proteins leads to Apoptin-induced activation of PKC and consequently activated PKCβI mediates phosphorylation of Apoptin to promote its tumour-specific nuclear translocation and cytotoxic function. ..
  59. Liu S, Chen X, Chen R, Wang J, Zhu G, Jiang J, et al. Diagnostic role of Wnt pathway gene promoter methylation in non small cell lung cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:36354-36367 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study showed that a panel of Wnt signal pathway genes (SFRP1, SFRP2, WIF1 and PRKCB) had the potential as methylation biomarkers in the diagnosis of NSCLC. ..
  60. Ma H, Lin W, Zhao B, Wu W, Huang W, Li Y, et al. Protein kinase C beta and delta isoenzymes mediate cholesterol accumulation in PMA-activated macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:214-20 pubmed
    ..b>PKC beta was determined to be the classical group isoenzyme that mediated PMA-stimulated cholesterol accumulation...
  61. Gadad P, Matthews K, Knott R. Role of HIF1? and PKC? in mediating the effect of oxygen and glucose in a novel wound assay. Microvasc Res. 2013;88:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired cell migration mediated by high glucose concentration was restored using an inhibitor of the PKC?II pathway which correlated with an increase in the level of HIF1? protein. ..
  62. Reed G, Houng A, Fitzgerald M. Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion. Blood. 1999;93:2617-26 pubmed
  63. Ji S, Liu X, Li S, Shen L, Li F, Wang J, et al. PH domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 binds to protein kinase C (PKC) and negatively regulates activity of PKC kinase. Front Biosci. 2003;8:a34-9 pubmed
    ..Assay of PKC beta1 kinase activity indicated that the binding of the PH domain of GRK2 to PKC beta 1 could down-regulate activity of PKC beta 1 kinase...
  64. Devalia V, Thomas N, Roberts P, Jones H, Linch D. Down-regulation of human protein kinase C alpha is associated with terminal neutrophil differentiation. Blood. 1992;80:68-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the PK-C alpha isoform is specifically down-regulated during human neutrophil terminal differentiation. These data suggest that mature neutrophil functions do not require the PK-C alpha isoform. ..
  65. Apel E, Byford M, Au D, Walsh K, Storm D. Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin. Biochemistry. 1990;29:2330-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmodulin to neuromodulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  66. Goss V, Hocevar B, Thompson L, Stratton C, Burns D, Fields A. Identification of nuclear beta II protein kinase C as a mitotic lamin kinase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:19074-80 pubmed
  67. Bennasser Y, Yamina B, Contreras X, Xavier C, Moreau M, Marc M, et al. [HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway]. J Soc Biol. 2001;195:319-26 pubmed
    ..Using microspectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we also show that Tat induces a calcium influx. ..
  68. Fang X, Yu S, Tanyi J, Lu Y, Woodgett J, Mills G. Convergence of multiple signaling cascades at glycogen synthase kinase 3: Edg receptor-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation by lysophosphatidic acid through a protein kinase C-dependent intracellular pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2099-110 pubmed
    ..LPA and potentially other natural ligands primarily utilize a PKC-dependent pathway to modulate GSK-3. ..
  69. Banan A, Fields J, Farhadi A, Talmage D, Zhang L, Keshavarzian A. The beta 1 isoform of protein kinase C mediates the protective effects of epidermal growth factor on the dynamic assembly of F-actin cytoskeleton and normalization of calcium homeostasis in human colonic cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:852-66 pubmed
    ..EGF normalizes Ca(2+) by enhancing Ca(2+) efflux through PKC-beta1. We have identified novel biologic functions, protection of actin and Ca(2+) homeostasis, among the classical isoforms of PKC. ..
  70. Grosso S, Volta V, Sala L, Vietri M, Marchisio P, Ron D, et al. PKCbetaII modulates translation independently from mTOR and through RACK1. Biochem J. 2008;415:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results of the present study show that PKCbetaII can act as a specific PKC isoform regulating translation, in an mTOR-independent fashion, possibly close to the ribosomal machinery...
  71. Ron D, Jiang Z, Yao L, Vagts A, Diamond I, Gordon A. Coordinated movement of RACK1 with activated betaIIPKC. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:27039-46 pubmed
    ..We further show that association of RACK1 and betaIIPKC is required for the movement of both proteins. Our results suggest that RACK1 is a PKC shuttling protein that moves betaIIPKC from one intracellular site to another. ..
  72. Young S, Wu S, Rozengurt E. Ca2+-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations produced by the Ca2+-sensing receptor require negative feedback by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46871-6 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which phosphorylation of the CaR at the inhibitory threonine 888 by PKC provides the negative feedback needed to cause [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations mediated by this receptor. ..
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    We investigated the contribution of PKC-beta gene (PRKCB1) polymorphisms to diabetic kidney disease in a prospective observational follow-up study...
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    ..This finding may at least in part explain the apoptosis-inducing activity of PKC delta, revealing the important role of PKC delta in the development of apoptosis-related diseases such as preeclampsia. ..
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    ..However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained. ..
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    ..These results indicate that inappropriate activation of the PKC pathway contributes to the pathogenic effects of a noncoding RNA. ..
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    ..008). Our results strengthen the case for a more detailed study of the role of RELN and GRIK2 in autism susceptibility, as well as identifying two new potential candidate genes, MKL2 and SND1. ..
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    ..Upregulated stromal PKC-?II in biopsies from patients with CLL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and mantle cell lymphoma suggests that this pathway may commonly be activated in a variety of hematological malignancies...
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    ..Here we examine colon cancer patients and show not only that PKC Beta II is a tumour suppressor, but patients with low levels of this isozyme have significantly decreased disease free ..
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    Recent investigations have established a role for the beta II-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC beta II) in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and failure...
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    ..In the present study, GRK(2) PH domain was associated with PKC and down-regulated PKC activity, but Btk PH domain up-regulated PKC activity as compared with GRK(2) PH domain. GRK(2) can bind with PKC and down-regulated PKC activity. ..
  85. Nunnari G, Smith J, Daniel R. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer. ..
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    ..Confocal imaging showed strong PKCB II protein labelling in non-sensory cells, the tectal cells and inner border cells of the rat organ of Corti with a ..
  87. Haller M, Khalid S, Kremser L, Fresser F, Furlan T, Hermann M, et al. Novel Insights into the PKC?-dependent Regulation of the Oxidoreductase p66Shc. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:23557-23568 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data argue for a complex mechanism of PKC?-dependent regulation of p66 activation involving Ser139 and a motif surrounding Ser213. ..
  88. Fujita Y, Sasaki T, Fukui K, Kotani H, Kimura T, Hata Y, et al. Phosphorylation of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 by protein kinase C: its implication in regulating the interaction of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 with syntaxin. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7265-8 pubmed
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    ..001) were represented in a network analysis with Cytoscape tool, which suggested an uncoupling of mitochondria-related genes in AD group. Whole blood is emerging as a valuable tissue in the study of the physiopathology of AD. ..
  90. Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E. HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta. FASEB J. 2002;16:546-54 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms. ..
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    ..These results suggest that phosphorylation of tyrosinase by PKC-beta induces a complex formation between tyrosinase and TRP-1. ..
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    ..These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. ..