phosphatidylethanolamine N methyltransferase


Gene Symbol: phosphatidylethanolamine N methyltransferase
Description: phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Alias: PEAMT, PEMPT, PEMT2, PLMT, PNMT, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, phospholipid methyltransferase
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Gomes A, Soares R, Costa R, Marino F, Cosentino M, Malagon M, et al. High-fat diet promotes adrenaline production by visceral adipocytes. Eur J Nutr. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to evaluate the expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and CA content along preadipocytes differentiation, under normal and obesigenic conditions...
  2. Stefanovic B, Spasojevic N, Jovanovic P, Dronjak S. Melatonin treatment affects changes in adrenal gene expression of catecholamine biosynthesizing enzymes and norepinephrine transporter in the rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-b-hydroxylase (DBH), phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the adrenal medulla...
  3. Grouzmann E, Tschopp O, Triponez F, Matter M, Bilz S, Brändle M, et al. Catecholamine metabolism in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: similar tumors in different sites?. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125426 pubmed publisher
    ..e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)...
  4. Chen W, Taylor M, Barrow R, Croyal M, Masle J. Loss of Phosphoethanolamine N-Methyltransferases Abolishes Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis and Is Lethal. Plant Physiol. 2019;179:124-142 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the double nmt1 nmt3 knock-out mutant is viable. Here, we show that this is enabled by residual PEAMT activity through a third family member, NMT2...
  5. Geng D, Musse A, Wigh V, Carlsson C, Engwall M, Oresic M, et al. Effect of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) on the liver lipid metabolism of the developing chicken embryo. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;170:691-698 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that at lower levels of exposure, mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is suppressed while the peroxisomal fatty acid β -oxidation is increased. At higher doses, however, both β -oxidation pathways are upregulated. ..
  6. Senthilkumaran M, Bobrovskaya L, Verberne A, Llewellyn Smith I. Insulin-responsive autonomic neurons in rat medulla oblongata. J Comp Neurol. 2018;526:2665-2682 pubmed publisher
    ..transverse sections of perfused medulla to show Fos plus either phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Insulin injection lowered blood glucose from 4.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L to 1.7 ± 0...
  7. Presa N, Clugston R, Lingrell S, Kelly S, Merrill A, Jana S, et al. Vitamin E alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase deficient mice. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019;1865:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together this study shows that vitamin E treatment efficiently prevented the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in mice lacking PEMT. ..
  8. Seremak Mrozikiewicz A, Barlik M, Rozycka A, Kurzawinska G, Klejewski A, Wolski H, et al. Importance of polymorphic variants of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene in the etiology of intrauterine fetal death in the Polish population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;231:43-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings indicate that PEMT polymorphisms may be associated with the susceptibility to IUFD in the Polish population. ..
  9. Forkuo G, Kim H, Thanawala V, Al Sawalha N, Valdez D, Joshi R, et al. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors Attenuate the Asthma Phenotype Produced by β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase-Knockout Mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016;55:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking the endogenous β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) agonist epinephrine (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [PNMT]-knockout mice) are resistant to developing an "asthma-like" phenotype in an ovalbumin sensitization and challenge (..

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. van der Veen J, Lingrell S, Gao X, Takawale A, Kassiri Z, Vance D, et al. Fenofibrate, but not ezetimibe, prevents fatty liver disease in mice lacking phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:656-667 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation can compensate for the lower VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion rate and prevent/reverse fatty liver disease in mice lacking PEMT. ..
  2. Zhou Y, Zhou Z, Batistel F, Martínez Cortés I, Pate R, Luchini D, et al. Methionine and choline supply alter transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine pathways to different extents in isolated primary liver cells from dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:11384-11395 pubmed publisher
    ..The relevance of these data in vivo merit further study. ..
  3. Chmurzynska A, Mlodzik M, Radziejewska A, Szwengiel A, Malinowska A, Nowacka Woszuk J. Caloric restriction can affect one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy in the rat: A transgenerational model. Biochimie. 2018;152:181-187 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Food deprivation may affect one-carbon metabolism in pregnant rats, but it does not stimulate persistent metabolic changes that can be observed during the pregnancy of their progeny of the F1 or F2 generations. ..
  4. Pan X, Hu X, Zhang Y, Chen L, Zhu L, Wan S, et al. Identification of the copy number variant biomarkers for breast cancer subtypes. Mol Genet Genomics. 2019;294:95-110 pubmed publisher
    ..515 and 0.492, respectively. The CNVs of PGAP3, GRB7, MIR4728, PNMT, STARD3, TCAP and ERBB2 were important for the accurate diagnosis of breast cancer subtypes...
  5. SMITH C, Eiden L. Is PACAP the major neurotransmitter for stress transduction at the adrenomedullary synapse?. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:403-12 pubmed
    ..synthesis required for sustained secretion during prolonged stress via induction of the enzymes TH and PNMT, and enhances transcription of additional secreted molecules found in chromaffin cells that alter further secretion ..
  6. Gao X, van der Veen J, Zhu L, Chaba T, Ordoñez M, Lingrell S, et al. Vagus nerve contributes to the development of steatohepatitis and obesity in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase deficient mice. J Hepatol. 2015;62:913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal signals via the hepatic vagus nerve contribute to the development of steatohepatitis and protection against obesity in HFD fed Pemt(-/-) mice. ..
  7. Bardsley E, Davis H, Buckler K, Paterson D. Neurotransmitter Switching Coupled to β-Adrenergic Signaling in Sympathetic Neurons in Prehypertensive States. Hypertension. 2018;71:1226-1238 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in human and rat neurons, we identified the presence of the epinephrine-synthesizing enzyme PNMT (phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase)...
  8. Drinkwater N, Gee C, Puri M, Criscione K, McLeish M, Grunewald G, et al. Molecular recognition of physiological substrate noradrenaline by the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme PNMT and factors influencing its methyltransferase activity. Biochem J. 2009;422:463-71 pubmed publisher
    Substrate specificity is critically important for enzyme catalysis. In the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme PNMT (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase), minor changes in substituents can convert substrates into inhibitors...
  9. Bi X, Zhao H, Zhang Z, Zhang J. PEMT G523A (V175M) is associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease in a Chinese population. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;46:505-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that PEMT G523A is associated with AD and that the A allele is an APOE ?4-independent risk factor for AD among Han Chinese women. ..
  10. Oliveira E, Lima D, Cardozo L, Souza G, de Souza N, Alves Fernandes D, et al. Toxicogenomic and bioinformatics platforms to identify key molecular mechanisms of a curcumin-analogue DM-1 toxicity in melanoma cells. Pharmacol Res. 2017;125:178-187 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues is likely to be mediated via multiple targets and identify several genes that represent candidates for combinatorial targeting in melanoma. ..
  11. Huang C, Liu C, Yao H. Investigating the role of adrenal cortex in organization and differentiation of the adrenal medulla in mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;361:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)-positive medulla in all models indicates that differentiation of adrenal medulla is independent of the growth of ..
  12. Ganz A, Cohen V, Swersky C, Stover J, Vitiello G, Lovesky J, et al. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term. ..
  13. Lee A, Capanzana R, Brockhurst J, Cheng M, Buckmaster C, Absher D, et al. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016;131:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. ..
  14. Phelix C, Liposits Z, Paull W. Monoamine innervation of bed nucleus of stria terminalis: an electron microscopic investigation. Brain Res Bull. 1992;28:949-65 pubmed
    ..enzyme [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) or phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT)] or serotonin (5-HT) was performed...
  15. Vargovic P, Manz G, Kvetnansky R. Continuous cold exposure induces an anti-inflammatory response in mesenteric adipose tissue associated with catecholamine production and thermogenin expression in rats. Endocr Regul. 2016;50:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..production was observed 7 days after cold exposure by elevated TH and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression, leading to an increased epinephrine levels...
  16. Konosu Fukaya S, Omata K, Tezuka Y, Ono Y, Aoyama Y, Satoh F, et al. Catecholamine-Synthesizing Enzymes in Pheochromocytoma and Extraadrenal Paraganglioma. Endocr Pathol. 2018;29:302-309 pubmed publisher
    ..L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) are mainly involved in catecholamine synthesis...
  17. Dushianthan A, Cusack R, Grocott M, Postle A. Abnormal liver phosphatidylcholine synthesis revealed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:1034-1045 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate significant plasma PC molecular compositional changes combined with associated alterations in the dynamics of PC synthetic pathways in patients with ARDS. ..
  18. Grandbois J, Khurana S, Graff K, Nguyen P, Meltz L, Tai T. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene expression in adrenergic neurons of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. 2016;635:103-110 pubmed publisher
    Epinephrine is synthesised by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla ..
  19. Gao X, van der Veen J, Hermansson M, Ordoñez M, Gomez Muñoz A, Vance D, et al. Decreased lipogenesis in white adipose tissue contributes to the resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:152-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show that PEMT deficiency did not affect the capability for differentiation and lipolysis in WAT. Decreased lipogenesis in WAT may contribute to the resistance to DIO in Pemt(-/-) mice. ..
  20. Jacobs R, Jiang H, Kennelly J, Orlicky D, Allen R, Stabler S, et al. Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency alters hepatic phospholipid and choline metabolism: Post-translational repression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is a consequence rather than a cause of liver injury in homocystinuria. Mol Genet Metab. 2017;120:325-336 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data show significant alteration of a broad range of hepatic PL and choline metabolism in HCU with the potential to contribute to multiple aspects of pathogenesis in this disease. ..
  21. Nagatsu T, Nagatsu I. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), other catecholamine-related enzymes, and their human genes in relation to the drug and gene therapies of Parkinson's disease (PD): historical overview and future prospects. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2016;123:1255-1278 pubmed
    ..L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC); dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH); and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)] and their genes in relation to PD in postmortem brains from PD patients, patients with CA-related genetic ..
  22. Zhu B, Zhou J, Gao Y, Shi W, Wei Z, Li W, et al. [Effect of low frequency low intensity electromagnetic fields on maturation and mineralization of rat skull osteoblasts <i>in vitro</i>]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2017;46:585-592 pubmed
    ..05). <b>Conclusion:</b> Both 50 Hz 1.8 mT that in SEMF and 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMF can promote the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts, and the effect of PEMF is more marked. ..
  23. Stroth N, Eiden L. Stress hormone synthesis in mouse hypothalamus and adrenal gland triggered by restraint is dependent on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide signaling. Neuroscience. 2010;165:1025-30 pubmed publisher
    ..encoding enzymes required for adrenomedullary catecholamine biosynthesis, namely TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) and PNMT (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase), was higher in PACAP+/+ mice after 6 h of unrelieved restraint...
  24. Moreira Rodrigues M, Graça A, Ferreira M, Afonso J, Serrão P, Morato M, et al. Attenuated aortic vasodilation and sympathetic prejunctional facilitation in epinephrine-deficient mice: selective impairment of β2-adrenoceptor responses. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;351:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and facilitation of norepinephrine release in the aorta of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase-knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice...
  25. Yuan Y, Qi L, Yu J, Wang X, Huang L. Transcriptome-wide analysis of SAMe superfamily to novelty phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase copy in Lonicera japonica. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;16:521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional level of duplicated PEAMT could be regulated through the SAM-SAH cycle.
  26. Gao X, van der Veen J, Vance J, Thiesen A, Vance D, Jacobs R. Lack of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase alters hepatic phospholipid composition and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:2689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..PEMT deficiency reduces the PC/PE ratio in the ER and induces ER stress, which sensitizes the mice to HF-induced steatohepatitis. ..
  27. Deminice R, de Castro G, Francisco L, da Silva L, Cardoso J, Frajacomo F, et al. Creatine supplementation prevents fatty liver in rats fed choline-deficient diet: a burden of one-carbon and fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The modulation of key genes related to fatty acid oxidation pathway suggests a new mechanism by which Cr prevents liver fat accumulation. ..
  28. Najt C, Senthivinayagam S, Aljazi M, Fader K, Olenic S, Brock J, et al. Liver-specific loss of Perilipin 2 alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G726-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings support a role for Plin2 as a target for NASH therapy. ..
  29. Chmurzynska A, Seremak Mrozikiewicz A, Malinowska A, Rozycka A, Radziejewska A, Szwengiel A, et al. PEMT rs12325817 and PCYT1A rs7639752 polymorphisms are associated with betaine but not choline concentrations in pregnant women. Nutr Res. 2018;56:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that choline intake in Polish pregnant women is inadequate and that polymorphisms of PEMT rs12325817 and PCYT1A rs7639752 are associated with betaine but not choline concentrations. ..
  30. Sharara Chami R, Joachim M, Pacak K, Majzoub J. Glucocorticoid treatment--effect on adrenal medullary catecholamine production. Shock. 2010;33:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Adrenal glucocorticoid stimulates phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) to convert norepinephrine to epinephrine in the adrenal medulla...
  31. Valtolina C, Vaandrager A, Favier R, Robben J, Tuohetahuntila M, Kummeling A, et al. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:280 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of evident influence of sex hormones on the PEMT pathway makes it unlikely that spaying/neutering predisposes cats for HL by causing PC deficiency as suggested in other species. ..
  32. Vodicka M, Ergang P, Hrncir T, Mikulecká A, Kvapilová P, Vagnerova K, et al. Microbiota affects the expression of genes involved in HPA axis regulation and local metabolism of glucocorticoids in chronic psychosocial stress. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;73:615-624 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuated the expression of genes encoding steroidogenesis (MC2R, StaR, Cyp11a1) and catecholamine synthesis (TH, PNMT)...
  33. Silver M, Corbin K, Hellenthal G, da Costa K, Dominguez Salas P, Moore S, et al. Evidence for negative selection of gene variants that increase dependence on dietary choline in a Gambian cohort. FASEB J. 2015;29:3426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that adequate intake levels of choline may have to be reevaluated in different ethnic groups and highlight a possible approach for identifying novel functional SNPs under the influence of dietary selective pressure. ..
  34. Sugimoto D, Myer G, Foss K, Hewett T. Specific exercise effects of preventive neuromuscular training intervention on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk reduction in young females: meta-analysis and subgroup analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:282-9 pubmed publisher
    Clinical trials have demonstrated that preventive neuromuscular training (PNMT) can be effective to reduce ACL injuries in young females...
  35. Barbier Torres L, Delgado T, García Rodríguez J, Zubiete Franco I, Fernández Ramos D, Buqué X, et al. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:2509-23 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  36. Macvicar T, Mannack L, Lees R, Lane J. Targeted siRNA Screens Identify ER-to-Mitochondrial Calcium Exchange in Autophagy and Mitophagy Responses in RPE1 Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:13356-80 pubmed publisher
  37. Qin N, Peitzsch M, Menschikowski M, Siegert G, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G. Double stable isotope ultra performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric quantification of tissue content and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the crucial enzyme responsible for synthesis of epinephrine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:1713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mass spectrometry to measure tissue contents and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of the stress hormone, epinephrine...
  38. Chen W, Salari H, Taylor M, Jost R, Berkowitz O, Barrow R, et al. NMT1 and NMT3 N-Methyltransferase Activity Is Critical to Lipid Homeostasis, Morphogenesis, and Reproduction. Plant Physiol. 2018;177:1605-1628 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a handful of individual PEAMTs have been described, there has not been any in planta investigation of a PEAMT family...
  39. Stubbusch J, Narasimhan P, Hennchen M, Huber K, Unsicker K, Ernsberger U, et al. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance. Dev Biol. 2015;400:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The postnatal death of chromaffin cells is preceded by the loss of Ascl1, mir-375 and Pnmt and an increase in the markers Ret and NF-M, which suggests that Dicer1 is required for the maintenance of ..
  40. Tomaszek A, Kiczak L, Bania J, Paslawska U, Zacharski M, Janiszewski A, et al. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;66:227-31 pubmed
    ..L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to ..
  41. Kim Y, Seok S, Byun S, Kong B, Zhang Y, Guo G, et al. AhR and SHP regulate phosphatidylcholine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in the one-carbon cycle. Nat Commun. 2018;9:540 pubmed publisher
    ..PEMT, AHR, and PC levels are elevated in simple steatosis patients, but PC levels are robustly reduced in steatohepatitis-fibrosis patients. This study identifies AhR and SHP as new physiological regulators of PC/SAM levels. ..
  42. Lee S, Oh E, Lee B, Kim Y, Oh D, Jung K, et al. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase downregulation is associated with malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:24141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which catalyzes the methylation of norepinephrine to epinephrine, was significantly lower in malignant PCC/PGL as ..
  43. Zhou Z, Garrow T, Dong X, Luchini D, Loor J. Hepatic Activity and Transcription of Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase, Methionine Synthase, and Cystathionine Synthase in Periparturient Dairy Cows Are Altered to Different Extents by Supply of Methionine and Choline. J Nutr. 2017;147:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Failure to generate a comparable amount of endogenous Met from choline could be one reason that choline-fed cows fail to achieve comparable performance and health benefits during the periparturient period. ..
  44. Mendes P, Martinho R, Leite S, Maia Moço L, Leite Moreira A, Lourenço A, et al. Chronic exercise induces pathological left ventricular hypertrophy in adrenaline-deficient mice. Int J Cardiol. 2018;253:113-119 pubmed publisher
    Adrenaline-deficient phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase-knockout mice (Pnmt-KO) have concentric heart remodeling and though their resting blood pressure is normal, it becomes higher during acute exercise...
  45. Alves E, Lukoyanov N, Serrao P, Moura D, Moreira Rodrigues M. Epinephrine increases contextual learning through activation of peripheral ?2-adrenoceptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:2099-2108 pubmed publisher
    Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice are unable to synthesize epinephrine and display reduced contextual fear...
  46. Niu G, Gou W, Han X, Qin C, Zhang L, Abomohra A, et al. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferase Promoter from Maize (Zea mays L.). Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), a key enzyme for betaine synthesis, is reported to be regulated by its upstream promoter...
  47. Gao X, van der Veen J, Fernandez Patron C, Vance J, Vance D, Jacobs R. Insufficient glucose supply is linked to hypothermia upon cold exposure in high-fat diet-fed mice lacking PEMT. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:1701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice is linked to plasma hypoglycemia due to compromised hepatic glucose production. ..
  48. Scherer M, Weightman M, Radomski M, Smith L, Finkelstein M, Cecchini A, et al. Measuring Soldier Performance During the Patrol-Exertion Multitask: Preliminary Validation of a Postconcussive Functional Return-to-Duty Metric. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99:S79-S85 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this preliminary study, additional research to further refine the PEMT and extend its application to return-to-work outcomes in military and civilian environments is warranted. ..
  49. Satapathy S, Nayak A, Siddharth S, Das S, Nayak D, Kundu C. Metallic gold and bioactive quinacrine hybrid nanoparticles inhibit oral cancer stem cell and angiogenesis by deregulating inflammatory cytokines in p53 dependent manner. Nanomedicine. 2018;14:883-896 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, QAuNP will be a useful therapeutic agent against metastatic OSCC. ..
  50. Wu X, Hu C, Li X, Zou Y, Zou J, Li Y, et al. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20337 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed...
  51. Gréchez Cassiau A, Feillet C, Guérin S, Delaunay F. The hepatic circadian clock regulates the choline kinase α gene through the BMAL1-REV-ERBα axis. Chronobiol Int. 2015;32:774-84 pubmed publisher
  52. Santana M, Rosmaninho Salgado J, Cortez V, Pereira F, Kaster M, Aveleira C, et al. Impaired adrenal medullary function in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic stress. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1753-66 pubmed publisher
    ..adrenal medullae show increased protein and/or mRNA levels of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (TH, DβH and PNMT), Neuropeptide Y, the SNARE protein SNAP-25, the catecholamine transporter VMAT2 and the chromaffin progenitor cell ..
  53. Tasseva G, van der Veen J, Lingrell S, Jacobs R, Vance D, Vance J. Lack of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in mice does not promote fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1861:119-129 pubmed publisher
  54. Hirashima T, Toyoshima M, Moriyama T, Sato N. Evolution of the Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathways in Green Algae: Combinatorial Diversity of Methyltransferases. J Mol Evol. 2018;86:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Homology searches suggested that PC in these species is synthesized by phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) and/or phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), both of which are absent in C. reinhardtii...
  55. Garg L, Brown J. Surface membrane-associated phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity in L-929 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1983;220:22-30 pubmed
    ..The low rate of methyltransferase function expressed in vitro (approximately 1 pmol/min . mg protein) suggests that phospholipid methylation is not a major metabolic source of surface membrane phosphatidylcholine. ..
  56. van der Veen J, Lingrell S, Gao X, Quiroga A, Takawale A, Armstrong E, et al. Pioglitazone attenuates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that activation of PPAR? in HFD-fed Pemt(-/-) mice improved liver function, while these mice were still protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. ..
  57. Luo Z, Wei C, Ye H, Zhao H, Song Y, Wu K. Effect of dietary choline levels on growth performance, lipid deposition and metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;202:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first to explore the effect of dietary choline level on mRNA expression of these genes, which provides new insights into choline nutrition in fish. ..
  58. Bao Y, Wang S, Yang X, Li T, Xia Y, Meng X. Metabolomic study of the intervention effects of Shuihonghuazi Formula, a Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulae, on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rats using performance HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;198:468-478 pubmed publisher
  59. Nguyen P, Khurana S, Peltsch H, Grandbois J, Eibl J, Crispo J, et al. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure programs adrenal PNMT expression and adult hypertension. J Endocrinol. 2015;227:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..prenatal GC exposure on the postnatal regulation of the gene encoding for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine, epinephrine...
  60. Sehayek E, Wang R, Ono J, Zinchuk V, Duncan E, Shefer S, et al. Localization of the PE methylation pathway and SR-BI to the canalicular membrane: evidence for apical PC biosynthesis that may promote biliary excretion of phospholipid and cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1605-13 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, a model is proposed in which local canalicular membrane PC biosynthesis in concert with the phospholipid transporter mdr2 and SR-BI, promotes the excretion of phospholipid and cholesterol into the bile...
  61. Ganz A, Shields K, Fomin V, Lopez Y, Mohan S, Lovesky J, et al. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis. FASEB J. 2016;30:3321-3333 pubmed
    ..C., Stover, J. A., Vitiello, G. A., Malysheva, O. V., Mudrak, E., Caudill, M. A. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis. ..
  62. Ming Y, Zhang J, Wang X, Li C, Ma S, Wang Z, et al. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based profiling of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the plasma and liver of acetaminophen-induced liver injured mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:153 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetaminophen overdose induced dramatic change of many PC and PE species in plasma and liver, which might be caused by damaging hepatocytes and interfering the phospholipid metabolism in Acetaminophen -injured liver. ..
  63. Taira Y, Panagia V, Shah K, Beamish R, Dhalla N. Stimulation of phospholipid N-methylation by isoproterenol in rat hearts. Circ Res. 1990;66:28-36 pubmed
    ..7- and 2.3-fold, respectively; however, under the same in vitro conditions, only about 20% activation was seen in both subcellular membranes isolated from the heart of isoproterenol-injected animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  64. Jun D, Han J, Jang E, Kim S, Kim S, Jo Y, et al. Polymorphisms of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Koreans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21:667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, MTTP-I128T polymorphism is associated with central obesity, elevated liver enzymes, and alcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  65. Krishnan M, Shelling A, Wall C, Mitchell E, Murphy R, McCowan L, et al. Gene-by-environment interactions of the CLOCK, PEMT, and GHRELIN loci with average sleep duration in relation to obesity traits using a cohort of 643 New Zealand European children. Sleep Med. 2017;37:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that children may have different genetic susceptibility to the effects of sleep duration on obesity. Further confirmatory studies are required in other population cohorts of different age groups. ..
  66. Chen L, Chen Y, Wang L, Wei J, Tan Y, Zhou J, et al. Higher homocysteine and lower betaine increase the risk of microangiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus carrying the GG genotype of PEMT G774C. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013;29:607-17 pubmed publisher
    ..452, 95% CI 0.218, 0.937). The GG genotype of the PEMT G774C polymorphism, higher levels of serum homocysteine and lower levels of serum betaine are associated with an increased risk of microangiopathy in patients with diabetes. ..
  67. Abu Bonsrah K, Zhang D, Bjorksten A, Dottori M, Newgreen D. Generation of Adrenal Chromaffin-like Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports. 2018;10:134-150 pubmed publisher
    ..augmented with corticosteroid mimetic, induced these cells to upregulate the chromaffin cell-specific marker PNMT and other CA synthesis and storage markers, and we demonstrated noradrenaline and adrenaline by Faglu and high-..
  68. Shields D, Agellon L, Vance D. Structure, expression profile and alternative processing of the human phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1532:105-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, differential promoter usage in the human PEMT gene generates three unique transcripts and confers a tissue-specific expression pattern. ..
  69. Resseguie M, Song J, Niculescu M, da Costa K, Randall T, Zeisel S. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes. FASEB J. 2007;21:2622-32 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to explore the underlying mechanism of why dietary requirements for choline vary with estrogen status in humans. ..
  70. Zhou Y, Li Y, Nie Y, Yang H, Zhan Q, Huang J, et al. Influence of polygenetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease of Chinese people. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most candidate genes' SNP examined in metabolic syndrome patients were associated with susceptibility to NAFLD. ..
  71. Yang E, Blusztajn J, Pomfret E, Zeisel S. Rat and human mammary tissue can synthesize choline moiety via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. Biochem J. 1988;256:821-8 pubmed
    ..The rate of PtdCho formation was of similar magnitude to that seen in rat tissue. This evidence supports the hypothesis that some of the choline found in milk could have been synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. ..
  72. Fischer L, da Costa K, Galanko J, Sha W, Stephenson B, Vick J, et al. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was registered at as NCT00678925. ..
  73. Fischer L, da Costa K, Kwock L, Galanko J, Zeisel S. Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Choline requirements for both groups of women are further increased by rs12325817. This trial was registered at as NCT00065546. ..
  74. Walkey C, Cui Z, Agellon L, Vance D. Characterization of the murine phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-2 gene. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:2341-50 pubmed
    ..In the present studies, we cloned and characterized the murine gene for PEMT2, the isoform of the enzyme that localized to the mitochondria-associated membrane...
  75. Shields D, Altarejos J, Wang X, Agellon L, Vance D. Molecular dissection of the S-adenosylmethionine-binding site of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35826-36 pubmed
    ..1 pmol), suggesting that these residues also participate in AdoMet binding. A model positions two separate AdoMet-binding motifs of PEMT in close proximity at the external leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. ..
  76. da Costa K, Sanders L, Fischer L, Zeisel S. Docosahexaenoic acid in plasma phosphatidylcholine may be a potential marker for in vivo phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:968-74 pubmed publisher
    ..PtdCho-DHA may be useful as a surrogate marker for in vivo hepatic PEMT activity in humans. This trial was registered at as NCT00065546. ..
  77. Huang T, Sun J, Chen Y, Xie H, Xu D, Li D. Associations of common variants in methionine metabolism pathway genes with plasma homocysteine and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2014;7:63-74 pubmed publisher
    ..52 for CT+TT vs. CC, p = 0.042). MTHFR rs1801131 C allele and PEMT rs4646356 T allele were associated with a high risk of T2DM in these Han Chinese. ..
  78. Vance D, Walkey C, Cui Z. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1348:142-50 pubmed
    ..Most PEMT activity (PEMT1) is associated with endoplasmic reticulum. A second form of the enzyme (PEMT2) has been localized to the mitochondria-associated membrane. PEMT2 is a 22...
  79. Shields D, Lehner R, Agellon L, Vance D. Membrane topography of human phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2956-62 pubmed
    ..Further support for this model was obtained following endoproteinase-protection analysis of mutant recombinant PEMT derivatives in which specific protease cleavage sites had been genetically engineered or ablated. ..
  80. Zemunik T, Boban M, Lauc G, Jankovic S, Rotim K, Vatavuk Z, et al. Genome-wide association study of biochemical traits in Korcula Island, Croatia. Croat Med J. 2009;50:23-33 pubmed
    ..Changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in much larger samples in outbred populations. ..
  81. Kawahata I, Yamakuni T. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, facilitates tyrosine hydroxylase transcription and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression to enhance catecholamine synthesis and its nicotine-evoked elevation in PC12D cells. Toxicology. 2018;394:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The insecticide coincidentally raised levels of TH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA, and as a consequence, increased catecholamine production, although the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was ..
  82. Walkey C, Donohue L, Bronson R, Agellon L, Vance D. Disruption of the murine gene encoding phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12880-5 pubmed
    ..Only a trace of PE methylation activity remained in Pempt2(-/-) mice. Antibody to one form of the enzyme, PEMT2, indicated complete loss of this protein from Pempt2(-/-) mice and a decrease in Pempt2(+/-) mice, compared with ..
  83. Shields D, Lingrell S, Agellon L, Brosnan J, Vance D. Localization-independent regulation of homocysteine secretion by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27339-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data suggest that Hcy homeostasis is regulated concomitantly with PEMT activity but independently of PEMT localization. ..
  84. Yazeji T, Moulari B, Beduneau A, Stein V, Dietrich D, Pellequer Y, et al. Nanoparticle-based delivery enhances anti-inflammatory effect of low molecular weight heparin in experimental ulcerative colitis. Drug Deliv. 2017;24:811-817 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a combination holds promise for a highly specific therapy by its double selectivity towards the inflamed intestinal tissue. LMWH-PEMT NP have significantly improved the clinical activity in-vivo in comparison to free LMWH...
  85. Mostowska A, Hozyasz K, Wojcicki P, Dziegelewska M, Jagodzinski P. Associations of folate and choline metabolism gene polymorphisms with orofacial clefts. J Med Genet. 2010;47:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphic variants of BHMT and PCYT1A and interactions between genes of choline and folate metabolism might influence the risk of NCL/P in the Polish population. ..
  86. Mostowska A, Hozyasz K, Biedziak B, Misiak J, Jagodzinski P. Polymorphisms located in the region containing BHMT and BHMT2 genes as maternal protective factors for orofacial clefts. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our study identified a novel gene, the nucleotide variants of which were be associated with a decreased risk of having a baby with NCL/P. ..
  87. Blusztajn J, Zeisel S, Wurtman R. Synthesis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from phosphatidylethanolamine in bovine brain. Brain Res. 1979;179:319-27 pubmed
    ..e. about 1% of that found in rat liver). The brain may be able to meet some of its choline requirements by de novo synthesis. ..
  88. Cui Z, Vance J, Chen M, Voelker D, Vance D. Cloning and expression of a novel phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. A specific biochemical and cytological marker for a unique membrane fraction in rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:16655-63 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that this phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase is a specific marker for this unique membrane fraction. ..
  89. Tessitore L, Marengo B, Vance D, Papotti M, Mussa A, Daidone M, et al. Expression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncology. 2003;65:152-8 pubmed
    ..The status of the PEMPT gene and PEMT2 mRNA expression were evaluated with Southern and Northern blotting, respectively, in HCC and the noninvolved liver...
  90. Betito K, Mitchell J, Bhatnagar S, Boksa P, Meaney M. Regulation of the adrenomedullary catecholaminergic system after mild, acute stress. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:R212-20 pubmed
    The time course of regulation of rat adrenomedullary phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was studied after a single episode of 20-min restraint stress...
  91. Nilsson T, Hurtig Wennlöf A, Sjöström M, Herrmann W, Obeid R, Owen J, et al. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. FASEB J. 2016;30:1683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nilsson, T. K., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Owen, J. R., Zeisel, S. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. ..
  92. Nakatsuka A, Matsuyama M, Yamaguchi S, Katayama A, Eguchi J, Murakami K, et al. Insufficiency of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is risk for lean non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21721 pubmed publisher
    ..PEMT mRNA expression in liver tissues of NASH patients was significantly lower than those with simple steatosis and we postulated the distinct clinical entity of lean NASH with insufficiency of PEMT activities. ..