Gene Symbol: PF4V1
Description: platelet factor 4 variant 1
Alias: CXCL4L1, CXCL4V1, PF4-ALT, PF4A, SCYB4V1, platelet factor 4 variant, C-X-C motif chemokine 4, PF4alt, PF4var1, platelet factor 4, variant 1 (PF4-like)
Species: human
Products:     PF4V1

Top Publications

  1. Green C, Charles R, Edwards B, Johnson P. Identification and characterization of PF4varl, a human gene variant of platelet factor 4. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:1445-51 pubmed
    ..isolated from a human genomic library demonstrated the existence of a variant of platelet factor 4, designated PF4var1. The gene for PF4var1 consisted of three exons and two introns...
  2. Struyf S, Burdick M, Proost P, Van Damme J, Strieter R. Platelets release CXCL4L1, a nonallelic variant of the chemokine platelet factor-4/CXCL4 and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2004;95:855-7 pubmed
    ..Here, the product of the nonallelic variant gene of CXCL4, PF-4var1/PF-4alt, designated CXCL4L1, was isolated for the first time from thrombin-stimulated human platelets and purified to homogeneity...
  3. Van Raemdonck K, Gouwy M, Lepers S, Van Damme J, Struyf S. CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 signaling in human lymphatic and microvascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes: involvement of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, Src and p70S6 kinase. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet factor-4 (PF-4)/CXCL4 and its variant PF-4var/CXCL4L1 are known to favor angiostasis by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and chemotaxis...
  4. Prats A, Van Den Berghe L, Rayssac A, Ainaoui N, Morfoisse F, Pujol F, et al. CXCL4L1-fibstatin cooperation inhibits tumor angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. Microvasc Res. 2013;89:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..endogenous anti-angiogenic molecules, endostatin and fibstatin, and a chemokine, the Platelet Factor-4 variant 1, CXCL4L1. Anti-angiogenic factors were co-expressed by IRES-based bicistronic vectors and their cooperation was analyzed ..
  5. Struyf S, Salogni L, Burdick M, Vandercappellen J, Gouwy M, Noppen S, et al. Angiostatic and chemotactic activities of the CXC chemokine CXCL4L1 (platelet factor-4 variant) are mediated by CXCR3. Blood. 2011;117:480-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated possible cellular receptors for the human CXC chemokine platelet factor-4 variant/CXCL4L1, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis...
  6. Vandercappellen J, Van Damme J, Struyf S. The role of the CXC chemokines platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4) and its variant (CXCL4L1/PF-4var) in inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2011;22:1-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4) was the first chemokine shown to inhibit angiogenesis. CXCL4L1/PF-4var, recently isolated from thrombin-stimulated platelets, differing from authentic CXCL4/PF-4 in three ..
  7. Kuo J, Chen Y, Liu J, Dubrac A, Quemener C, Prats H, et al. Alternative C-terminal helix orientation alters chemokine function: structure of the anti-angiogenic chemokine, CXCL4L1. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13522-33 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL4L1 is a highly potent anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor chemokine, and its structural information is unknown...
  8. Sarabi A, Kramp B, Drechsler M, Hackeng T, Soehnlein O, Weber C, et al. CXCL4L1 inhibits angiogenesis and induces undirected endothelial cell migration without affecting endothelial cell proliferation and monocyte recruitment. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:209-19 pubmed publisher
    The non-allelic variant of CXCL4/PF4, CXCL4L1/PF4alt, differs from CXCL4 in three amino acids of the C-terminal ?-helix and has been characterized as a potent anti-angiogenic regulator...
  9. Li D, Hao X, Dong Y, Zhang M, Song Y. PF4V1, an miRNA-875-3p target, suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer and serves as a potential prognostic biomarker. Cancer Manag Res. 2019;11:2299-2312 pubmed publisher
    b>PF4V1 is a novel protein in inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. However, the pathogenesis, underlying mechanisms, and the prognostic value of PF4V1 in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear...

More Information


  1. Galimberti D, Fenoglio C, Ghezzi L, Serpente M, Arcaro M, D Anca M, et al. Inflammatory expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Nasu-Hakola Disease. Cytokine. 2019;116:115-119 pubmed publisher
    ..26, -9.85 fold-decrease over non-carriers, respectively, P = 0.01), as well as Platelet Factor 4 Variant 1 (PF4V1; -41.44, P = 0.03)...
  2. Armbrust T, Millis M, Alvarez M, Saremi A, Distefano J, Nourbakhsh M. CXCL4L1 Promoter Polymorphisms Are Associated with Improved Renal Function in Type 1 Diabetes. J Immunol. 2019;202:912-919 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed protective associations between three variants in the CXCL4L1 promoter (rs872914/A, rs941757/G, and rs941758/A) and renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes...
  3. Blanchet X, Cesarek K, Brandt J, Herwald H, Teupser D, Küchenhoff H, et al. Inflammatory role and prognostic value of platelet chemokines in acute coronary syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 2014;112:1277-87 pubmed publisher
    Activated platelets and neutrophils exacerbate atherosclerosis. Platelets release the chemokines CXCL4, CXCL4L1 and CCL5, whereas myeloperoxidase (MPO) and azurocidin are neutrophil-derived...
  4. Odagiri N, Matsubara T, Higuchi M, Takada S, Urushima H, Sato Matsubara M, et al. Involvement of ERK1/2 activation in the gene expression of senescence-associated secretory factors in human hepatic stellate cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2019;455:7-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the levels of angiopoietin like 4 (ANGPTL4), C-C motif chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), platelet factor 4 variant 1 (PF4V1), and TNF superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner...
  5. Ruytinx P, Proost P, Struyf S. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 in cancer. Cytokine. 2018;109:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCL4 and its non-allelic variant CXCL4L1 are two platelet-associated chemokines that have been attributed anti-tumoral activity as a result of their ..
  6. Van Raemdonck K, Van Den Steen P, Liekens S, Van Damme J, Struyf S. CXCR3 ligands in disease and therapy. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015;26:311-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The CXCR3 ligands, activating both receptor variants, include CXCL4, CXCL4L1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11...
  7. Altara R, Manca M, Brandão R, Zeidan A, Booz G, Zouein F. Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:463-78 pubmed publisher
    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that ..
  8. Quemener C, Baud J, Boyé K, Dubrac A, Billottet C, Soulet F, et al. Dual Roles for CXCL4 Chemokines and CXCR3 in Angiogenesis and Invasion of Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Res. 2016;76:6507-6519 pubmed publisher
    The CXCL4 paralog CXCL4L1 is a less studied chemokine that has been suggested to exert an antiangiogenic function...
  9. Gouwy M, Ruytinx P, Radice E, Claudi F, Van Raemdonck K, Bonecchi R, et al. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 Differentially Affect Monocyte Survival and Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Phagocytosis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166006 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared the effect of CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 on the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDC)...
  10. Patsouras M, Sikara M, Grika E, Moutsopoulos H, Tzioufas A, Vlachoyiannopoulos P. Elevated expression of platelet-derived chemokines in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. J Autoimmun. 2015;65:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..plasma levels of CXCL4 may favor this process; therefore we measured plasma levels of CXCL4, a CXCL4 variant (CXCL4L1) and as controls, platelet-derived chemokines CXCL7 (NAP-2) and CCL5 (RANTES), in APS, and disease controls such ..
  11. Dubrac A, Quemener C, Lacazette E, Lopez F, Zanibellato C, Wu W, et al. Functional divergence between 2 chemokines is conferred by single amino acid change. Blood. 2010;116:4703-11 pubmed publisher
    CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 are 2 closely related CXC chemokines that exhibit potent antiangiogenic activity...
  12. Li J, Liu B, Yan L, Lau W. The roles and potential therapeutic implications of CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 in the pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015;26:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 are involved in organ damage induced through inflammatory and immune responses throughout all stages of liver ..
  13. Van Raemdonck K, Berghmans N, Vanheule V, Bugatti A, Proost P, Opdenakker G, et al. Angiostatic, tumor inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) in an EGF-dependent breast cancer model. Oncotarget. 2014;5:10916-33 pubmed
    CXCL4 and CXCL4L1, platelet-derived CXC chemokines, and their carboxy-terminal peptides CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) previously displayed angiostatic and anti-tumoral activity in a melanoma model...
  14. Abu El Asrar A, Mohammad G, Nawaz M, Abdelsaid M, Siddiquei M, Alam K, et al. The Chemokine Platelet Factor-4 Variant (PF-4var)/CXCL4L1 Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:1956-64 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expression of platelet factor-4 variant (PF-4var/CXCL4L1) in epiretinal membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and the role of PF-4var/CXCL4L1 in the regulation of blood-retinal barrier (..
  15. Ruytinx P, Janssens R, Berghmans N, Gouwy M, Ronsse I, Liekens S, et al. Relative distribution and biological characterization of CXCL4L1 isoforms in platelets from healthy donors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;145:123-131 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL4L1, a platelet-derived ELR-negative CXC chemokine, is a powerful angiostatic and anti-tumoral chemokine. We developed a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of different natural CXCL4L1 isoforms...
  16. Chen Y, Wu H, Boyé K, Pan C, Chen Y, Pujol N, et al. Oligomerization State of CXCL4 Chemokines Regulates G Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation. ACS Chem Biol. 2017;12:2767-2778 pubmed publisher
    ..Noticeably, CXCL4L1, a CXCL4 variant that differs by three residues in the C-terminal helix, could activate CXCR3A...
  17. Hillian A, Londono D, Dunn J, Goddard K, Pace R, Knowles M, et al. Modulation of cystic fibrosis lung disease by variants in interleukin-8. Genes Immun. 2008;9:501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..82), while variants in neighboring genes CXCL6, RASSF6 and PF4V1 did not associate (P> or =0.26) and were in weaker LD with each other and with the IL8 variants (0...
  18. De Sutter J, Van de Veire N, Struyf S, Philippe J, De Buyzere M, Van Damme J. PF-4var/CXCL4L1 predicts outcome in stable coronary artery disease patients with preserved left ventricular function. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31343 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for the chemokine platelet factor 4 variant (PF-4var/CXCL4L1), released by platelets during thrombosis and with different properties as compared to ..
  19. Eisman R, Surrey S, Ramachandran B, Schwartz E, Poncz M. Structural and functional comparison of the genes for human platelet factor 4 and PF4alt. Blood. 1990;76:336-44 pubmed
    ..Concurrently, we have cloned a highly homologous gene that we have called PF4alt. We show that PF4 and PF4alt are non-allelic genes: the human PF4 gene is encoded on a 10 kilobasepairs (kb) EcoRI ..