PKC beta


Gene Symbol: PKC beta
Description: protein kinase C beta
Alias: PKC-beta, PKCB, PRKCB1, PRKCB2, protein kinase C beta type, PKC-B, protein kinase C, beta 1 polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     PKC beta

Top Publications

  1. Zum Büschenfelde C, Wagner M, Lutzny G, Oelsner M, Feuerstacke Y, Decker T, et al. Recruitment of PKC-betaII to lipid rafts mediates apoptosis-resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing ZAP-70. Leukemia. 2010;24:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that this compound is highly active in leukemic cells and augments the cytotoxic effects of standard chemotherapeutic drugs. ..
  2. Feng X, Becker K, Stribling S, Peters K, Hannun Y. Regulation of receptor-mediated protein kinase C membrane trafficking by autophosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:17024-34 pubmed
  3. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, et al. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:721-6 pubmed
    ..dramatic increase in the angiogenic response to oxygen-induced retinal ischemia in transgenic mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform and a significant decrease in retinal neovascularization in PKC beta isoform null mice...
  4. Gao T, Newton A. The turn motif is a phosphorylation switch that regulates the binding of Hsp70 to protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31585-92 pubmed
    ..Disruption of this interaction prevents re-phosphorylation and targets the enzyme for down-regulation. ..
  5. Dreikhausen U, Gorf K, Resch K, Szamel M. Protein kinase Cbeta1, a major regulator of TCR-CD28-activated signal transduction leading to IL-2 gene transcription and secretion. Int Immunol. 2003;15:1089-98 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a highly specific function of PKCbeta for regulation of TCR-CD28 induced-signaling, IL-2 gene expression and secretion in Jurkat T cells. ..
  6. Abrams S, Lakum T, Lin K, Jones G, Treweeke A, Farahani M, et al. B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is regulated by overexpressed active protein kinase CbetaII. Blood. 2007;109:1193-201 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that overexpressed active PKCbetaII plays a role in the regulation and outcome of BCR signals that can be important for the progression of CLL. ..
  7. Vallentin A, Mochly Rosen D. RBCK1, a protein kinase CbetaI (PKCbetaI)-interacting protein, regulates PKCbeta-dependent function. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1650-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that RBCK1 binds PKCbetaI and is a key regulator of PKCbetaI function in cells and that, together with PKCbetaII, the three proteins are essential for developmental hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. ..
  8. Kim J, Choi Y, Vallentin A, Hunrichs B, Hellerstein M, Peehl D, et al. Centrosomal PKCbetaII and pericentrin are critical for human prostate cancer growth and angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a PKCbetaII inhibitor such as betaIIV5-3 may be used to reduce prostate cancer growth by targeting both angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. ..
  9. Shi Y, Cosentino F, Camici G, Akhmedov A, Vanhoutte P, Tanner F, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein activates p66Shc via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, protein kinase C-beta, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data set the stage for the design of novel therapeutic tools to retard atherogenesis through the inhibition of p66(Shc). ..

More Information

Publications270 found, 100 shown here

  1. Oancea E, Meyer T. Protein kinase C as a molecular machine for decoding calcium and diacylglycerol signals. Cell. 1998;95:307-18 pubmed
    ..The properties of this molecular decoding machine make PKCgamma responsive to persistent diacylglycerol increases combined with high- but not low-frequency calcium spikes. ..
  2. Holler C, Pinon J, Denk U, Heyder C, Hofbauer S, Greil R, et al. PKCbeta is essential for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model: validation of PKCbeta as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2009;113:2791-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, targeting of PKCbeta with the specific inhibitor enzastaurin led to killing of human CLL samples in vitro. We thus propose that PKCbeta may be a relevant target for the treatment of CLL. ..
  3. Kang S, Wahl M, Chu J, Kitaura J, Kawakami Y, Kato R, et al. PKCbeta modulates antigen receptor signaling via regulation of Btk membrane localization. EMBO J. 2001;20:5692-702 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby reversible translocation of Btk/Tec kinases regulates the threshold for immunoreceptor signaling and thereby modulates lymphocyte activation. ..
  4. Su T, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries L, et al. PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:780-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define an essential role for PKC-beta in BCR survival signaling and highlight PKC-beta as a key therapeutic target for B-lineage malignancies. ..
  5. Becker K, Hannun Y. cPKC-dependent sequestration of membrane-recycling components in a subset of recycling endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52747-54 pubmed
    ..These results identify a novel site for cPKC translocation and define a novel function for the sustained activation of PKCalpha and betaII in regulation of recycling components. ..
  6. Oh E, Couchman J, Woods A. Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;344:67-74 pubmed
    ..5 mol/mol phosphorylation. Concentration-dependent dimerization was not altered by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is, therefore, dependent on the conformation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain, but does not affect its oligomeric status. ..
  7. Chiarini A, Whitfield J, Armato U, Dal Pra I. Protein kinase C-beta II Is an apoptotic lamin kinase in polyomavirus-transformed, etoposide-treated pyF111 rat fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18827-39 pubmed
    ..The possibility of PKC-beta(II) being an apoptotic lamin kinase in these cells was further suggested by lamin B1-bound PKC-delta being inactive or only slightly active and by PKC-alpha not combining with the lamin. ..
  8. Dai F, Yu L, He H, Chen Y, Yu J, Yang Y, et al. Human serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) phosphorylates glycogen syntheses kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) at serine-9 through direct interaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:1191-6 pubmed
    ..The present results provide strong evidences that SGKL could utilize GSK-3beta as a direct downstream target by phosphorylating GSK-3beta at serine-9. ..
  9. Prevost N, Mitsios J, Kato H, Burke J, Dennis E, Shimizu T, et al. Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) and integrin alphaIIbbeta3 reinforce each other's functions during alphaIIbbeta3 signaling in platelets. Blood. 2009;113:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a plausible explanation for the role of alphaIIbbeta3 in TxA(2) formation and in the defective hemostatic function of mouse or human platelets deficient in cPLA(2)alpha. ..
  10. Gould C, Kannan N, Taylor S, Newton A. The chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 mediate the maturation and stabilization of protein kinase C through a conserved PXXP motif in the C-terminal tail. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4921-35 pubmed publisher
  11. Pradhan M, Desai A, Palakal M. Systems biology approach to stage-wise characterization of epigenetic genes in lung adenocarcinoma. BMC Syst Biol. 2013;7:141 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrating epigenetic information for genes with expression data can be useful for comprehending in-depth disease mechanism and for the ultimate goal of better target identification. ..
  12. Nabet B, Ó Broin P, Reyes J, Shieh K, Lin C, Will C, et al. Deregulation of the Ras-Erk Signaling Axis Modulates the Enhancer Landscape. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1300-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that dynamic reprogramming of the cellular enhancer landscape is a major effect of oncogenic RTK signaling. ..
  13. Park J, Yang J, Wenzel A, Ramachandran A, Lee W, Daniels J, et al. Genomic analysis of 220 CTCLs identifies a novel recurrent gain-of-function alteration in RLTPR (p.Q575E). Blood. 2017;130:1430-1440 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our analysis provides novel insights into CTCL pathogenesis and elucidates the landscape of potentially targetable gene mutations. ..
  14. Harmon B, Ratner L. Induction of the Galpha(q) signaling cascade by the human immunodeficiency virus envelope is required for virus entry. J Virol. 2008;82:9191-205 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could provide a new focus for therapeutic intervention with drugs targeting host signaling mediators rather than viral molecules, a strategy which is less likely to result in resistance. ..
  15. Cho J, Katz D, Skubitz K, Chain B. Conventional protein kinase C plays a critical role in negative regulation of CD98-induced homotypic aggregation. Tissue Antigens. 2010;75:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that PMA-responsive cPKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma) play a key role in negative regulation of CD98 signalling and homotypic aggregation. ..
  16. Cunningham M, Waldo G, Hollinger S, Hepler J, Harden T. Protein kinase C phosphorylates RGS2 and modulates its capacity for negative regulation of Galpha 11 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5438-44 pubmed
    ..These results identify for the first time a phosphorylation-induced change in the activity of an RGS protein and suggest a mechanism for potentiation of inositol lipid signaling by PKC. ..
  17. Liao G, Wagner D, Hsu M, Leonard J. Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:960-4 pubmed
    ..The direct action of PKC on certain NMDA receptor subtypes may be important in any physiological or pathological process where PKC and NR2B/NR1 receptors interact. ..
  18. Gao T, Brognard J, Newton A. The phosphatase PHLPP controls the cellular levels of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6300-11 pubmed
    ..These data reveal that PHLPP controls the cellular levels of PKC by specifically dephosphorylating the hydrophobic motif, thus destabilizing the enzyme and promoting its degradation. ..
  19. El Shewy H, Abdel Samie S, Al Qalam A, Lee M, Kitatani K, Anelli V, et al. Phospholipase C and protein kinase C-? 2 mediate insulin-like growth factor II-dependent sphingosine kinase 1 activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:2144-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data provide evidence that activation of PLC and PKC?2 by the IGF-II/M6P receptor are required for the activation of SK1. ..
  20. Kataoka K, Iwanaga M, Yasunaga J, Nagata Y, Kitanaka A, Kameda T, et al. Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Blood. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..ATL subtypes are further classified into molecularly distinct subsets with different prognosis. Genetic profiling might contribute to improved prognostication and management of ATL patients...
  21. Shao B, Bayraktutan U. Hyperglycaemia promotes cerebral barrier dysfunction through activation of protein kinase C-?. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15:993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HG promotes cerebral-barrier dysfunction through activation of PKC-? and consequent stimulations of oxidative stress and tight junction dissolution. ..
  22. Molina Jijón E, Rodríguez Muñoz R, Namorado M, Bautista García P, Medina Campos O, Pedraza Chaverri J, et al. All-trans retinoic acid prevents oxidative stress-induced loss of renal tight junction proteins in type-1 diabetic model. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:441-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, atRA exerted nephroprotective effects by attenuating oxidative stress and preventing loss of renal TJ proteins. ..
  23. Zeng Y, Xu Y, Shu R, Sun L, Tian Y, Shi C, et al. Altered expression profiles of circular RNA in colorectal cancer tissues from patients with lung metastasis. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:1818-1828 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of the present study may provide a novel perspective on circRNA and lay a foundation for future research of potential roles of circRNA in CRC with lung metastasis...
  24. Ambrosini E, Slepko N, Kohleisen B, Shumay E, Erfle V, Aloisi F, et al. HIV-1 Nef alters the expression of betaII and epsilon isoforms of protein kinase C and the activation of the long terminal repeat promoter in human astrocytoma cells. Glia. 1999;27:143-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Nef may alter astrocytic functions by interfering with PKC expression and activation and contribute to the restriction of HIV-1 replication in astrocytes. ..
  25. Contreras X, Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E. IL-10 production induced by HIV-1 Tat stimulation of human monocytes is dependent on the activation of PKC beta(II) and delta isozymes. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:1182-90 pubmed
    ..approaches including selective PKC inhibitors (Gö6983, Gö6976, hispidin and rottlerin), we showed that PKC beta(II) and delta isozymes are essential for the activation of IL-10 production in human monocytes following ..
  26. Kasperaviciute D, Catarino C, Heinzen E, Depondt C, Cavalleri G, Caboclo L, et al. Common genetic variation and susceptibility to partial epilepsies: a genome-wide association study. Brain. 2010;133:2136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Data emerging from genome-wide association-studies will be valuable during the next serious challenge of interpreting all the genetic variation emerging from whole-genome sequencing studies. ..
  27. Che Z, Dong W, Li Q, Lei X, Kang L, Guo L, et al. [Roles of PKCβ/P66Shc oxidative stress signal pathway in mediating hyperoxia-induced ROS production in alveolar epithelial cells]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015;17:275-80 pubmed
    ..PKCβ inhibitor LY333531 can partially disrupt these changes and thus alleviate the hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial cell injury. ..
  28. Samelson B, Gore B, Whiting J, Nygren P, Purkey A, Colledge M, et al. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:14107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward. ..
  29. Bai H, Li H, Li W, Gui T, Yang J, Cao D, et al. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is a potential predictor of distinct invasive and migratory capacities in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Oncotarget. 2015;6:25520-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation is associated with higher invasive and migratory capacities in subpopulations of human ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibiting this pathway may be useful for the chemoprevention or treatment of EOC. ..
  30. Corbit K, Trakul N, Eves E, Diaz B, Marshall M, Rosner M. Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13061-8 pubmed
  31. Zhang J, Anastasiadis P, Liu Y, Thompson E, Fields A. Protein kinase C (PKC) betaII induces cell invasion through a Ras/Mek-, PKC iota/Rac 1-dependent signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22118-23 pubmed
    ..This pathway provides a plausible mechanism by which PKCbetaII promotes colon carcinogenesis. ..
  32. Kim C, Braud S, Isaac J, Roche K. Protein kinase C phosphorylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 on Serine 839 regulates Ca2+ oscillations. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25409-15 pubmed
    ..The Thr-840 residue is important only in that it is permissive for the PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-839. ..
  33. Leghmari K, Contreras X, Moureau C, Bahraoui E. HIV-1 Tat protein induces TNF-alpha and IL-10 production by human macrophages: differential implication of PKC-betaII and -delta isozymes and MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38. Cell Immunol. 2008;254:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, p38 MAP kinase seems to be involved only in IL-10 and not TNF-alpha production. ..
  34. Galuska D, Pirkmajer S, Barres R, Ekberg K, Wahren J, Chibalin A. C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28294 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, only physiological concentrations of C-peptide elicit this effect. ..
  35. Alves M, Scotti M, Scotti L, Mendonça F, Filho J, de Melo S, et al. Secondary Metabolites from Cissampelos, A Possible Source for New Leads with Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Curr Med Chem. 2017;24:1629-1644 pubmed publisher
    ..30), pelosine (52), sepeerine (59), and warifteine (63) to the inhibiting enzymes MAPK p38 alpha, PKC beta, PKC theta and PKC zeta...
  36. Venneri M, Hasenmajer V, Fiore D, Sbardella E, Pofi R, Graziadio C, et al. Circadian Rhythm of Glucocorticoid Administration Entrains Clock Genes in Immune Cells: A DREAM Trial Ancillary Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103:2998-3009 pubmed publisher
    ..The once-daily administration reconditions peripheral tissue gene expression to levels close to controls, paralleling the clinical outcomes of the DREAM trial (NCT02277587). ..
  37. Roggero C, Tomes C, De Blas G, Castillo J, Michaut M, Fukuda M, et al. Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of the two polybasic regions of synaptotagmin VI regulates their function in acrosomal exocytosis. Dev Biol. 2005;285:422-35 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that acrosomal exocytosis is regulated through the PKC-mediated phosphorylation of conserved threonines in the polybasic regions of synaptotagmin VI. ..
  38. Broughman J, Sun L, Umar S, Scott J, Sellin J, Morris A. Chronic PKC-beta activation in HT-29 Cl.19a colonocytes prevents cAMP-mediated ion secretion by inhibiting apical membrane current generation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G318-30 pubmed
    ..augmentation of transcellular ISC-cAMP at the level of the basolateral membrane demonstrated that transport events with geographically distinct subcellular membranes can be independently regulated by the PKC beta-isoform.
  39. Suzuki S, Hayashi H, Takagi K, Kondo T, Takagi K, Ueyama J, et al. Protein kinase Cbeta isoform down-regulates the expression of MDR3 P-glycoprotein in human Chang liver cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:1552-7 pubmed
    ..These suggested that PKCbeta plays a regulatory role in the expression of MDR3...
  40. Hawat G, Baroudi G. Differential modulation of unapposed connexin 43 hemichannel electrical conductance by protein kinase C isoforms. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:519-27 pubmed publisher
  41. Miluzio A, Oliveto S, Pesce E, Mutti L, Murer B, Grosso S, et al. Expression and activity of eIF6 trigger malignant pleural mesothelioma growth in vivo. Oncotarget. 2015;6:37471-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzastaurin is a PKC beta inhibitor used in clinical trials...
  42. Al Sanabra O, Duckworth A, Glenn M, Brown B, Angelillo P, Lee K, et al. Transcriptional mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced expression of protein kinase CβII in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43228 pubmed publisher
  43. Duan F, Wu H, Jia D, Wu W, Ren S, Wang L, et al. O-GlcNAcylation of RACK1 promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2018;68:1191-1202 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased O-GlcNAcylation of ribosomal receptor for activated C-kinase 1 is positively correlated with tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  44. Tang S, Dai Y. RNA sequencing reveals significant miRNAs in Atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;225:129-135 pubmed publisher
    ..hsa-miR-577 and hsa-miR-182-5p may play regulatory role in AEH through AMPK signal pathway and Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  45. Palmer R, Schönwasser D, Rahman D, Pappin D, Herget T, Parker P. PRK1 phosphorylates MARCKS at the PKC sites: serine 152, serine 156 and serine 163. FEBS Lett. 1996;378:281-5 pubmed
    ..The implications for MARCKS as a marker of PKC activation and as a point of signal convergence are discussed. ..
  46. Omkumar R, Kiely M, Rosenstein A, Min K, Kennedy M. Identification of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31670-8 pubmed
    ..We show that serine 1303 in the full-length NR2B and/or the cognate site in NR2A is a major site of phosphorylation of the receptor both in the postsynaptic density fraction and in living hippocampal neurons. ..
  47. Ruse C, Willard B, Jin J, Haas T, Kinter M, Bond M. Quantitative dynamics of site-specific protein phosphorylation determined using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2002;74:1658-64 pubmed
    ..e., culture cells, tissues, etc.) but to a variety of posttranslation modifications as well. ..
  48. Teixeira C, Stang S, Zheng Y, Beswick N, Stone J. Integration of DAG signaling systems mediated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation of RasGRP3. Blood. 2003;102:1414-20 pubmed
    ..A convergent DAG signaling system could be important in fine-tuning Ras signaling during B-cell development or during the humoral immune response. ..
  49. Aaltonen V, Koivunen J, Laato M, Peltonen J. Heterogeneity of cellular proliferation within transitional cell carcinoma: correlation of protein kinase C alpha/betaI expression and activity. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:795-806 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest that even in carcinoma tissue, PKC expression and activity are under strict control. ..
  50. Ruegg C, Strand M. A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium influx. Cell Immunol. 1991;137:1-13 pubmed
  51. Keranen L, Dutil E, Newton A. Protein kinase C is regulated in vivo by three functionally distinct phosphorylations. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1394-1403 pubmed
    ..The conservation of each of these residues (or an acidic residue) in conventional, novel and atypical protein kinase Cs underscores the essential role for each in regulating the protein kinase C family. ..
  52. Fagerholm S, Morrice N, Gahmberg C, Cohen P. Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin CD18 chain by protein kinase C isoforms in leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1728-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CD18 after cell stimulation could lead to the recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins to the activated integrin, which may play a role in regulating its adhesive state or ability to signal. ..
  53. Oka M, Kikkawa U, Nishigori C. Protein kinase C-betaII represses hepatocyte growth factor-induced invasion by preventing the association of adapter protein Gab1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:188-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the HGF signaling process from Gab1 to PI3K is negatively regulated by PKC-betaII, and its loss is critical for melanoma cells to gain invasive potential. ..
  54. Uliczka F, Kornprobst T, Eitel J, Schneider D, Dersch P. Cell invasion of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by invasin and YadA requires protein kinase C, phospholipase C-gamma1 and Akt kinase. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1782-801 pubmed publisher
  55. Haidari M, Zhang W, Willerson J, Dixon R. Disruption of endothelial adherens junctions by high glucose is mediated by protein kinase C-β-dependent vascular endothelial cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13:105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the high-concentration glucose-induced disruption of endothelial adherens junctions is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cad through PKC-β and MLC phosphorylation. ..
  56. Schecter A, Berman A, Yi L, Mosoian A, McManus C, Berman J, et al. HIV envelope gp120 activates human arterial smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10142-7 pubmed
    ..The activation of smooth muscle cells by gp120 may play an important role in the vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory responses to HIV infection. ..
  57. Siow Y, Au Yeung K, Woo C, O K. Homocysteine stimulates phosphorylation of NADPH oxidase p47phox and p67phox subunits in monocytes via protein kinase Cbeta activation. Biochem J. 2006;398:73-82 pubmed
    ..Increased superoxide anion production via NADPH oxidase may play an important role in Hcy-induced inflammatory response during atherogenesis. ..
  58. Juno J, Fowke K. Clarifying the role of G protein signaling in HIV infection: new approaches to an old question. AIDS Rev. 2010;12:164-76 pubmed
  59. Cervino M, Lopez Lago M, Vinuela J, Barja P. Specific inhibition of protein kinase Cbeta expression by antisense RNA affects the activation of Jurkat T lymphoma cells. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010;24:273-85 pubmed
    ..Our results revealed new PKCbeta functions, affecting CD69 expression and IL-8 production, and support the requirement for PKCbeta in IL-2 secretion/transcription and IL-2R regulation. ..
  60. Tabit C, Shenouda S, Holbrook M, Fetterman J, Kiani S, Frame A, et al. Protein kinase C-? contributes to impaired endothelial insulin signaling in humans with diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2013;127:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate PKC? activity in endothelial insulin resistance. ..
  61. Lutz Nicoladoni C, Christina L, Thuille N, Nikolaus T, Wachowicz K, Katarzyna W, et al. PKC? and PKC? cooperate functionally in CD3-induced de novo IL-2 mRNA transcription. Immunol Lett. 2013;151:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present genetic evidence that PKC? and PKC? cooperate in IL-2 transcriptional transactivation in primary mouse T cells independently of the actions of PKC?. ..
  62. Liu L, Gritz D, Parent C. PKC?II acts downstream of chemoattractant receptors and mTORC2 to regulate cAMP production and myosin II activity in neutrophils. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1446-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings show that PKC?II is specifically required for mTORC2-dependent AC9 activation and back retraction during neutrophil chemotaxis. ..
  63. McSwine Kennick R, McKeegan E, Johnson M, Morin M. Phorbol diester-induced alterations in the expression of protein kinase C isozymes and their mRNAs. Analysis in wild-type and phorbol diester-resistant HL-60 cell clones. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15135-43 pubmed
  64. Cejas P, Carlson L, Zhang J, Padmanabhan S, Kolonias D, Lindner I, et al. Protein kinase C betaII plays an essential role in dendritic cell differentiation and autoregulates its own expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28412-23 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the regulation of PKC-betaII expression and signaling play critical roles in mediating progenitor to DC differentiation. ..
  65. Saiepour D, Sehlin J, Oldenborg P. Insulin inhibits phagocytosis in normal human neutrophils via PKCalpha/beta-dependent priming of F-actin assembly. Inflamm Res. 2006;55:85-91 pubmed
    ..This effect of insulin is dependent on activation of PKCalpha and/or PKCbeta, and these insulin signals may interfere with the dynamic assembly/disassembly and/or distribution of F-actin, which is required for the phagocytosis process. ..
  66. Civallero M, Cosenza M, Grisendi G, Marcheselli L, Todoerti K, Sacchi S. Effects of enzastaurin, alone or in combination, on signaling pathway controlling growth and survival of B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, enzastaurin synergizes in its effects with chlorambucil and fludarabine, respectively. Taken together, our results strongly support clinical evaluation of enzastaurin in patients with B-cell lymphoma. ..
  67. Gustafsson Sheppard N, Heldring N, Dahlman Wright K. Estrogen receptor-?, RBCK1, and protein kinase C ? 1 cooperate to regulate estrogen receptor-? gene expression. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012;49:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligand-binding function of ER? does not influence the interaction with RBCK1. In summary, our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which ER? expression is modulated in breast cancer cells. ..
  68. Zhang J, Wang L, Schwartz J, Bond R, Bishop W. Phosphorylation of Thr642 is an early event in the processing of newly synthesized protein kinase C beta 1 and is essential for its activation. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:19578-84 pubmed
    Earlier studies of a site-specific mutant of protein kinase C beta 1 (PKC beta 1) altered at Thr635 and Thr642 indicated that these phosphorylation sites are critical for enzymatic function (Zhang, J., Wang, L., Petrin, J., Bishop, W. R...
  69. Parada N, Cruikshank W, Danis H, Ryan T, Center D. IL-16- and other CD4 ligand-induced migration is dependent upon protein kinase C. Cell Immunol. 1996;168:100-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a role for PKC in CD4-mediated migratory responses. ..
  70. Whalen S, Gingras A, Amankwa L, Mader S, Branton P, Aebersold R, et al. Phosphorylation of eIF-4E on serine 209 by protein kinase C is inhibited by the translational repressors, 4E-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11831-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests a two-step model for the phosphorylation (and activation) of eIF4E by growth factors and hormones: first, dissociation of eIF4E from 4E-BPs, followed by eIF4E phosphorylation. ..
  71. Chung S, Polgar J, Reed G. Protein kinase C phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 in thrombin-activated human platelets. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25286-91 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that extracellular activation can be coupled through intracellular PKC signaling so as to modulate SNARE protein interactions involved in platelet exocytosis. ..
  72. Hilden T, Valmu L, Kärkkäinen S, Gahmberg C. Threonine phosphorylation sites in the beta 2 and beta 7 leukocyte integrin polypeptides. J Immunol. 2003;170:4170-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis by manual radiosequencing by Edman degradation established that threonine phosphorylation occurred in the same threonine triplet as in beta(2) phosphorylation. ..
  73. Carnevale K, Cathcart M. Protein kinase C beta is required for human monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25317-22 pubmed
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