Gene Symbol: PHC1
Description: polyhomeotic homolog 1
Alias: EDR1, HPH1, MCPH11, RAE28, polyhomeotic-like protein 1, early development regulator 1 (homolog of polyhomeotic 1), early development regulatory protein 1, polyhomeotic-like 1
Species: human
Products:     PHC1

Top Publications

  1. Gunster M, Satijn D, Hamer K, den Blaauwen J, de Bruijn D, Alkema M, et al. Identification and characterization of interactions between the vertebrate polycomb-group protein BMI1 and human homologs of polyhomeotic. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2326-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify two human proteins, HPH1 and HPH2, that are associated with the vertebrate PcG protein BMI1...
  2. Wang H, Wang L, Erdjument Bromage H, Vidal M, Tempst P, Jones R, et al. Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature. 2004;431:873-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies identify the H2A ubiquitin ligase, and link H2A ubiquitination to Polycomb silencing. ..
  3. Levine S, Weiss A, Erdjument Bromage H, Shao Z, Tempst P, Kingston R. The core of the polycomb repressive complex is compositionally and functionally conserved in flies and humans. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6070-8 pubmed
  4. Alkema M, Bronk M, Verhoeven E, Otte A, van T Veer L, Berns A, et al. Identification of Bmi1-interacting proteins as constituents of a multimeric mammalian polycomb complex. Genes Dev. 1997;11:226-40 pubmed
    ..Bmi1, M33, and Mph1 show an overlapping speckled distribution in interphase nuclei. These data provide molecular evidence for the existence of a mammalian Polycomb complex. ..
  5. Maertens G, El Messaoudi Aubert S, Racek T, Stock J, Nicholls J, Rodriguez Niedenführ M, et al. Several distinct polycomb complexes regulate and co-localize on the INK4a tumor suppressor locus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6380 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first evidence that a single gene can be regulated by several distinct PRC1 complexes and raise important questions about their configuration and relative functions. ..
  6. Liu H, Wang F, Peng X, Huang J, Shen S. Global Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals the Defense and Response Mechanisms of Jatropha Curcas Seedling under Chilling Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..of protein-protein interaction network analysis, phosphorylation of several protein kinases, such as SnRK2, MEKK1, EDR1, CDPK, EIN2, EIN4, PI4K and 14-3-3 were possibly responsible for cross-talk between ABA, Ca2+, ethylene ..
  7. He S, Lin C, Gu M, Chen D, Zong S, Chen Y. [Protective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride against acute renal injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and lipopolysaccharides in rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2011;31:899-902 pubmed
    ..into sham operated group, model group, and 3 penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) dose (1, 2 and 3 mg/kg) groups (PHC1, PHC2, and PHC3 groups, respectively)...
  8. Serrano I, Gu Y, Qi D, Dubiella U, Innes R. The Arabidopsis EDR1 protein kinase negatively regulates the ATL1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to suppress cell death. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4532-46 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced programmed cell death under a variety of abiotic and biotic stress conditions...
  9. Geissler K, Eschen Lippold L, Naumann K, Schneeberger K, Weigel D, Scheel D, et al. Mutations in the EDR1 Gene Alter the Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Phytophthora infestans and the Bacterial PAMPs flg22 and elf18. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2015;28:122-33 pubmed publisher
    ..coding region of the kinase domain of At1g08720, which encodes the putative MAPKKK ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1). We demonstrate that three independent lines with knock-out alleles of edr1 mount an enhanced response to P...

More Information


  1. Zhen C, Duc H, Kokotovic M, Phiel C, Ren X. Cbx2 stably associates with mitotic chromosomes via a PRC2- or PRC1-independent mechanism and is needed for recruiting PRC1 complex to mitotic chromosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:3726-39 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that, although Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 proteins (Cbx-family proteins, Ring1b, Mel18, and Phc1) exhibit variable capacities of association with mitotic chromosomes, Cbx2 overwhelmingly binds to mitotic ..
  2. Wu G, Liu S, Zhao Y, Wang W, Kong Z, Tang D. ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE4 associates with CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAIN2 and modulates plant immunity by regulating relocation of EDR1 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:857-73 pubmed publisher
    ..EDR4 mainly localizes to the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments. Genetic analyses show that EDR4 and EDR1 function in the same genetic pathway...
  3. Edgar K, Matesanz N, Gardiner T, Katusic Z, McDonald D. Hyperoxia depletes (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin levels in the neonatal retina: implications for nitric oxide synthase function in retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:1769-82 pubmed publisher
    ..controlled enzymatically by GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), we used GTPCH-depleted mice [hyperphenylalaninemia strain (hph1)] to investigate the impact of hyperoxia on BH4 bioavailability and retinal vascular pathology in the neonate...
  4. Faheem M, Naseer M, Rasool M, Chaudhary A, Kumosani T, Ilyas A, et al. Molecular genetics of human primary microcephaly: an overview. BMC Med Genomics. 2015;8 Suppl 1:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..and contain the following genes: Microcephalin, WDR62, CDK5RAP2, CASC5, ASPM, CENPJ, STIL, CEP135, CEP152, ZNF335, PHC1 and CDK6...
  5. Arcaro M, Thaler L, Quinlan D, Monaco S, Khan S, Valyear K, et al. Psychophysical and neuroimaging responses to moving stimuli in a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon due to bilateral visual cortex lesions. Neuropsychologia. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..more extensive damage to right parietal (inferior parietal lobule) and left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VO1, PHC1/2)...
  6. Khan M, Windpassinger C, Ali M, Zubair M, Gul H, Abbas S, et al. Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous families with primary microcephaly identified pathogenic variants in the ASPM gene. J Genet. 2017;96:383-387 pubmed
    ..15 (MCPH) causative genes that include MCPH1, WDR62, CDK5RAP2, CASC5, ASPM, CENPJ, STIL, CEP135, CEP152, ZNF335, PHC1, CDK6, CENPE, SASS6 MFSD2A ANKLE2 and CIT (Khan et al. 2014; Yamamoto et al. 2014; Alakbarzade et al...
  7. Kallingappa P, Turner P, Eichenlaub M, Green A, Oback F, Chibnall A, et al. Quiescence Loosens Epigenetic Constraints in Bovine Somatic Cells and Improves Their Reprogramming into Totipotency. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:16 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that G0 chromatin contains reduced levels of Polycomb group proteins EED, SUZ12, PHC1, and RING2, as well as histone variant H2A.Z...
  8. Morris Rosendahl D, Kaindl A. What next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has enabled us to learn about primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). Mol Cell Probes. 2015;29:271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The functions of proteins such as WDR62, CASC5, PHC1, CDK6, CENP-E, CENP-F, CEP63, ZNF335, PLK4 and TUBGPC, have been added to the complex network of critical cellular ..
  9. Zhang Y, Bai Y, Wu G, Zou S, Chen Y, Gao C, et al. Simultaneous modification of three homoeologs of TaEDR1 by genome editing enhances powdery mildew resistance in wheat. Plant J. 2017;91:714-724 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. tritici (Bgt). enhanced disease resistance1 (EDR1) plays a negative role in the defense response against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the edr1 ..
  10. Varberg J, Coppens I, Arrizabalaga G, Gaji R. TgTKL1 Is a Unique Plant-Like Nuclear Kinase That Plays an Essential Role in Acute Toxoplasmosis. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher Toxoplasma, we first characterized TgTKL1, which contains the plant-like enhanced disease resistance 1 (EDR1) domain and localizes to the nucleus...
  11. Awad S, Al Dosari M, al Yacoub N, Colak D, Salih M, Alkuraya F, et al. Mutation in PHC1 implicates chromatin remodeling in primary microcephaly pathogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2200-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a novel mutation in PHC1, a human orthologue of the Drosophila polyhomeotic member of polycomb group (PcG), which significantly decreases ..
  12. Tomotsune D, Takihara Y, Berger J, Duhl D, Joo S, Kyba M, et al. A novel member of murine Polycomb-group proteins, Sex comb on midleg homolog protein, is highly conserved, and interacts with RAE28/mph1 in vitro. Differentiation. 1999;65:229-39 pubmed
    ..Like their Drosophila counterparts, Scmh1 and the mammalian polyhomeotic homolog RAE28/mph1 interact in vitro via their SPM domains...
  13. Junco S, Wang R, Gaipa J, Taylor A, Schirf V, Gearhart M, et al. Structure of the polycomb group protein PCGF1 in complex with BCOR reveals basis for binding selectivity of PCGF homologs. Structure. 2013;21:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show the molecular basis for determining the binding preference for a PCGF homolog, which ultimately helps determine the identity of the larger PRC1-like assembly. ..
  14. Luo L, Yang X, Takihara Y, Knoetgen H, Kessel M. The cell-cycle regulator geminin inhibits Hox function through direct and polycomb-mediated interactions. Nature. 2004;427:749-53 pubmed
    ..By establishing competitive regulation, geminin functions as a coordinator of developmental and proliferative control. ..
  15. Voncken J, Niessen H, Neufeld B, Rennefahrt U, Dahlmans V, Kubben N, et al. MAPKAP kinase 3pK phosphorylates and regulates chromatin association of the polycomb group protein Bmi1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5178-87 pubmed
    ..This suggests a novel mechanism by which a silenced gene status can be modulated and implicates PcG-mediated repression as a dynamically controlled process. ..
  16. Yasunaga S, Ohtsubo M, Ohno Y, Saeki K, Kurogi T, Tanaka Okamoto M, et al. Scmh1 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity for geminin and histone H2A and regulates geminin stability directly or indirectly via transcriptional repression of Hoxa9 and Hoxb4. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:644-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that PcG and a subset of Hox genes compose a homeostatic regulatory system for determining expression level of geminin. ..
  17. Shen Q, Bourdais G, Pan H, Robatzek S, Tang D. Arabidopsis glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein LLG1 associates with and modulates FLS2 to regulate innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:5749-5754 pubmed publisher
    ..In a forward genetic screen for suppressors of enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1), we identified the point mutation llg1-3, which suppresses edr1 disease resistance but does not ..
  18. Sanchez A, De Vivo A, Uprety N, Kim J, Stevens S, Kee Y. BMI1-UBR5 axis regulates transcriptional repression at damaged chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:11243-11248 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that BMI1 and UBR5 repress the polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription at damaged sites, by negatively regulating the FACT-dependent Pol II elongation. ..
  19. Ohta H, Tokimasa S, Zou Z, Funaki S, Kurahashi H, Takahashi Y, et al. Structure and chromosomal localization of the RAE28/HPH1 gene, a human homologue of the polyhomeotic gene. DNA Seq. 2000;11:61-73 pubmed
    ..The rae28/mph1 gene is a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila polyhomeotic gene, which belongs to the Pc-G genes...
  20. Ohtsubo M, Yasunaga S, Ohno Y, Tsumura M, Okada S, Ishikawa N, et al. Polycomb-group complex 1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin to sustain hematopoietic stem cell activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular functions of PcG complex 1, however, remain insufficiently understood. In our study, deficiency of Rae28, a member of PcG complex 1, was found to impair ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Geminin, an inhibitor ..
  21. Suzuki M, Mizutani Koseki Y, Fujimura Y, Miyagishima H, Kaneko T, Takada Y, et al. Involvement of the Polycomb-group gene Ring1B in the specification of the anterior-posterior axis in mice. Development. 2002;129:4171-83 pubmed
    ..indicate that Ring1B form part of protein complexes containing the products of other Polycomb group genes, such as Rae28/Mph1 and M33, and that this complexes associate to chromosomal DNA...
  22. Maertens G, El Messaoudi Aubert S, Elderkin S, Hiom K, Peters G. Ubiquitin-specific proteases 7 and 11 modulate Polycomb regulation of the INK4a tumour suppressor. EMBO J. 2010;29:2553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to a novel function for USPs in the regulation and function of Polycomb complexes. ..
  23. Sisakhtnezhad S, Heshmati P. Comparative analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data from mouse spermatogonial and mesenchymal stem cells to identify differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulators of germline cells. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also indicated that MEIS1, SMC3, TAF1, KAT2A, STAT3, GTF3C2, SIN3A, BDP1, PHC1 and EGR1 are the main central regulators of DEGs in mSSCs...
  24. Satijn D, Gunster M, van der Vlag J, Hamer K, Schul W, Alkema M, et al. RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4105-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that RING1 coimmunoprecipitates with a human Pc homolog, the vertebrate PcG protein BMI1, and HPH1, a human homolog of the PcG protein Polyhomeotic (Ph)...