PF4

Summary

Gene Symbol: PF4
Description: platelet factor 4
Alias: CXCL4, PF-4, SCYB4, platelet factor 4, C-X-C motif chemokine 4, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, iroplact, oncostatin-A
Species: human
Products:     PF4

Top Publications

  1. Perollet C, Han Z, Savona C, Caen J, Bikfalvi A. Platelet factor 4 modulates fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) activity and inhibits FGF-2 dimerization. Blood. 1998;91:3289-99 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of inhibition is poorly understood...
  2. Sulpice E, Bryckaert M, Lacour J, Contreres J, Tobelem G. Platelet factor 4 inhibits FGF2-induced endothelial cell proliferation via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway but not by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Blood. 2002;100:3087-94 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) is a member of the chemokine family with powerful antiangiogenic properties. The mechanism by which PF-4 inhibits endothelial cell proliferation is unclear...
  3. Okada Y, Matsuura E, Tozuka Z, Nagai R, Watanabe A, Matsumoto K, et al. Upstream stimulatory factors stimulate transcription through E-box motifs in the PF4 gene in megakaryocytes. Blood. 2004;104:2027-34 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is expressed during megakaryocytic differentiation...
  4. Pervushina O, Scheuerer B, Reiling N, Behnke L, Schröder J, Kasper B, et al. Platelet factor 4/CXCL4 induces phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites in mononuclear phagocytes independently of Gi protein activation or intracellular calcium transients. J Immunol. 2004;173:2060-7 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF-4), a platelet-derived CXC chemokine, is known to prevent human monocytes from apoptosis and to promote differentiation of these cells into HLA-DR(-) macrophages...
  5. Lecomte Raclet L, Alemany M, Sequira Le Grand A, Amiral J, Quentin G, Vissac A, et al. New insights into the negative regulation of hematopoiesis by chemokine platelet factor 4 and related peptides. Blood. 1998;91:2772-80 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) has been recognized as an inhibitor of myeloid progenitors. However, the mechanism of action of this chemokine remains poorly understood...
  6. Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Giannini S, Cosmi L, et al. An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1537-49 pubmed
    ..The chemokine CXCL4/PF4 shares several activities with CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, including a powerful angiostatic effect, but its ..
  7. Lasagni L, Grepin R, Mazzinghi B, Lazzeri E, Meini C, Sagrinati C, et al. PF-4/CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 exhibit distinct subcellular localization and a differentially regulated mechanism of secretion. Blood. 2007;109:4127-34 pubmed
    PF-4/CXCL4 is a member of the CXC chemokine family, which is mainly produced by platelets and known for its pleiotropic biological functions...
  8. Schwartzkopff F, Grimm T, Lankford C, Fields K, Wang J, Brandt E, et al. Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) facilitates human macrophage infection with HIV-1 and potentiates virus replication. Innate Immun. 2009;15:368-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4), a member of the CXC chemokine subfamily released in high amounts by activated platelets, has been identified as a monocyte survival factor that induces monocyte differentiation into macrophages...
  9. Dubrac A, Quemener C, Lacazette E, Lopez F, Zanibellato C, Wu W, et al. Functional divergence between 2 chemokines is conferred by single amino acid change. Blood. 2010;116:4703-11 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 are 2 closely related CXC chemokines that exhibit potent antiangiogenic activity...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Auerbach D, Lin Y, Miao H, Cimbro R, Difiore M, Gianolini M, et al. Identification of the platelet-derived chemokine CXCL4/PF-4 as a broad-spectrum HIV-1 inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the CXC chemokine CXCL4 (PF-4), the most abundant protein contained within the ?-granules of platelets, is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ..
  2. Hermodson M, Schmer G, Kurachi K. Isolation, crystallization, and primary amino acid sequence of human platelet factor 4. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:6276-9 pubmed
    Human platelet factor 4 was purified by a method employing affinity chromatography on heparin/agarose. The amino acid sequence of the protein was determined by automatic Edman degradations and carboxypeptidase Y digestion...
  3. Maione T, Gray G, Petro J, Hunt A, Donner A, Bauer S, et al. Inhibition of angiogenesis by recombinant human platelet factor-4 and related peptides. Science. 1990;247:77-9 pubmed
  4. Scheuerer B, Ernst M, Dürrbaum Landmann I, Fleischer J, Grage Griebenow E, Brandt E, et al. The CXC-chemokine platelet factor 4 promotes monocyte survival and induces monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Blood. 2000;95:1158-66 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we report that the platelet-derived alpha-chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) induces the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, as is evident from morphological changes as ..
  5. Okada Y, Matsuura E, Nagai R, Sato T, Watanabe A, Morita I, et al. PREP1, MEIS1 homolog protein, regulates PF4 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:155-9 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that homeodomain proteins, MEIS1 and PBXs, transactivate the PF4 gene through the novel regulatory element termed TME...
  6. Cheng S, Ng M, Lau K, Liu H, Chan J, Hui A, et al. 4q loss is potentially an important genetic event in MM tumorigenesis: identification of a tumor suppressor gene regulated by promoter methylation at 4q13.3, platelet factor 4. Blood. 2007;109:2089-99 pubmed
    ..3 and found that a candidate TSG, platelet factor 4, was frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in MM (15 of 28) and MM cell lines (5 of 5)...
  7. Kasper B, Winoto Morbach S, Mittelstädt J, Brandt E, Schütze S, Petersen F. CXCL4-induced monocyte survival, cytokine expression, and oxygen radical formation is regulated by sphingosine kinase 1. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) represents a broad activator of monocytes, which induces acute as well as delayed activities in these cells ..
  8. Deuel T, Keim P, Farmer M, Heinrikson R. Amino acid sequence of human platelet factor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:2256-8 pubmed
    Human platelet factor 4, a protein that binds heparin, has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the complete amino acid sequence of the protein has been determined...
  9. Deuel T, Senior R, Chang D, Griffin G, Heinrikson R, Kaiser E. Platelet factor 4 is chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:4584-7 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 is shown to be a chemotactic protein for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes at concentrations found in human serum and reached locally in injured tissue...
  10. Pitsilos S, Hunt J, Mohler E, Prabhakar A, Poncz M, Dawicki J, et al. Platelet factor 4 localization in carotid atherosclerotic plaques: correlation with clinical parameters. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:1112-20 pubmed
    ..b>Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), a chemokine released by activated platelets, stimulates several pro-atherogenic processes...
  11. Sulpice E, Contreres J, Lacour J, Bryckaert M, Tobelem G. Platelet factor 4 disrupts the intracellular signalling cascade induced by vascular endothelial growth factor by both KDR dependent and independent mechanisms. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:3310-8 pubmed
    The mechanism by which the CXC chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF-4) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation is unclear...
  12. Schaffner A, Rhyn P, Schoedon G, Schaer D. Regulated expression of platelet factor 4 in human monocytes--role of PARs as a quantitatively important monocyte activation pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:202-9 pubmed
    ..This CXC chemokine as well as platelet factor 4 (PF4), which is located genomically at a short distance from the PBP, were previously considered to be ..
  13. Vandercappellen J, Van Damme J, Struyf S. The role of the CXC chemokines platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4) and its variant (CXCL4L1/PF-4var) in inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2011;22:1-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4) was the first chemokine shown to inhibit angiogenesis...
  14. McMorran B, Wieczorski L, Drysdale K, Chan J, Huang H, Smith C, et al. Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum. Science. 2012;338:1348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing ..
  15. Love M, Millholland M, Mishra S, Kulkarni S, Freeman K, Pan W, et al. Platelet factor 4 activity against P. falciparum and its translation to nonpeptidic mimics as antimalarials. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we screened a panel of HDPs and determined that human platelet factor 4 (hPF4) kills malaria parasites inside erythrocytes by selectively lysing the parasite digestive vacuole (DV)...
  16. Urbahn M, Kaup S, Reusswig F, Krüger I, Spelleken M, Jurk K, et al. Phospholipase D1 regulation of TNF-alpha protects against responses to LPS. Sci Rep. 2018;8:10006 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of Pld1fl/fl-PF4-Cre mice revealed that migration of neutrophils and cell apoptosis in septic animals is not due to platelet-..
  17. Bender M, Giannini S, Grozovsky R, Jönsson T, Christensen H, Pluthero F, et al. Dynamin 2-dependent endocytosis is required for normal megakaryocyte development in mice. Blood. 2015;125:1014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of DNM2 in thrombopoiesis, we generated Dnm2(fl/fl) Pf4-Cre mice specifically lacking DNM2 in the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage...
  18. Kuhlenhoelter A, Kim K, Neff D, Nie Y, Blaize A, Wong B, et al. Heat therapy promotes the expression of angiogenic regulators in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;311:R377-91 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2), chemokines CCL2 and CX3CL1, platelet factor-4 (PF4), and several members of the HSP family was higher 30 min after the intervention in the individuals exposed to LBH (..
  19. Gajos G, Siniarski A, Natorska J, Zabczyk M, Siudut J, Malinowski K, et al. Polyhedrocytes in blood clots of type 2 diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk: association with glycemia, oxidative stress and platelet activation. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018;17:146 pubmed publisher
    ..044), TBARS (r = 0.60, p = 0.0027), P-selectin (r = 0.54, p = 0.0078) and platelet factor-4, PF4 (r = 0.59, p = 0.0032), but not with thrombin generation, platelet count, Ks or CLT...
  20. Alsmadi N, Shapiro S, Lewis C, Sheth V, Snyder T, Schmidtke D. Constricted microfluidic devices to study the effects of transient high shear exposure on platelets. Biomicrofluidics. 2017;11:064105 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated platelet activation by measuring the expression level of CD62P (soluble and surface expressed), platelet factor 4 (PF4), and beta-thromboglobulin (?TG)...
  21. Pelleri M, Piovesan A, Caracausi M, Berardi A, Vitale L, Strippoli P. Integrated differential transcriptome maps of Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (AMKL) in children with or without Down Syndrome (DS). BMC Med Genomics. 2014;7:63 pubmed publisher
    ..repression of genes involved in MK differentiation, in particular the cluster on chromosome 4 including PF4 (platelet factor 4) and PPBP (pro-platelet basic protein); the gene for the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAP3K10 and the ..
  22. Wang B, Yu J, Wang T, Shen Y, Lin D, Xu X, et al. Identification of megakaryocytes as a target of advanced glycation end products in diabetic complications in bone marrow. Acta Diabetol. 2018;55:419-427 pubmed publisher
    ..cultures at 200 ?g/ml, BSA-AGEs increased proliferation of cells and enhanced mRNA expression of RAGE, VEGF? and PF4 in the cells...
  23. Spindler M, van Eeuwijk J, Schurr Y, Nurden P, Nieswandt B, Stegner D, et al. ADAP deficiency impairs megakaryocyte polarization with ectopic proplatelet release and causes microthrombocytopenia. Blood. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..MK-/platelet-specific ADAP deficient mice (PF4-cre) also produced less and smaller-sized platelets and released platelets ectopically...
  24. Bai J, He A, Huang C, Yang J, Zhang W, Wang J, et al. Serum peptidome based biomarkers searching for monitoring minimal residual disease in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Proteome Sci. 2014;12:49 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha chain (FGA), glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), isoform 1 of fibrinogen alpha chain precursor, platelet factor 4 (PF4) by high pressure/performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry...
  25. Donati G, Cianciolo G, D Addio F, Coli L, La Manna G, Feliciangeli G, et al. Platelet activation and PDGF-AB release during dialysis. Int J Artif Organs. 2002;25:1128-36 pubmed
    ..PDGF-AB, PF4, betaTG and MPV levels were determined in the peripheral blood in 30 patients each of whom underwent 6 dialysis ..
  26. David R. Host response: PF4 - platelets' poison. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013;11:72 pubmed publisher
  27. Klein Bosgoed C, Schubert P, Devine D. Riboflavin and ultraviolet illumination affects selected platelet mRNA transcript amounts differently. Transfusion. 2016;56:2286-95 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but to different degrees. For GAPDH and PF4, transcripts appeared less susceptible to the treatment, with 70% remaining 1 hour after UV illumination...
  28. Field D, Aggrey Amable A, Blick S, Ture S, Johanson A, Cameron S, et al. Platelet factor 4 increases bone marrow B cell development and differentiation. Immunol Res. 2017;65:1089-1094 pubmed publisher
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a megakaryocyte-/platelet-derived chemokine with diverse functions as a regulator of vascular and immune biology...
  29. Zhang H, Yang F, Guo Y, Wang L, Fang F, Wu H, et al. The contribution of chronic intermittent hypoxia to OSAHS: From the perspective of serum extracellular microvesicle proteins. Metabolism. 2018;85:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Four DEPs, namely C-reactive protein (CRP), Haptoglobin (HP),Fibronectin (FN1) and Platelet factor 4 (PF4), were further verified by ELISA and three of them (CRP, FN1 and Hp) showed significant difference in ..
  30. Marti F, Bertran E, Llucià M, Villén E, Peiró M, Garcia J, et al. Platelet factor 4 induces human natural killer cells to synthesize and release interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:590-7 pubmed
    We provide evidence that platelet factor 4 (PF4), but not the related chemokine neutrophil-activating polypeptide-2, induced highly purified human natural killer (NK) cells to produce interleukin (IL)-8 in a time- and dosage-dependent ..
  31. Yu G, Rux A, Ma P, Bdeir K, Sachais B. Endothelial expression of E-selectin is induced by the platelet-specific chemokine platelet factor 4 through LRP in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Blood. 2005;105:3545-51 pubmed
    The involvement of platelets in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has recently gained much attention. Platelet factor 4 (PF4), a platelet-specific chemokine released on platelet activation, has been localized to atherosclerotic lesions,..
  32. Yu C, Zhang S, Wang Y, Zhang S, Luo L, Thorlacius H. Platelet-Derived CCL5 Regulates CXC Chemokine Formation and Neutrophil Recruitment in Acute Experimental Colitis. J Cell Physiol. 2016;231:370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelets contain numerous potent pro-inflammatory compounds, including the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4, although their role in acute colitis remains elusive...
  33. Xu Y, Cheng Q, Yang B, Yu S, Xu F, Lu L, et al. Increased sCD200 Levels in Vitreous of Patients With Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Correlation With VEGF and Proinflammatory Cytokines. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:6565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ± 15.13 pg/mL; P < 0.0001) or TRD (146.9 ± 15.97 pg/mL; P = 0.0024). The vitreous levels of CCL2, CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, VEGF, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 were also elevated significantly in the PDR ..
  34. Mya H, Tay H, Gan S, Surendran S, Yeang S, Lim C, et al. Screening frequency, incidence and pattern of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome at a large tertiary institution. Int J Hematol. 2016;104:92-8 pubmed publisher
    Increasing awareness and availability of tests for anti-PF4/heparin complex antibodies has raised concerns about indiscriminate testing and inappropriate diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia...
  35. Gouwy M, Ruytinx P, Radice E, Claudi F, Van Raemdonck K, Bonecchi R, et al. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 Differentially Affect Monocyte Survival and Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Phagocytosis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166006 pubmed publisher
    ..The best defined macrophage polarization types are M1 and M2. However, the platelet-derived CXC chemokine CXCL4 induces the polarization of macrophages into a unique phenotype...
  36. Guo L, Feng K, Wang Y, Mei J, Ning R, Zheng H, et al. Critical role of CXCL4 in the lung pathogenesis of influenza (H1N1) respiratory infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2017;10:1529-1541 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) has an immunoregulatory role in inflammatory diseases...
  37. Zhang C, Thornton M, Kowalska M, Sachis B, Feldman M, Poncz M, et al. Localization of distal regulatory domains in the megakaryocyte-specific platelet basic protein/platelet factor 4 gene locus. Blood. 2001;98:610-7 pubmed
    The genes for the related human (h) chemokines, PBP (platelet basic protein) and PF4 (platelet factor 4), are within 5.3 kilobases (kb) of each other and form a megakaryocyte-specific gene locus...
  38. Demir M, Duran E, Yigitbasi O, Vural O, Kurum T, Yuksel M, et al. Incidence of antiheparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in Turkish patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2007;13:279-84 pubmed
    The frequency of antiheparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies by means of antigenic and functional assays ((14) C-serotonin release assay and citrated plasma platelet aggregation) was determined in 115 Turkish patients undergoing cardiac ..
  39. Gleissner C, Shaked I, Erbel C, Böckler D, Katus H, Ley K. CXCL4 downregulates the atheroprotective hemoglobin receptor CD163 in human macrophages. Circ Res. 2010;106:203-11 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL4 is a platelet-derived chemokine that promotes macrophage differentiation from monocytes. Deletion of the PF4 gene that encodes CXCL4 reduces atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice...
  40. Beiras Fernandez A, Kanzler I, Michel S, Sadoni S, Kilger E, Beiras A, et al. Platelet factor 4-positive thrombi adhering to the ventricles of a ventricular assist device in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:2013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of heparin can lead to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II, mainly through heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies...
  41. Samuelson B, Glynn E, Holmes M, White A, Martin D, Garcia D. Use of a computer-based provider order entry (CPOE) intervention to optimize laboratory testing in patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res. 2015;136:928-31 pubmed publisher
    ..tool requiring providers to calculate the 4Ts (HIT risk) score prior to ordering laboratory-based tests for anti-PF4/heparin antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing was implemented at our institution in January ..
  42. Cai Z, Yarovoi S, Zhu Z, Rauova L, Hayes V, Lebedeva T, et al. Atomic description of the immune complex involved in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8277 pubmed publisher
    ..thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an autoimmune thrombotic disorder caused by immune complexes containing platelet factor 4 (PF4), antibodies to PF4 and heparin or cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)...
  43. Sun X, Hill P, Taylor PaneK S, Corso P, Lindsay J. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Contemporary Cardiac Surgical Practice and Experience With a Protocol for Early Identification. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:305-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with thrombocytopenia were tested for antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies by ELISA and clinical evidence of thrombosis sought...
  44. Fidler T, Middleton E, Rowley J, Boudreau L, Campbell R, Souvenir R, et al. Glucose Transporter 3 Potentiates Degranulation and Is Required for Platelet Activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1628-1639 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet-specific knockout of GLUT3 was generated by crossing mice harboring GLUT3 floxed allele to a PF4 (platelet factor 4)-driven Cre recombinase...
  45. Zhou F, Deng X, Chen Y, Ya F, Zhang X, Song F, et al. Anthocyanin Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Attenuates Platelet Granule Release in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63:237-243 pubmed publisher
    ..such as P-selectin, CD40L, 5-HT, RANTES and TGF-?1 in gel-filtered platelets, in addition to attenuating serum PF4 and ?-TG levels in mice fed high-fat diets...
  46. Niewiarowski S, Thomas D. Platelet factor 4 and adenosine diphosphate release during human platelet aggregation. Nature. 1969;222:1269-70 pubmed
  47. Liu Y, Lu S, Han Z. Signal transduction of chemokine platelet factor 4 in human erythroleukemia cells. Int J Hematol. 2002;75:401-6 pubmed
    Previous data have demonstrated that CXC-chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) inhibits the proliferation of the human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL). However, the mechanism of action is unclear at present...
  48. Griffin K, Simpson K, Beckers C, Brown J, Vacher J, Ouwehand W, et al. Use of a novel floxed mouse to characterise the cellular source of plasma coagulation FXIII-A. Lancet. 2015;385 Suppl 1:S39 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice were crossed with mice transgenic for Pf4-Cre-recombinase (thrombopoietic deletion) or Cd11b-Cre-recombinase (myeloid deletion)...
  49. Spaks A, Svirina D, Spaka I, Jaunalksne I, Breiva D, Tracums I, et al. CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) is predictor of tumour angiogenic activity and prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing surgical treatment. Biomarkers. 2016;21:474-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the association of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) plasma levels with tumour angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to assess association of CXCL4 with clinical outcomes...
  50. Warkentin T, Sheppard J, Linkins L, Arnold D, Nazy I. Performance characteristics of an automated latex immunoturbidimetric assay [HemosIL® HIT-Ab(PF4-H)] for the diagnosis of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res. 2017;153:108-117 pubmed publisher
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by platelet-activating anti-PF4/heparin antibodies...
  51. Paul D, Casari C, Wu C, Piatt R, Pasala S, Campbell R, et al. Deletion of the Arp2/3 complex in megakaryocytes leads to microthrombocytopenia in mice. Blood Adv. 2017;1:1398-1408 pubmed publisher
    ..encoding the p34 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, was deleted in the megakaryocyte lineage (Arpc2fl/flPF4-Cre)...
  52. Wang S, Jiang J, Wang Y, Jia Q, Dai S, Wang Y, et al. rLj-RGD3, a novel recombinant toxin protein from Lampetra japonica, prevents coronary thrombosis-induced acute myocardial infarction by inhibiting platelet functions in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:240-245 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples were collected to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and cAMP levels...
  53. Liu C, Battaglia M, Lee S, Sun Q, Aster R, Visentin G. Platelet factor 4 differentially modulates CD4+CD25+ (regulatory) versus CD4+CD25- (nonregulatory) T cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:2680-6 pubmed
    ..b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4), a platelet-derived CXC chemokine, has been shown to strongly inhibit T cell proliferation as well as ..
  54. Kim J, Song H, Lim H, Shin M, Kim J, Kim H, et al. Platelet factor-4 is an indicator of blood count recovery in acute myeloid leukemia patients in complete remission. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:431-41 pubmed
    ..digestion, MS/MS, and protein molecular weight analyses, we identified the m/z 7764 protein as platelet factor-4 (PF4). This identification was confirmed by a magnetic bead-based MALDI immunoassay...
  55. Drabik L, Wołkow P, Undas A. Denser plasma clot formation and impaired fibrinolysis in paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation while on sinus rhythm: association with thrombin generation, endothelial injury and platelet activation. Thromb Res. 2015;136:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..clot lysis time (CLT) were evaluated along with von Willebrand factor (vWF), peak thrombin generation (TG), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and fibrinolytic proteins...
  56. Nazi I, Arnold D, Warkentin T, Smith J, Staibano P, Kelton J. Distinguishing between anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies that can and cannot cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:1900-7 pubmed publisher
    Many patients exposed to heparin develop antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin, yet only those antibodies that activate platelets cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)...
  57. Matsuura S, Mi R, Koupenova M, Eliades A, Patterson S, Toselli P, et al. Lysyl oxidase is associated with increased thrombosis and platelet reactivity. Blood. 2016;127:1493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..the influences of other pathologies, transgenic mice expressing LOX in wild-type megakaryocytes and platelets (Pf4-Lox(tg/tg)) were generated...
  58. Sinclair A, Park L, Shah M, Drotar M, Calaminus S, Hopcroft L, et al. CXCR2 and CXCL4 regulate survival and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Blood. 2016;128:371-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells, knockdown of CXCL4 or pharmacologic inhibition of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, significantly decreased cell viability and colony ..
  59. Favaloro E, McCaughan G, Pasalic L. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of heparin induced thrombocytopenia: an update. Pathology. 2017;49:346-355 pubmed publisher
    ..of heparin therapy that results from production of polyclonal antibodies to heparin in complex, usually with platelet factor 4 (PF4)...
  60. Klaus S, Körfer S, Mottaghy K, Reul H, Glasmacher B. In vitro blood damage by high shear flow: human versus porcine blood. Int J Artif Organs. 2002;25:306-12 pubmed
    ..Sublethal damage in terms of platelet (PF4) and complement activation (C5a) was additionally measured for human blood...
  61. Gao P, Wange R, Zhang N, Oppenheim J, Howard O. Negative regulation of CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis by the lipid phosphatase activity of tumor suppressor PTEN. Blood. 2005;106:2619-26 pubmed
    ..Our findings may account for the reported increase in metastatic activity of PTEN-null tumor cells. ..
  62. Cho H, Shashkin P, Gleissner C, Dunson D, Jain N, Lee J, et al. Induction of dendritic cell-like phenotype in macrophages during foam cell formation. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29:149-60 pubmed
    ..Aspects of this process can be recapitulated in vitro by exposing M-CSF-induced or platelet factor 4 (CXCL4)-induced macrophages to oxidized (ox) or minimally modified (mm) low density lipoprotein (LDL)...
  63. Cervi D, Yip T, Bhattacharya N, Podust V, Peterson J, Abou Slaybi A, et al. Platelet-associated PF-4 as a biomarker of early tumor growth. Blood. 2008;111:1201-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that platelet-associated PF-4, but not its plasma counterpart, may represent a potential biomarker of early tumor presence. ..
  64. Aneja K, Jalagadugula G, Mao G, Singh A, Rao A. Mechanism of platelet factor 4 (PF4) deficiency with RUNX1 haplodeficiency: RUNX1 is a transcriptional regulator of PF4. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:383-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is an abundant protein stored in platelet ?-granules. Several patients have been described with platelet PF4 deficiency, including the gray platelet syndrome, characterized by a deficiency of ?-granule proteins...
  65. Nawaz M, Van Raemdonck K, Mohammad G, Kangave D, Van Damme J, Abu el Asrar A, et al. Autocrine CCL2, CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10 signal in retinal endothelial cells and are enhanced in diabetic retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2013;109:67-76 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at examining the presence and role of chemokines (angiogenic CCL2/MCP-1 and angiostatic CXCL4/PF-4, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)...
  66. Ligi I, Simoncini S, Tellier E, Grandvuillemin I, Marcelli M, Bikfalvi A, et al. Altered angiogenesis in low birth weight individuals: a role for anti-angiogenic circulating factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Umbilical vein plasma VEGF concentration was significantly reduced in LBW neonates while that of sVEGFR and PF4 were significantly higher...
  67. Yeo L, Adlard N, Biehl M, Juarez M, Smallie T, Snow M, et al. Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 by synovial macrophages defines an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Synovial tissue sections were stained for CXCL4, CXCL7, CD41, CD68 and von Willebrand factor...
  68. Khandelwal S, Lee G, Hester C, Poncz M, McKenzie S, Sachais B, et al. The antigenic complex in HIT binds to B cells via complement and complement receptor 2 (CD21). Blood. 2016;128:1789-1799 pubmed publisher
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a prothrombotic disorder caused by antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes...
  69. Zhao H, Kalish F, Wong R, Stevenson D. Infiltration of myeloid cells in the pregnant uterus is affected by heme oxygenase-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:217-226 pubmed publisher
    ..use of PCR arrays, gene expression of cytokines (Csf1, Csf3), chemokines (Ccl1, Ccl2, Ccl6, Ccl8, Ccl11, Ccl12, Cxcl4, Cxcl9, Cxcl12), and their receptors (Ccr1, Ccr2, Ccr3, Ccr5) were also reduced significantly in Het compared with ..
  70. Shusterman A, Munz M, Richter G, Jepsen S, Lieb W, Krone B, et al. The PF4/PPBP/CXCL5 Gene Cluster Is Associated with Periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2017;96:945-952 pubmed publisher
    ..34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.56) and one downstream of the genes PF4/PPBP/CXCL5 (rs1595009, P = 1.3 × 10-4; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.52), were associated with AgP...
  71. Fiore M, Kakkar V. Platelet factor 4 neutralizes heparan sulfate-enhanced antithrombin inactivation of factor Xa by preventing interaction(s) of enzyme with polysaccharide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:71-6 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a heparin-binding protein which exhibits anti-heparin activities through the inhibition of antithrombin (AT)-dependent reactions with the serine proteases thrombin and factor Xa...
  72. Kasper B, Brandt E, Bulfone Paus S, Petersen F. Platelet factor 4 (PF-4)-induced neutrophil adhesion is controlled by src-kinases, whereas PF-4-mediated exocytosis requires the additional activation of p38 MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Blood. 2004;103:1602-10 pubmed
    Among the various chemokines that are functionally active on neutrophils, platelet factor 4 (PF-4; CXCL4) appears to have a specialized role...
  73. Erdem H, Pay S, Musabak U, Simsek I, Dinc A, Pekel A, et al. Synovial angiostatic non-ELR CXC chemokines in inflammatory arthritides: does CXCL4 designate chronicity of synovitis?. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:969-73 pubmed
    ..As a continuation of our previous studies, we investigated synovial levels of angiostatic non-ELR CXC chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10) in patients with RA, BD, spondyloarthritis (SpA), and OA...
  74. Fiedler G, Leichtle A, Kase J, Baumann S, Ceglarek U, Felix K, et al. Serum peptidome profiling revealed platelet factor 4 as a potential discriminating Peptide associated with pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..00). Mass spectrometry-based m/z 3884 peak identification and following immunologic quantitation revealed platelet factor 4 as the corresponding peptide...
  75. Matsuo T, Wanaka K, Miyasita K, Prechel M, Walenga J. Clinical evaluation of acute systemic reaction and detection of IgG antibodies against PF4/heparin complexes in hemodialysis patients. Thromb Res. 2012;129:474-8 pubmed publisher
    ..thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a pathophysiological syndrome caused by platelet-activating antibodies that recognize PF4/heparin complexes...
  76. Furuya M, Tanaka R, Miyagi E, Kami D, Nagahama K, Miyagi Y, et al. Impaired CXCL4 expression in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2012;13:671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed impaired CXCL4 expression in TAMs of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis...
  77. Hang T, Tedford N, Reddy R, Rimchala T, Wells A, White F, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet (PF-4) factor 4 inputs modulate human microvascular endothelial signaling in a three-dimensional matrix migration context. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:3704-18 pubmed publisher
    ..During initial postwound hemostasis, a large initial bolus of platelet factor 4 is released into localized areas of damage before progression of wound healing toward tissue homeostasis...
  78. Hérault A, Binnewies M, Leong S, Calero Nieto F, Zhang S, Kang Y, et al. Myeloid progenitor cluster formation drives emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis. Nature. 2017;544:53-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The timed release of important bone marrow niche signals (SCF, IL-1β, G-CSF, TGFβ and CXCL4) and activation of an inducible Irf8 and β-catenin progenitor self-renewal network control the transient ..
  79. Wiegand C, Bittenger K, Galiano R, Driver V, Gibbons G. Does non-contact low-frequency ultrasound (NLFU) therapy contribute to wound healing at the molecular level?. Wound Repair Regen. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Progression of mediators like TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 as well as PF4, TGF-beta, and fibrinogen was monitored and trends for several of the mediators were identified...
  80. Lim M, Foster J, Rourk A, Greenberg C. Initial and long term impact of a multi-disciplinary task force in the diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2018;45:130-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes were implemented from 2011 to 2012. In 2013, testing for PF4 and SRA decreased by 37.5 and 85%, respectively...
  81. Senior R, Griffin G, Huang J, Walz D, Deuel T. Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1983;96:382-5 pubmed
    ..activity for fibroblasts of three highly purified proteins obtained from platelet alpha granules: platelet factor 4 (PF4), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and beta-thromboglobulin (BTG)...
  82. Horne M. The effect of secreted heparin-binding proteins on heparin binding to platelets. Thromb Res. 1993;70:91-8 pubmed
    ..Of these proteins platelet factor-4 (PF4) has the greatest affinity for heparin and is present in relatively high concentrations...
  83. Salcedo R, Wasserman K, Young H, Grimm M, Howard O, Anver M, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor induce expression of CXCR4 on human endothelial cells: In vivo neovascularization induced by stromal-derived factor-1alpha. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:1125-35 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that SDF-1alpha acts as a potent chemoattractant for endothelial cells of different origins bearing CXCR4 and is a participant in angiogenesis that is regulated at the receptor level by VEGF and bFGF. ..
  84. Schenk B, Petersen F, Flad H, Brandt E. Platelet-derived chemokines CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)7, connective tissue-activating peptide III, and CXCL4 differentially affect and cross-regulate neutrophil adhesion and transendothelial migration. J Immunol. 2002;169:2602-10 pubmed
    ..neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (CXC chemokine ligand 7 (CXCL7)), as well as the structurally related platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) for their impact on neutrophil adhesion to and transmigration through unstimulated vascular ..
  85. Kasperska Zajac A, Brzoza Z, Rogala B. Increased concentration of platelet-derived chemokines in serum of patients with delayed pressure urticaria. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2008;19:89-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate secretion of platelet-specific chemokines, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) during the course of DPU...
  86. McMorran B, Burgio G, Foote S. New insights into the protective power of platelets in malaria infection. Commun Integr Biol. 2013;6:e23653 pubmed publisher
    ..More recent studies have now revealed the platelet plasmocidal factor, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and the red cell-expressed Duffy-antigen molecule as the central players in the parasite killing ..
  87. Okada Y, Watanabe M, Nakai T, Kamikawa Y, Shimizu M, Fukuhara Y, et al. RUNX1, but not its familial platelet disorder mutants, synergistically activates PF4 gene expression in combination with ETS family proteins. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:1742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the role of RUNX1 in the regulation of expression of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and to propose a plausible mechanism underlying RUNX1-mediated induction of the FPD phenotype...
  88. Jian J, Pang Y, Yan H, Min Y, Achyut B, Hollander M, et al. Platelet factor 4 is produced by subsets of myeloid cells in premetastatic lung and inhibits tumor metastasis. Oncotarget. 2017;8:27725-27739 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report platelet factor 4 (PF4), or CXCL4, but not the other family members CXCL9, 10, and 11, was produced at higher levels in the ..
  89. Beck S, Leitges M, Stegner D. Protein kinase Cι/λ is dispensable for platelet function in thrombosis and hemostasis in mice. Cell Signal. 2017;38:223-229 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of PKCι/λ, we generated platelet- and megakaryocyte-specific PKCι/λ knockout mice (Prkcifl/fl, Pf4-Cre) and used them to investigate the function of PKCι/λ in platelet activation and aggregation in vitro ..
  90. Morgan F, Begg G, Chesterman C. Complete covalent structure of human platelet factor 4. Thromb Haemost. 1980;42:1652-60 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of the subunit of human platelet factor 4 has been determined. Human platelet factor 4 consists of identical subunits containing 70 amino acids, each with a molecular weight of 7,756...
  91. Kolset S, Mann D, Uhlin Hansen L, Winberg J, Ruoslahti E. Serglycin-binding proteins in activated macrophages and platelets. J Leukoc Biol. 1996;59:545-54 pubmed
    ..extracts that bound to serglycin-Sepharose revealed that they corresponded to multimeric forms of human platelet factor 4 (PE4)...
  92. Nassar T, Sachais B, Akkawi S, Kowalska M, Bdeir K, Leitersdorf E, et al. Platelet factor 4 enhances the binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein to vascular wall cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6187-93 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that platelet factor 4 (PF4) inhibits the binding and degradation of LDL through its receptor, a process that could promote the ..