Gene Symbol: PER3
Description: period circadian regulator 3
Alias: FASPS3, GIG13, period circadian protein homolog 3, cell growth-inhibiting gene 13 protein, circadian clock protein PERIOD 3, hPER3, period circadian clock 3, period circadian protein 3
Species: human
Products:     PER3

Top Publications

  1. Pereira D, Tufik S, Louzada F, Benedito Silva A, Lopez A, Lemos N, et al. Association of the length polymorphism in the human Per3 gene with the delayed sleep-phase syndrome: does latitude have an influence upon it?. Sleep. 2005;28:29-32 pubmed
    The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of a previously reported hPer3 gene-length polymorphism in the delayed sleep-phase syndrome and in morningness-eveningness tendencies at low latitudes in the southern hemisphere...
  2. Jones K, Ellis J, von Schantz M, Skene D, Dijk D, Archer S. Age-related change in the association between a polymorphism in the PER3 gene and preferred timing of sleep and waking activities. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:12-6 pubmed
    ..sleep and waking activities and a coding-region variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the clock gene PER3. We have previously reported this polymorphism to associate with diurnal preference and delayed sleep phase ..
  3. Viola A, Archer S, James L, Groeger J, Lo J, Skene D, et al. PER3 polymorphism predicts sleep structure and waking performance. Curr Biol. 2007;17:613-8 pubmed
    ..of a variable-number tandem-repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the circadian clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3) [9, 10] to sleep-wake regulation in a prospective study, in which 24 healthy participants were selected only on ..
  4. Ando H, Ushijima K, Kumazaki M, Takamura T, Yokota N, Saito T, et al. Influence of age on clock gene expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcript levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
  5. Viola A, Chellappa S, Archer S, Pugin F, Gotz T, Dijk D, et al. Interindividual differences in circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis in older people: effect of a PER3 polymorphism. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1010.e17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (rs57875989) in the coding region of the circadian clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3). However, predictors of these interindividual differences have yet to be identified in older people...
  6. Ebisawa T, Uchiyama M, Kajimura N, Mishima K, Kamei Y, Katoh M, et al. Association of structural polymorphisms in the human period3 gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:342-6 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the human period3 (hPer3) gene, one of the human homologs of the Drosophila clock-gene period (Per), as a possible candidate for rhythm ..
  7. Wirth M, Burch J, VIOLANTI J, Burchfiel C, Fekedulegn D, Andrew M, et al. Association of the Period3 clock gene length polymorphism with salivary cortisol secretion among police officers. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34:27-37 pubmed
    ..cortisol secretion, or self-reported psychological disturbances differed among police officers with a Period3 (PER3) clock gene length polymorphism...
  8. Ebisawa T. Analysis of the molecular pathophysiology of sleep disorders relevant to a disturbed biological clock. Mol Genet Genomics. 2013;288:185-93 pubmed publisher
  9. Mazzoccoli G, Palmieri O, Corritore G, Latiano T, Bossa F, Scimeca D, et al. Association study of a polymorphism in clock gene PERIOD3 and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29:994-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..PERIOD3 (PER3) polymorphisms have been associated with circadian disruption and changed secretion of cytokines involved in ..

More Information


  1. Wang X, Yan D, Teng M, Fan J, Zhou C, Li D, et al. Reduced expression of PER3 is associated with incidence and development of colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19:3081-8 pubmed publisher
    Period 3 (PER3), a circadian regulation protein, influences cell cycle, growth, and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PER3 expression is associated with colon cancer incidence and progression...
  2. Chellappa S, Viola A, Schmidt C, Bachmann V, Gabel V, Maire M, et al. Human melatonin and alerting response to blue-enriched light depend on a polymorphism in the clock gene PER3. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on melatonin and subjective and objective alertness in healthy participants genotyped for the PERIOD3 (PER3) variable-number, tandem-repeat polymorphism...
  3. Osland T, Bjorvatn B, Steen V, Pallesen S. Association study of a variable-number tandem repeat polymorphism in the clock gene PERIOD3 and chronotype in Norwegian university students. Chronobiol Int. 2011;28:764-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3) has been suggested to correlate with a morning (lark) versus evening (owl) chronotype as well as with the ..
  4. Nievergelt C, Kripke D, Barrett T, Burg E, Remick R, Sadovnick A, et al. Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:234-41 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms in 10 circadian clock genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, CSNK1epsilon, DBP, GSK3beta, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, and PER3) to BPAD. Linkage analysis in 52 affected families showed suggestive evidence for linkage to CSNK1epsilon...
  5. Dai H, Zhang L, Cao M, Song F, Zheng H, Zhu X, et al. The role of polymorphisms in circadian pathway genes in breast tumorigenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..28, 95% CI = 1.22-4.26). Our study suggests that genetic variants of the circadian rhythm regulatory pathway genes contribute to the differential risk of developing breast cancer in Chinese populations. ..
  6. Johansson C, Willeit M, Smedh C, Ekholm J, Paunio T, Kieseppä T, et al. Circadian clock-related polymorphisms in seasonal affective disorder and their relevance to diurnal preference. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:734-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest involvement of circadian clock-related polymorphisms both in susceptibility to SAD and diurnal preference. ..
  7. Maire M, Reichert C, Gabel V, Viola A, Strobel W, Krebs J, et al. Sleep ability mediates individual differences in the vulnerability to sleep loss: evidence from a PER3 polymorphism. Cortex. 2014;52:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourteen homozygous long (PER3(5/5)) and 15 homozygous short (PER3(4/4)) allele carriers underwent both a 40-h sleep deprivation and multiple nap ..
  8. Archer S, Carpen J, Gibson M, Lim G, Johnston J, Skene D, et al. Polymorphism in the PER3 promoter associates with diurnal preference and delayed sleep phase disorder. Sleep. 2010;33:695-701 pubmed
    To screen the PER3 promoter for polymorphisms and investigate the phenotypic associations of these polymorphisms with diurnal preference, delayed sleep phase disorder/syndrome (DSPD/DSPS), and their effects on reporter gene expression...
  9. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    ..These results show that CKIdelta is a central component in the mammalian clock, and suggest that mammalian and fly clocks might have different regulatory mechanisms despite the highly conserved nature of their individual components. ..
  10. Lázár A, Slak A, Lo J, Santhi N, von Schantz M, Archer S, et al. Sleep, diurnal preference, health, and psychological well-being: a prospective single-allelic-variation study. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29:131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene (rs57875989) has been reported to associate with diurnal preference, i.e...
  11. Groeger J, Viola A, Lo J, von Schantz M, Archer S, Dijk D. Early morning executive functioning during sleep deprivation is compromised by a PERIOD3 polymorphism. Sleep. 2008;31:1159-67 pubmed
    ..Clinical Research Centre. Fourteen PER3(4/4) (homozygotes for shorter variant of the gene) and 10 PER3(5/5) (homozygotes for longer variant) healthy, young ..
  12. Vandewalle G, Archer S, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-assessed brain responses during an executive task depend on interaction of sleep homeostasis, circadian phase, and PER3 genotype. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support a model of individual differences in executive control, in which the allocation of prefrontal resources is constrained by sleep pressure and circadian phase. ..
  13. Dijk D, Archer S. PERIOD3, circadian phenotypes, and sleep homeostasis. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 10% of the population are homozygous for the 5-repeat allele (PER3(5/5)) of a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3)...
  14. Wirth M, Burch J, Hebert J, Kowtal P, Mehrotra Kapoor A, Steck S, et al. Case-control study of breast cancer in India: Role of PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and chronotype. Cancer Invest. 2014;32:321-9 pubmed publisher
    This study examined a PERIOD3 (PER3) gene variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and chronotype as potential BrCA risk factors among Indian women...
  15. Yagita K, Yamaguchi S, Tamanini F, van der Horst G, Hoeijmakers J, Yasui A, et al. Dimerization and nuclear entry of mPER proteins in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1353-63 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis suggests that the interplay of the CLD and NLS proposed to regulate nuclear entry of PER in Drosophila is conserved in mammals, but with the novel twist that mPER3 can act as the dimerizing partner. ..
  16. Akashi M, Tsuchiya Y, Yoshino T, Nishida E. Control of intracellular dynamics of mammalian period proteins by casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) and CKIdelta in cultured cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1693-703 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CKIepsilon and CKIdelta regulate the mammalian circadian autoregulatory loop by controlling both protein turnover and subcellular localization of mPer proteins. ..
  17. Sato F, Wu Y, Bhawal U, Liu Y, Imaizumi T, Morohashi S, et al. PERIOD1 (PER1) has anti-apoptotic effects, and PER3 has pro-apoptotic effects during cisplatin (CDDP) treatment in human gingival cancer CA9-22 cells. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether PER1 and PER3 are involved in the regulation of apoptosis in human gingival cancer CA9-22 cells...
  18. Barbosa A, Pedrazzoli M, Koike B, Tufik S. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010;43:96-9 pubmed
    ..we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CLOCK...
  19. Allebrandt K, Teder Laving M, Akyol M, Pichler I, Muller Myhsok B, Pramstaller P, et al. CLOCK gene variants associate with sleep duration in two independent populations. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:1040-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This adds another putative function for CLOCK besides its possible involvement in circadian timing, depression, obesity, and personality. ..
  20. Goel N, Banks S, Mignot E, Dinges D. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5874 pubmed publisher
    The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5)) has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (..
  21. Benedetti F, Dallaspezia S, Colombo C, Pirovano A, Marino E, Smeraldi E. A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 influences age at onset of bipolar disorder. Neurosci Lett. 2008;445:184-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The coding region of Per3 gene contains a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism which has been associated with diurnal preference,..
  22. Archer S, Viola A, Kyriakopoulou V, von Schantz M, Dijk D. Inter-individual differences in habitual sleep timing and entrained phase of endogenous circadian rhythms of BMAL1, PER2 and PER3 mRNA in human leukocytes. Sleep. 2008;31:608-17 pubmed
    ..Circadian rhythm phase and amplitude of plasma melatonin, cortisol, and BMAL1, PER2, and PER3 expression were assessed during a constant routine...
  23. Climent J, Perez Losada J, Quigley D, Kim I, DelRosario R, Jen K, et al. Deletion of the PER3 gene on chromosome 1p36 in recurrent ER-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3770-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of the PER3 circadian rhythm gene, located within the commonly deleted region of chromosome 1p36, in human breast cancer development.
  24. Hida A, Kusanagi H, Satoh K, Kato T, Matsumoto Y, Echizenya M, et al. Expression profiles of PERIOD1, 2, and 3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older subjects. Life Sci. 2009;84:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PBMCs were isolated from whole blood and temporal mRNA expression profiles of PER1, PER2, and PER3 were determined by RT-PCR...
  25. Barclay N, Eley T, Mill J, Wong C, Zavos H, Archer S, et al. Sleep quality and diurnal preference in a sample of young adults: associations with 5HTTLPR, PER3, and CLOCK 3111. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Failure to replicate previous research in relation to PERIOD3 and CLOCK concurs with previous research suggesting that the effects of these genes are small and may be related to population composition. ..
  26. Zhu Y, Stevens R, Hoffman A, FitzGerald L, Kwon E, Ostrander E, et al. Testing the circadian gene hypothesis in prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that at least one SNP in nine core circadian genes (rs885747 and rs2289591 in PER1; rs7602358 in PER2; rs1012477 in PER3; rs1534891 in CSNK1E; rs12315175 in CRY1; rs2292912 in CRY2; rs7950226 in ARNTL; rs11133373 in CLOCK; and rs1369481,..
  27. Guess J, Burch J, Ogoussan K, Armstead C, Zhang H, Wagner S, et al. Circadian disruption, Per3, and human cytokine secretion. Integr Cancer Ther. 2009;8:329-36 pubmed publisher
    Circadian disruption has been linked with inflammation, an established cancer risk factor. Per3 clock gene polymorphisms have also been associated with circadian disruption and with increased cancer risk...
  28. Neumann O, Kesselmeier M, Geffers R, Pellegrino R, Radlwimmer B, Hoffmann K, et al. Methylome analysis and integrative profiling of human HCCs identify novel protumorigenic factors. Hepatology. 2012;56:1817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three genes matching all of our selection criteria for a tumor-suppressor gene (period homolog 3 [PER3], insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein, acid labile subunit [IGFALS], and protein Z)...
  29. Chu L, Zhu Y, Yu K, Zheng T, Chokkalingam A, Stanczyk F, et al. Correlation between circadian gene variants and serum levels of sex steroids and insulin-like growth factor-I. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of circadian genes, including NPAS2 (rs2305160:G > A), PER1 (rs2585405:G > C), CSNK1E (rs1005473:A > C), PER3 (54-bp repeat length variant), and CRY2 (rs1401417:G > C), with serum levels of sex steroids and insulin-like ..
  30. Paolicchi J, Ross G, Lee D, Drummond R, Isojärvi J. Clobazam and Aggression-Related Adverse Events in Pediatric Patients With Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2015;53:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Post hoc analyses indicate that the overall rate of aggression with clobazam treatment was low and dosage dependent. Clobazam treatment was effective in reducing drop seizures regardless of aggression experience. ..
  31. Lamichhane M, Safadi A, Surapaneni P, Salehi N, Thakur R. Use of the Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator in High-Risk Populations. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2016;18:78 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper discusses the use of the WCD for prevention of SCA in patients with various cardiac substrates. ..
  32. Feng M, Yin H, Cao Y, Peng H, Lu G, Liu Z, et al. Cadmium-induced stress response of Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;154:45-51 pubmed publisher
  33. Delva F, Touraine C, Joly P, Edjolo A, Amieva H, Berr C, et al. ADL disability and death in dementia in a French population-based cohort: New insights with an illness-death model. Alzheimers Dement. 2016;12:909-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The joint prediction of death and disability in dementia by an illness-death model gives original and useful parameters for the prognosis and management of dementia. ..
  34. Lal P, Bansal B, Sharma R, Pradhan G. Laparoscopic TEP repair of inguinal hernia does not alter testicular perfusion. Hernia. 2016;20:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..e. p > 0.05). Laparoscopic TEP performed by experienced surgeons does not alter testicular flow dynamics in early or late postoperative period. ..
  35. Villalobos Jiménez G, Hassall C. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK. Int J Biometeorol. 2017;61:1337-1346 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by highlighting the importance of climate change on freshwater habitats over the impacts of the UHI. ..
  36. Murugesan L, Kucerova Z, Knabel S, LaBorde L. Predominance and Distribution of a Persistent Listeria monocytogenes Clone in a Commercial Fresh Mushroom Processing Environment. J Food Prot. 2015;78:1988-98 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes contamination in processing facilities. Additional research is needed to understand why VT11 was predominant and persistent in the mushroom processing environment. ..
  37. Suen K, Skandarajah A, Knowles B, Judson R, Thomson B. Changes in the management of liver trauma leading to reduced mortality: 15-year experience in a major trauma centre. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86:894-899 pubmed publisher
    ..We experienced a significantly improved mortality within 24 h of arrival to hospital in patients with liver trauma. ..
  38. Schütz K, Huddart F, Sutherland M, Stewart M, Cox N. Effects of space allowance on the behavior and physiology of cattle temporarily managed on rubber mats. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:6226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 6.0 m(2) per cow. ..
  39. Lam J, Cook T, Foster S, Poon R, Milross C, Sundaresan P. Examining Determinants of Radiotherapy Access: Do Cost and Radiotherapy Inconvenience Affect Uptake of Breast-conserving Treatment for Early Breast Cancer?. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2015;27:465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Service availability and affordability have long been recognised as important determinants of radiotherapy access. Our findings suggest that inconvenience may also influence radiotherapy utilisation. ..
  40. Baltar M, Costa A, Carreira L. A Pilot Study Exploring the Plasma Potassium Variation in Dogs Undergoing Steroid Therapy and Its Clinical Importance. Top Companion Anim Med. 2016;31:73-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The study results may justify the need for the systematic prescription of potassium supplements in patients undergoing steroid therapy, similar to what already occurs in human medicine. ..
  41. Cavallari M, Palotai M, Glanz B, Egorova S, Prieto J, Healy B, et al. Fatigue predicts disease worsening in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2016;22:1841-1849 pubmed
    ..Fatigue is a promising indicator of risk for conversion to confirmed moderate-severe disability in RRMS patients. ..
  42. Maloney J, Berman G, Gagnon R, Bernstein D, Nelson H, Kleine Tebbe J, et al. Sequential Treatment Initiation with Timothy Grass and Ragweed Sublingual Immunotherapy Tablets Followed by Simultaneous Treatment Is Well Tolerated. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4:301-9.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..In this trial, a 4-week sequential SLIT-tablet dosing schedule followed by simultaneous intake of timothy grass and ragweed tablets was well tolerated. ..
  43. Thammakarn C, Tsujimura M, Satoh K, Hasegawa T, Tamura M, Kawamura A, et al. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions. Arch Virol. 2015;160:2577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization. ..
  44. Pappa K, Gazouli M, Anastasiou E, Iliodromiti Z, Antsaklis A, Anagnou N. Circadian clock gene expression is impaired in gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral blood mRNA transcript levels of 10 clock genes (CLOCK1, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, PER3, PPAR?, PPARD, PPARG, CRY1 and CRY2) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR...
  45. Huang Y, Ao Y, Jiang M. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development...
  46. Maglione J, Nievergelt C, Parimi N, Evans D, Ancoli Israel S, Stone K, et al. Associations of PER3 and RORA Circadian Gene Polymorphisms and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23:1075-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We found associations meeting multiple testing criteria for significance between the PER3 intronic SNP rs12137927 and decreased odds of reporting "some depressive symptoms" in the SOF sample (odds ratio [..
  47. Sun G, Guo Y, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Zhao Z, Niu C. Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph enhances monolayer permeability via F-actin and VE-cadherin. J Surg Res. 2016;203:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, only early PHSML, but not late PHSML, reduced the VE-cadherin expression. These results indicate that the PHSML in vitro increases the cellular permeability of HUVECs through suppression of F-actin and VE-cadherin. ..
  48. Voigt Hansen M, Rasmussen L, Jespersgaard C, Rosenberg J, Gogenur I. There is no association between the circadian clock gene HPER3 and cognitive dysfunction after noncardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2012;115:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The allele PER3(5/5) has been associated with worse cognitive performance in response to sleep deprivation...
  49. Jacovetti C, Rodríguez Trejo A, Guay C, Sobel J, Gattesco S, Petrenko V, et al. MicroRNAs modulate core-clock gene expression in pancreatic islets during early postnatal life in rats. Diabetologia. 2017;60:2011-2020 pubmed publisher
    ..the 24 h transcriptional oscillations and overall expression of Clock, Npas2, Bmal1, Bmal2, Rev-erbα, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 between newborn and adult rat islets...
  50. Brener M, Post W, HABERLEN S, Zhang L, Palella F, Jacobson L, et al. Comparison of Insulin Resistance to Coronary Atherosclerosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected and Uninfected Men (from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study). Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was not significantly modified by HIV serostatus. In conclusion, IR over nearly a decade was greater in HIV-infected men than HIV-uninfected men, and in both groups, was associated with significant coronary artery stenosis. ..
  51. Tongpoo A, Sriapha C, Wongvisawakorn S, Rittilert P, Trakulsrichai S, Wananukul W. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015;46:798-804 pubmed
    ..Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning. ..
  52. Ofte H, Tronvik E, Alstadhaug K. Lack of association between cluster headache and PER3 clock gene polymorphism. J Headache Pain. 2015;17:18 pubmed publisher
    ..A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the PER3 clock gene has been associated to preferred daily rhythm (chronotype) in several studies...
  53. Luo R, Gao F, Deng X, Zhang D, Zhang Y. Results of Conservative Follow-up or Surgical Treatment of Moyamoya Patients Who Present without Hemorrhage, Transient Ischemic Attack, or Stroke. World Neurosurg. 2017;108:683-689 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical treatment may be a better choice for patients with asymptomatic MMD. And patients with better collateral circulations, especially extracranial to intracranial collateral arteries, may have a better prognosis. ..
  54. Drake C, Belcher R, Howard R, Roth T, Levin A, Gumenyuk V. Length polymorphism in the Period 3 gene is associated with sleepiness and maladaptive circadian phase in night-shift workers. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We interpret these findings as a call for future research on the role of Period 3 in sleepiness and circadian phase, especially as they relate to night work. ..
  55. Jiménez K, Pereira Morales A, Forero D. Higher scores in the extraversion personality trait are associated with a functional polymorphism in the PER3 gene in healthy subjects. Chronobiol Int. 2017;34:280-286 pubmed publisher
    A polymorphism in the PER3 (period circadian clock 3) gene has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and endophenotypes...
  56. Jam R, Hernandez O, Mesquida J, Turégano C, Carrillo E, Pedragosa R, et al. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study. Enferm Intensiva. 2017;28:178-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. ..
  57. Dallaspezia S, Locatelli C, Lorenzi C, Pirovano A, Colombo C, Benedetti F. Sleep homeostatic pressure and PER3 VNTR gene polymorphism influence antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. J Affect Disord. 2016;192:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A polymorphism in PER3 gene has been associated with diurnal preference, sleep structure and homeostatic response to sleep deprivation in ..
  58. Yamaguchi M, Kotani K, Tsuzaki K, Takagi A, Motokubota N, Komai N, et al. Circadian rhythm genes CLOCK and PER3 polymorphisms and morning gastric motility in humans. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120009 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the association between the CLOCK 3111T/C single nucleotide polymorphism and the Period3 (PER3) variable-number tandem-repeat polymorphism (either 4 or 5 repeats 54 nt in length) with morning gastric motility...
  59. McCarthy M, Wei H, Marnoy Z, Darvish R, McPhie D, Cohen B, et al. Genetic and clinical factors predict lithium's effects on PER2 gene expression rhythms in cells from bipolar disorder patients. Transl Psychiatry. 2013;3:e318 pubmed publisher
    ..Li 10 mM lengthened period in both BD cases and controls. Analysis of clock gene variants revealed that PER3 and RORA genotype predicted period lengthening by Li, whereas GSK3β genotype predicted rhythm effects of Li, ..
  60. Brasil Rocha P, Campos S, Neves F, da Silva Filho H. Genetic Association of the PERIOD3 (Per3) Clock Gene with Bipolar Disorder. Psychiatry Investig. 2017;14:674-680 pubmed publisher
    ..Given previous evidences of sleep/circadian disturbances as well as the genetic susceptibility for BD, we decided to investigate the possible link between the PERIOD3 (Per3) circadian gene and BD.
  61. Bedini G, Bersano A, Sebastiano D, Sattin D, Ciaraffa F, Tosetti V, et al. Is Period3 Genotype Associated With Sleep and Recovery in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness?. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016;30:461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..being used as prognostic tool in patients with disorders of consciousness, but, surprisingly, the role of Period3 (Per3) gene polymorphism has never been evaluated...
  62. Turco M, Biscontin A, Corrias M, Caccin L, Bano M, Chiaromanni F, et al. Diurnal preference, mood and the response to morning light in relation to polymorphisms in the human clock gene PER3. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6967 pubmed publisher
    b>PER3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with differences in human sleep-wake phenotypes, and sensitivity to light...
  63. Chu L, Zhu Y, Yu K, Zheng T, Yu H, Zhang Y, et al. Variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk: a population-based study in China. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11:342-8 pubmed
    ..variants included CRY2 rs1401417:G>C, CSNK1E rs1005473:A>C, NPAS2 rs2305160:G>A, PER1 rs2585405:G>C and PER3 54-bp repeat length variant. Men with the cryptochrome 2 (CRY2)-variant C allele had a significant 1...
  64. Zhao B, Lu J, Yin J, Liu H, Guo X, Yang Y, et al. A functional polymorphism in PER3 gene is associated with prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2012;32:1451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian negative feedback regulation genes (including CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2 and PER3) were genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX genotyping method in 337 HCC patients treated with TACE and analysed for ..
  65. Lim A, Myers A, Yu L, Buchman A, Duffy J, De Jager P, et al. Sex difference in daily rhythms of clock gene expression in the aged human cerebral cortex. J Biol Rhythms. 2013;28:117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of 3 clock genes-PER2, PER3, and ARNTL1-were quantified in samples of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from 490 deceased individuals in 2 cohort ..
  66. Viola A, James L, Archer S, Dijk D. PER3 polymorphism and cardiac autonomic control: effects of sleep debt and circadian phase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H2156-63 pubmed publisher
    A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the circadian clock PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been shown to affect sleep...
  67. Brower K, Wojnar M, Sliwerska E, Armitage R, Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and insomnia severity in alcohol dependence. Sleep. 2012;35:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER3(4/4), PER3(4/5), PER3(5/5)) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep ..
  68. Liu B, Xu K, Jiang Y, Li X. Aberrant expression of Per1, Per2 and Per3 and their prognostic relevance in non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:7863-71 pubmed
    ..the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of Period1 (Per1), Period2 (Per2) and Period3 (Per3) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  69. Liberman A, Kwon S, Vu H, Filipowicz A, Ay A, Ingram K. Circadian Clock Model Supports Molecular Link Between PER3 and Human Anxiety. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9893 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in a circadian clock-related gene, PER3, are associated with behavioral phenotypes (extreme diurnal preference in arousal and activity) and sleep/mood ..
  70. Bedini G, Bersano A, D Incerti L, Marotta G, Rosazza C, Rossi Sebastiano D, et al. Period3 gene in disorder of consciousness: The role of neuroimaging in understanding the relationship between genotype and sleep. A brief communication. J Neurol Sci. 2017;381:220-225 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we demonstrated a possible association between Period3 (Per3) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and functional impairment of DOC patients, speculating a ..
  71. Karantanos T, Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Vaiopoulou A, Karantanou C, Lymberi M, et al. Expression of clock genes in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2013;28:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the expression levels of CLOCK1, BMAL1, PER1, PER2 and PER3 genes in all the samples. In the cancerous tissues CLOCK1 (p<0.0001) and BMAL1 (p<0...
  72. Zhang L, Hirano A, Hsu P, Jones C, Sakai N, Okuro M, et al. A PERIOD3 variant causes a circadian phenotype and is associated with a seasonal mood trait. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1536-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>hPER3-P415A/H417R transgenic mice showed an altered circadian period under constant light and exhibited phase shifts of ..
  73. Mansour H, Wood J, Chowdari K, Tumuluru D, Bamne M, Monk T, et al. Associations between period 3 gene polymorphisms and sleep- /chronotype-related variables in patients with late-life insomnia. Chronobiol Int. 2017;34:624-631 pubmed publisher
    A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in the period 3 (PER3) gene has been associated with heritable sleep and circadian variables, including self-rated chronotypes, polysomnographic (PSG) variables, insomnia and circadian ..
  74. Lipkova J, Splichal Z, Bienertová Vasků J, Jurajda M, Parenica J, Vasku A, et al. Period3 VNTR polymorphism influences the time-of-day pain onset of acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31:878-90 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the key components of the human clock system PERIOD3 (PER3) has been recently demonstrated to affect circadian expression of various genes in different tissues, including the ..
  75. Parsons M, Lester K, Barclay N, Archer S, Nolan P, Eley T, et al. Polymorphisms in the circadian expressed genes PER3 and ARNTL2 are associated with diurnal preference and GN?3 with sleep measures. J Sleep Res. 2014;23:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a significant association between diurnal preference and a polymorphism in period homologue 3 (PER3) (P < 0...
  76. Murri R, Taccari F, Spanu T, D Inzeo T, Mastrorosa I, Giovannenze F, et al. A 72-h intervention for improvement of the rate of optimal antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;37:167-173 pubmed publisher
    ..90). Rapid diagnostic tests and 72 h re-evaluation of empirical therapy for BSI significantly correlated with an improved rate of optimal antibiotic therapy and decreased duration of antibiotic therapy and length of stay. ..
  77. Aggarwal A, Costa M, Rivero Gutiérrez B, Ji L, Morgan S, Feldman B. The Circadian Clock Regulates Adipogenesis by a Per3 Crosstalk Pathway to Klf15. Cell Rep. 2017;21:2367-2375 pubmed publisher
    ..of the canonical core clock component Per1 does not significantly oscillate, whereas the lesser-understood paralog Per3 has a prominent rhythm...