Gene Symbol: PER2
Description: period circadian regulator 2
Alias: FASPS, FASPS1, period circadian protein homolog 2, circadian clock protein PERIOD 2, hPER2, period 2, period circadian clock 2, period circadian protein 2, period homolog 2
Species: human
Products:     PER2

Top Publications

  1. Cajochen C, Jud C, Munch M, Kobialka S, Wirz Justice A, Albrecht U. Evening exposure to blue light stimulates the expression of the clock gene PER2 in humans. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1082-6 pubmed
    We developed a non-invasive method to measure and quantify human circadian PER2 gene expression in oral mucosa samples and show that this gene oscillates in a circadian (= about a day) fashion...
  2. Yang X, Wood P, Ansell C, Ohmori M, Oh E, Xiong Y, et al. Beta-catenin induces beta-TrCP-mediated PER2 degradation altering circadian clock gene expression in intestinal mucosa of ApcMin/+ mice. J Biochem. 2009;145:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Per2, a core clock gene with tumour suppresser function, is critical to clock function and to the regulation of cellular ..
  3. Sangoram A, Saez L, Antoch M, Gekakis N, Staknis D, Whiteley A, et al. Mammalian circadian autoregulatory loop: a timeless ortholog and mPer1 interact and negatively regulate CLOCK-BMAL1-induced transcription. Neuron. 1998;21:1101-13 pubmed
    ..Importantly, hTIM interacts with the Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) protein as well as the mouse PER1 and PER2 proteins in vitro. In Drosophila (S2) cells, hTIM and dPER interact and translocate into the nucleus...
  4. Griffin E, Staknis D, Weitz C. Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 1999;286:768-71 pubmed
    ..CRY1 or CRY2 (or both) showed light-independent interactions with CLOCK and BMAL1, as well as with PER1, PER2, and TIM...
  5. Archer S, Viola A, Kyriakopoulou V, von Schantz M, Dijk D. Inter-individual differences in habitual sleep timing and entrained phase of endogenous circadian rhythms of BMAL1, PER2 and PER3 mRNA in human leukocytes. Sleep. 2008;31:608-17 pubmed
    ..Circadian rhythm phase and amplitude of plasma melatonin, cortisol, and BMAL1, PER2, and PER3 expression were assessed during a constant routine...
  6. Malison R, Kranzler H, Yang B, Gelernter J. Human clock, PER1 and PER2 polymorphisms: lack of association with cocaine dependence susceptibility and cocaine-induced paranoia. Psychiatr Genet. 2006;16:245-9 pubmed
    ..objective of the current study was to assess the potential involvement of three human orthologs (CLOCK, PER1 and PER2) in clinical phenotypes of the disorder...
  7. Partonen T, Treutlein J, Alpman A, Frank J, Johansson C, Depner M, et al. Three circadian clock genes Per2, Arntl, and Npas2 contribute to winter depression. Ann Med. 2007;39:229-38 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that sequence variations in three genes, including Per2, Arntl, and Npas2, which form a functional unit at the core of the circadian clock, predispose to winter depression...
  8. Fukuya H, Emoto N, Nonaka H, Yagita K, Okamura H, Yokoyama M. Circadian expression of clock genes in human peripheral leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:924-8 pubmed
    ..We found that Per1 and Per2 exhibit circadian oscillations in mRNA expression in mouse peripheral leukocytes...
  9. Carpen J, Archer S, Skene D, Smits M, von Schantz M. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the hPER2 gene is associated with diurnal preference. J Sleep Res. 2005;14:293-7 pubmed
    ..We have investigated three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the hPER2 gene, one downstream of the transcription start site (C-1228T), one in exon 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-..

More Information


  1. Nievergelt C, Kripke D, Barrett T, Burg E, Remick R, Sadovnick A, et al. Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:234-41 pubmed
    ..involving polymorphisms in 10 circadian clock genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, CSNK1epsilon, DBP, GSK3beta, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, and PER3) to BPAD. Linkage analysis in 52 affected families showed suggestive evidence for linkage to CSNK1epsilon...
  2. Gery S, Koeffler H. Per2 is a C/EBP target gene implicated in myeloid leukemia. Integr Cancer Ther. 2009;8:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Using expression profiling studies, we found that the levels of 2 core components of the circadian network, Per2 and Rev-Erb alpha, are significantly altered by C/EBPs...
  3. Lavebratt C, Sjöholm L, Partonen T, Schalling M, Forsell Y. PER2 variantion is associated with depression vulnerability. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:570-581 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PER2 genetic variation was associated with depression vulnerability, and this genetic risk did not seem to require ..
  4. Maier B, Wendt S, Vanselow J, Wallach T, Reischl S, Oehmke S, et al. A large-scale functional RNAi screen reveals a role for CK2 in the mammalian circadian clock. Genes Dev. 2009;23:708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, phosphorylation of the key circadian protein PER2 precisely controls the period and phase of circadian oscillations...
  5. Lin Y, Chang J, Yeh K, Yang M, Liu T, Lin S, et al. Disturbance of circadian gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Carcinog. 2008;47:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that decreased expression levels of PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2, and TIM in hepatocellular carcinomas were observed...
  6. Miyazaki K, Mesaki M, Ishida N. Nuclear entry mechanism of rat PER2 (rPER2): role of rPER2 in nuclear localization of CRY protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6651-9 pubmed
    Mammalian PERIOD2 protein (PER2) is the product of a clock gene that controls circadian rhythms, because PER2-deficient mice have an arrhythmic phenotype...
  7. Toh K, Jones C, He Y, Eide E, Hinz W, Virshup D, et al. An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Science. 2001;291:1040-3 pubmed
    ..Here we report localization of the FASPS gene near the telomere of chromosome 2q. A strong candidate gene (hPer2), a human homolog of the period gene in Drosophila, maps to the same locus...
  8. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) is a human behavioural phenotype characterized by early sleep times and early-morning awakening...
  9. Xu Y, Toh K, Jones C, Shin J, Fu Y, Ptacek L. Modeling of a human circadian mutation yields insights into clock regulation by PER2. Cell. 2007;128:59-70 pubmed
    ..A mutation in human Period 2 (hPER2), a gene crucial for resetting the central clock in response to light, is associated with familial ..
  10. Knippschild U, Milne D, Campbell L, DeMaggio A, Christenson E, Hoekstra M, et al. p53 is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by the delta and epsilon isoforms of casein kinase 1 and enhances the level of casein kinase 1 delta in response to topoisomerase-directed drugs. Oncogene. 1997;15:1727-36 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that p53 is phosphorylated by CK1delta and CK1epsilon and additionally that there may be a regulatory feedback loop involving p53 and CK1delta. ..
  11. Fu L, Pelicano H, Liu J, Huang P, Lee C. The circadian gene Period2 plays an important role in tumor suppression and DNA damage response in vivo. Cell. 2002;111:41-50 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that the mPer2 gene functions in tumor suppression by regulating DNA damage-responsive pathways. ..
  12. Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Labuda D, Modiano D, Torroni A, Costa R, et al. Genetic diversity patterns at the human clock gene period 2 are suggestive of population-specific positive selection. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:1526-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Period 2 (PER2) is a key component of the mammalian circadian clock machinery...
  13. Kume K, Zylka M, Sriram S, Shearman L, Weaver D, Jin X, et al. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. Cell. 1999;98:193-205 pubmed
    ..Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially. ..
  14. Shearman L, Zylka M, Weaver D, Kolakowski L, Reppert S. Two period homologs: circadian expression and photic regulation in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Neuron. 1997;19:1261-9 pubmed
    We have characterized a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila period gene and designated it Per2. The PER2 protein shows >40% amino acid identity to the protein of another mammalian per homolog (designated Per1) that was recently cloned ..
  15. Yang J, Kim K, Lucas A, Drahos K, Santos C, Mury S, et al. A novel heme-regulatory motif mediates heme-dependent degradation of the circadian factor period 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4697-711 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify heme, an iron-containing prosthetic group, as a regulatory ligand controlling human Period-2 (hPer2) stability...
  16. Vielhaber E, Eide E, Rivers A, Gao Z, Virshup D. Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4888-99 pubmed
    ..CKIepsilon may regulate mammalian circadian rhythm by controlling the rate at which mPER1 enters the nucleus. ..
  17. Yagita K, Yamaguchi S, Tamanini F, van der Horst G, Hoeijmakers J, Yasui A, et al. Dimerization and nuclear entry of mPER proteins in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1353-63 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis suggests that the interplay of the CLD and NLS proposed to regulate nuclear entry of PER in Drosophila is conserved in mammals, but with the novel twist that mPER3 can act as the dimerizing partner. ..
  18. Sasaki M, Yoshitane H, Du N, Okano T, Fukada Y. Preferential inhibition of BMAL2-CLOCK activity by PER2 reemphasizes its negative role and a positive role of BMAL2 in the circadian transcription. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, PER2 showed a stronger inhibitory effect on BMAL2-CLOCK than on BMAL1-CLOCK...
  19. Oshima T, Takenoshita S, Akaike M, Kunisaki C, Fujii S, Nozaki A, et al. Expression of circadian genes correlates with liver metastasis and outcomes in colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..biological processes, generated by the feedback loops of eight core circadian genes: Period1 (Per1), Period2 (Per2), Period3 (Per3), Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), Cryptochrome2 (Cry2), Clock, Bmal1 and Casein Kinase I ? (CKI?)...
  20. Sun C, Huang S, Zeng J, Liu D, Xiao Q, Tian W, et al. Per2 inhibits k562 leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Pathol Oncol Res. 2010;16:403-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Per2 regulates other molecular and biochemical processes beyond their established role in the regulation of the mammalian circadian clock, herein we investigated the growth inhibiting potential of Per2 in human K562 leukemia cells and the ..
  21. Rahman Sayed H, Sedky M, Hamoda A, Kinaaie N, Wakeel M, Hesham D. Results of treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma at the children cancer hospital Egypt - A single center experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2016;28:175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Steroid induced AVN, and cerebral vascular thrombosis were the main chemotherapeutic adverse events. ..
  22. Kvidera S, Horst E, Sanz Fernandez M, Abuajamieh M, Ganesan S, Gorden P, et al. Characterizing effects of feed restriction and glucagon-like peptide 2 administration on biomarkers of inflammation and intestinal morphology. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9402-9417 pubmed publisher
    ..Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL ..
  23. Meale S, Morgavi D, Cassar Malek I, Andueza D, Ortigues Marty I, Robins R, et al. Exploration of Biological Markers of Feed Efficiency in Young Bulls. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:9817-9827 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth...
  24. Leonard A, Love B, Norris L, Siddiqui S, Wallam M, Bennett C. Screening for viral hepatitis prior to rituximab chemotherapy. Ann Hematol. 2016;95:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..December 2012 were reviewed according to two time periods: 2006-2008 (period 1, pre-guidelines) and 2009-2012 (period 2, post-guidelines)...
  25. Touzet S, Beissel A, Denis A, Pillet F, Gauthier Moulinier H, Hommey S, et al. Effectiveness of a nurse educational oral feeding programme on feeding outcomes in neonates: protocol for an interrupted time series design. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e010699 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. NCT02404272 ( ..
  26. Moreira J, Geoffroy P. Lithium and bipolar disorder: Impacts from molecular to behavioural circadian rhythms. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:351-73 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate several associations of Li's response with circadian genes (NR1D1, GSK3?, CRY1, ARNTL, TIM, PER2)...
  27. Moreno Medina C, Poggi Varaldo H, Breton Deval L, Rinderknecht Seijas N. Effect of sudden addition of PCE and bioreactor coupling to ZVI filters on performance of fluidized bed bioreactors operated in simultaneous electron acceptor modes. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:25534-25549 pubmed publisher
    ..second period, all the bioreactors received the wastewater plus 80 mg perchloroethylene (PCE)/L; at the start of period 2, one MD and one PAM were coupled to side sand-zero valent iron filters (ZVI)...
  28. Mieda M, Okamoto H, Sakurai T. Manipulating the Cellular Circadian Period of Arginine Vasopressin Neurons Alters the Behavioral Circadian Period. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2535-2542 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the overexpression of CK1δ specific to SCN AVP neurons shortened the free-running period. PER2::LUC imaging in slices confirmed that cellular circadian periods of the SCN shell were lengthened in mice ..
  29. Zhao H, Wang Y, Yuan B, Liu S, Man S, Xu H, et al. A novel LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of melatonin and its two major metabolites, 6-hydroxymelatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in dog plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;117:390-7 pubmed publisher negative ionization mode (period 1), while MEL and 6-O-MEL were detected in positive ionization mode (period 2). All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0...
  30. Honda T, Ishida T, Kobayashi I, Oguri Y, Mizuno Y, Mannen H, et al. Change of fatty acid composition of the lumbar longissimus during the final stage of fattening in the Japanese Black cattle. Anim Sci J. 2016;87:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The increasing rate of MUFA rose from 0.21 percentage points (pp)/month at period 1 (from the first sampling to the second sampling) to 0.84 pp/month at period 2 (from the second sampling to the slaughter).
  31. Moon S, Kim S, Lim C, Jang H, Kim M, Jeon J. Phase 1 and Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Metformin, Losartan, and Linagliptin Coadministered With DW1029M in Healthy Volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2017;6:408-419 pubmed publisher
    ..0 for metformin; Cmax,ss GMR, 90.5; 90%CI, 78.3-104.6 for losartan; and Cmax,ss GMR, 81.4; 90%CI, 69.5-95.3 for linagliptin. Coadministration of DW1029M with metformin, losartan, or linagliptin was well tolerated. ..
  32. Wu X, Li Y, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Yu J, Cao G, et al. Short-term Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of MRX-I, an Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Agent, in Healthy Chinese Subjects. Clin Ther. 2018;40:322-332.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Period 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential ascending dose (50 to 1800 mg) study. Period 2 included one arm as a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 3 × 3 Latin square single-dose study of 300, 600, and ..
  33. Mendell J, Chen S, He L, Desai M, Parasramupria D. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban in healthy adults. Clin Drug Investig. 2015;35:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..2 × 300 mg capsules once daily) with a single oral edoxaban 60 mg dose administered concomitantly on day 7 in period 2. A 6-day washout period separated the treatments...
  34. Yabe Y, Hagiwara Y, Sekiguchi T, Sugawara Y, Sato M, Kanazawa K, et al. Influence of living environment and subjective economic hardship on new-onset of low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. J Orthop Sci. 2017;22:43-49 pubmed publisher
    ..19, 95% CI = 1.84-5.53) in subjective economic hardship. Subjective economic hardship was significantly associated with new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. ..
  35. Vallés Torres J, Garcia Martin E, Fernández Tirado F, Gil Arribas L, Pablo L, Peña Calvo P. Contact topical anesthesia versus general anaesthesia in strabismus surgery. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2016;91:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..73.1%; P=.019). CTA provides adequate sensory block to perform strabismus surgery. The control of postoperative pain is similar to that obtained with AG. Conservation of ocular motility providing CTA enables better surgical outcome. ..
  36. Gheldiu A, Popa A, Neag M, Muntean D, Bocsan C, Buzoianu A, et al. Assessment of a Potential Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Nebivolol and Bupropion in Healthy Volunteers. Pharmacology. 2016;98:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a 2-period design: during period 1 (reference), a single dose of 5 mg nebivolol was administered, while during period 2 (test), 5 mg nebivolol + 300 mg bupropion were ingested concomitantly, after a pretreatment regimen with ..
  37. Militi S, Maywood E, Sandate C, Chesham J, Barnard A, Parsons M, et al. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:2756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2(Edo/Edo) mice by 1.5 h...
  38. Flammer E, Steinert T. Association Between Restriction of Involuntary Medication and Frequency of Coercive Measures and Violent Incidents. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67:1315-1320 pubmed
    ..routine data collected in seven psychiatric hospitals in three time periods (period 1, July 2011-February 2012; period 2, July 2012-February 2013; and period 3, July 2013-February 2014)...
  39. Lee J, Hirota T, Kumar A, Kim N, Irle S, Kay S. Development of Small-Molecule Cryptochrome Stabilizer Derivatives as Modulators of the Circadian Clock. ChemMedChem. 2015;10:1489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..KL044 lengthened the circadian period, repressed Per2 activity, and stabilized CRY in reporter assays with roughly tenfold higher potency than KL001...
  40. Merkler A, Chu S, Lerario M, Navi B, Kamel H. Temporal relationship between infective endocarditis and stroke. Neurology. 2015;85:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The odds of stroke in these periods were compared with the odds of stroke in the corresponding 1-month period 2 years earlier, which was considered the baseline risk of stroke...
  41. Roa S, Martinez E, Martins C, Antonini S, de Castro M, Moreira A. Postnatal Ontogeny of the Circadian Expression of the Adrenal Clock Genes and Corticosterone Rhythm in Male Rats. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1339-1346 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Ror?/Rev-Erb?) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its ..
  42. Liu L, Jiang G, Peng Z, Li Y, Li J, Zou L, et al. The effect of high fat diet on daily rhythm of the core clock genes and muscle functional genes in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that except for Bmal1, NPAS2, Per2 and RORB, the expression of the other 13 core clock genes exhibited circadian oscillation in the CON treatment...
  43. Park J, Cederroth C, Basinou V, Sweetapple L, Buijink R, Lundkvist G, et al. Differential Phase Arrangement of Cellular Clocks along the Tonotopic Axis of the Mouse Cochlea Ex Vivo. Curr Biol. 2017;27:2623-2629.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..The cochlea displays circadian patterns of core clock gene expression [1, 2]. PER2 protein is expressed in the hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of the cochlea in the spiral ganglion neurons [1]..
  44. Tsuchiya S, Buhr E, Higashide T, Sugiyama K, Van Gelder R. Light entrainment of the murine intraocular pressure circadian rhythm utilizes non-local mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184790 pubmed publisher
    ..Iris-ciliary body complexes were obtained from period2:luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity...
  45. Wei H, Landgraf D, Wang G, McCarthy M. Inositol polyphosphates contribute to cellular circadian rhythms: Implications for understanding lithium's molecular mechanism. Cell Signal. 2018;44:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a bioluminescent reporter (Per2::luc) to measure circadian rhythms, we determined that IP6 increased rhythm amplitude and shortened ..
  46. Govindarajan K, Macsharry J, Casey P, Shanahan F, Joyce S, Gahan C. Unconjugated Bile Acids Influence Expression of Circadian Genes: A Potential Mechanism for Microbe-Host Crosstalk. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167319 pubmed publisher
    ..significant changes to expression of hepatic regulators of circadian rhythm (including Dbp) and associated genes (Per2, Per3 and Cry2)...
  47. Acero Navarro K, Jiménez Ramírez M, Villalobos M, Vargas Martínez R, Perales Vela H, Velasco García R. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protein Expr Purif. 2018;142:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa- and human G6PDH, thus contributing to the search for selective inhibitors against the bacterial enzyme...
  48. Smyllie N, Pilorz V, Boyd J, Meng Q, Saer B, Chesham J, et al. Visualizing and Quantifying Intracellular Behavior and Abundance of the Core Circadian Clock Protein PERIOD2. Curr Biol. 2016;26:1880-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore generated a knockin mouse expressing a fluorescent fusion of native PER2 protein (PER2::VENUS) for live imaging...
  49. Rwabihama J, Audureau E, Laurent M, Rakotoarisoa L, Jegou M, Saddedine S, et al. Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Geriatric Settings: A Cluster-Randomized Multicomponent Interventional Trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;19:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The preintervention period was 1 month to provide baseline practice levels, the intervention period 2 months, and the postintervention period 1 month in acute care and post-acute care wards or 2 months in long-..
  50. Olaechea P, Álvarez Lerma F, Palomar M, Gimeno R, Gracia M, Mas N, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Spanish ICU: A prospective observational study from the ENVIN-HELICS registry (2006-2011). Med Intensiva. 2016;40:216-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The study period was divided into two intervals, from 2006 to 2008 (period 1) and from 2009 to 2011 (period 2)...
  51. Tong X, Buelow K, Guha A, Rausch R, Yin L. USP2a protein deubiquitinates and stabilizes the circadian protein CRY1 in response to inflammatory signals. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..By stabilizing the CRY1 protein, USP2a represses the Per2 promoter activity as well as the endogenous Per2 gene expression...
  52. Zhai S, Georgy A, Liang Z, Zhi J. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interaction Study of Piragliatin, a Glucokinase Activator, and Glyburide, a Sulfonylurea, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2016;5:552-556 pubmed publisher
    ..PK samples were drawn with glyburide alone (period 0), piragliatin + glyburide (period 1), and piragliatin alone (period 2) treatments...
  53. Hughes A, Guilding C, Piggins H. Neuropeptide signaling differentially affects phase maintenance and rhythm generation in SCN and extra-SCN circadian oscillators. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18926 pubmed publisher
    ..We used wild type (WT) and Vipr2(-/-) mice expressing a luciferase reporter (PER2::LUC) to investigate whether circadian rhythms in the clock gene protein PER2 in these extra-SCN tissues were ..
  54. Lea M, Barstad I, Mathiesen L, Mowe M, Molden E. Effect of teaching and checklist implementation on accuracy of medication history recording at hospital admission. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016;38:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..56 and 119 patients were included in period 1 (P1) and period 2 (P2), respectively...
  55. Ventura Cordero J, González Pech P, Jaimez Rodriguez P, Ortiz Ocampo G, Sandoval Castro C, Torres Acosta J. Feed resource selection of Criollo goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus: nutritional wisdom and prophylactic self-medication. Animal. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean EPG of goats in IG was 2028±259 EPG during period 1 and 1 293±198 EPG during period 2 (P>0.05). During period 1, the selection pattern was highest for B...
  56. Plass Christl A, Otto C, Klasen F, Wiegand Grefe S, Barkmann C, Hölling H, et al. Trajectories of mental health problems in children of parents with mental health problems: results of the BELLA study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;27:867-876 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM. ..
  57. Hayasaka N, Hirano A, Miyoshi Y, Tokuda I, Yoshitane H, Matsuda J, et al. Salt-inducible kinase 3 regulates the mammalian circadian clock by destabilizing PER2 protein. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..In cultured cells, Sik3-knockdown resulted in abnormal bioluminescence rhythms. Expression levels of PER2, a clock protein, were elevated in Sik3-knockdown cells but down-regulated in Sik3-overexpressing ..
  58. Mansour H, Talkowski M, Wood J, Chowdari K, McClain L, Prasad K, et al. Association study of 21 circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Additional analyses using adequately powered samples are warranted to further evaluate these results. ..
  59. Akiyama T, Katsumura T, Nakagome S, Lee S, Joh K, Soejima H, et al. An ancestral haplotype of the human PERIOD2 gene associates with reduced sensitivity to light-induced melatonin suppression. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178373 pubmed publisher
    ..43 subjects, including light-induced melatonin suppression, and performed haplotype analyses on the clock genes, PER2 and PER3, exhibiting geographical differentiation of allele frequencies...
  60. Trifiletti D, Hill C, Cohen Inbar O, Xu Z, Sheehan J. Stereotactic radiosurgery for small brain metastases and implications regarding management with systemic therapy alone. J Neurooncol. 2017;134:289-296 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the excellent local control and relatively low risk of toxicity, patients with small brain metastases who otherwise have a reasonable expected survival should be considered for radiosurgical management. ..
  61. Zhao H, Zeng Z, Yang J, Jin Y, Qiu M, Hu X, et al. Prognostic relevance of Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2) expression in human gastric cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:619-30 pubmed
    Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2) are members of the circadian genes. Mounting evidence suggests that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of mammalian cancer...
  62. Kalfalah F, Janke L, Schiavi A, Tigges J, Ix A, Ventura N, et al. Crosstalk of clock gene expression and autophagy in aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8:1876-1895 pubmed publisher
    ..of transcriptional repressor components of the circadian oscillator, most prominently the human Period homologue PER2, are strongly reduced in primary dermal fibroblasts from aged humans, while raising the expression of PER2
  63. Fleisch A, Malama E, Witschi U, Leiding C, Siuda M, Janett F, et al. Effects of an extension of the equilibration period up to 96 hours on the characteristics of cryopreserved bull semen. Theriogenology. 2017;89:255-262 pubmed publisher
    ..periods, semen collected on Fridays was equilibrated for 4 hours in period one and equilibrated for 72 hours in period 2. No differences in NRR90 could be found (P > 0.05)...
  64. Wu M, Liu S, Hu L, Qu H, Pan C, Lei P, et al. Global transcriptomic analysis of zebrafish in response to embryonic exposure to three antidepressants, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and mianserin. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;192:274-283 pubmed publisher
    ..e. those encoding nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1) and period 2 (per2); and genes encoding early growth response factors (egr1 and egr4), in the antidepressant-treated fish ..
  65. Hwang Verslues W, Chang P, Jeng Y, Kuo W, Chiang P, Chang Y, et al. Loss of corepressor PER2 under hypoxia up-regulates OCT1-mediated EMT gene expression and enhances tumor malignancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12331-6 pubmed publisher
    The circadian clock gene Period2 (PER2) has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor. However, detailed mechanistic evidence has not been provided to support this hypothesis...
  66. Ebisawa T. Analysis of the molecular pathophysiology of sleep disorders relevant to a disturbed biological clock. Mol Genet Genomics. 2013;288:185-93 pubmed publisher
  67. Kim H, Koh H, Ku S, Kim S, Kim J, Kim J. Association between polymorphisms in period genes and bone density in postmenopausal Korean women. Climacteric. 2014;17:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The PER1 c.2247C> T and c.2884C> G polymorphisms; the PER2 c.661G> A and c.3731G> A polymorphisms; the PER3 c.2592G> A, c.3029C> T, c.3035C> T, and c...
  68. Motohashi H, Sukigara H, Tahara Y, Saito K, Yamazaki M, Shiraishi T, et al. Polyporus and Bupleuri radix effectively alter peripheral circadian clock phase acutely in male mice. Nutr Res. 2017;43:16-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess phase changes in the daily circadian rhythm, bioluminescence from the core clock gene product Period 2 was continuously monitored in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro and in some peripheral tissues (kidney, liver, ..
  69. Weigand K, Bauer E, Encke J, Schmidt J, Stremmel W, Schwenger V. Prognostic value of standard parameters as predictors for long-term renal replacement therapy after liver transplantation. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119:c342-7 pubmed
    ..RRT 3 months after LTPL may predict the risk for chronic renal insufficiency and is associated with significantly increased mortality...
  70. Pérez S, Murias L, Fernández Plaza C, Díaz I, González C, Otero J, et al. Evidence for clock genes circadian rhythms in human full-term placenta. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2015;61:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained allow us to suggest that a peripheral oscillator exists in human placenta. Data were analyzed using Fourier series where only the Clock and Bmal1 expression shows a circadian rhythm. ..
  71. Kondo T, Handa K, Genda T, Hino S, Hamaguchi N, Morita T. Digestion-Resistant Dextrin Derivatives Are Moderately Digested in the Small Intestine and Contribute More to Energy Production Than Predicted from Large-Bowel Fermentation in Rats. J Nutr. 2017;147:330-336 pubmed publisher
    ..rats fed a control diet or a diet containing one of the DRDDs at 50 g/kg for 9 d (period 1) and then for 10 d (period 2), during which they received 1 g neomycin/L in their drinking water...
  72. Chang A, Bjonnes A, Aeschbach D, Buxton O, Gooley J, Anderson C, et al. Circadian gene variants influence sleep and the sleep electroencephalogram in humans. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:561-73 pubmed publisher
    ..21 ± 2.97 years) of European ancestry. A common variant in Period2 (PER2) was associated with 20 min less slow-wave sleep (SWS) in carriers of the minor allele than in noncarriers, ..
  73. Xia H, Niu Z, Ma H, Cao S, Hao S, Liu Z, et al. Deregulated expression of the Per1 and Per2 in human gliomas. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010;37:365-70 pubmed
    ..reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in 33 gliomas. In this study, out of 33 gliomas, 28 were Per1-positive, and 23 were Per2-positive...
  74. Gotoh T, Vila Caballer M, Liu J, Schiffhauer S, Finkielstein C. Association of the circadian factor Period 2 to p53 influences p53's function in DNA-damage signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:359-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>hPer2 forms a trimeric complex with hp53 and its negative regulator Mdm2...
  75. Ojeda D, Perea C, Niño C, Gutiérrez R, Lopez Leon S, Arboleda H, et al. A novel association of two non-synonymous polymorphisms in PER2 and PER3 genes with specific diurnal preference subscales. Neurosci Lett. 2013;553:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the possibility that two non-synonymous polymorphisms in PER2 (p.Gly1244Glu, rs934945) and PER3 (p...
  76. Furuya Y, Yamagishi Y, Okade H, Kadota T, Funatsu T, Eto M, et al. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotype distribution of adult non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Tokai region, Japan, 2008-2016. J Infect Chemother. 2017;23:394-399 pubmed publisher
    ..isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August ..
  77. Chen M, Xu Y, Miao B, Zhao H, Luo L, Shi H, et al. Expression pattern of circadian genes and steroidogenesis-related genes after testosterone stimulation in the human ovary. J Ovarian Res. 2016;9:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the circadian proteins CLOCK and PER2 in human ovaries was observed by immunohistochemistry...
  78. Zhou Y, Fagan W. A discrete-time model for population persistence in habitats with time-varying sizes. J Math Biol. 2017;75:649-704 pubmed publisher
    ..The models are relevant to biological scenarios such as seasonal variability of wetland habitat sizes under precipitation variability. ..
  79. Depping R, Oster H. Interplay between environmentally modulated feedback loops - hypoxia and circadian rhythms - two sides of the same coin?. FEBS J. 2017;284:3801-3803 pubmed publisher
    ..The interplay between both networks includes a so far unknown factor, connecting PER2 (circadian clocks) to hypoxia sensing (HIF-1 α) to result in a more adapted state of homeostasis at the right ..
  80. Hara M, Minami Y, Ohashi M, Tsuchiya Y, Kusaba T, Tamagaki K, et al. Robust circadian clock oscillation and osmotic rhythms in inner medulla reflecting cortico-medullary osmotic gradient rhythm in rodent kidney. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7306 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, using macroscopic bioluminescence imaging method of the PER2::Luciferase knock-in mouse kidney, we reveal that strong and robust circadian clock oscillation is observed in the ..
  81. Fang M, Kang H, Park Y, Estrella B, Zarbl H. In Vitro Bioluminescence Assay to Characterize Circadian Rhythm in Mammary Epithelial Cells. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..that drives transcription of the destabilized luciferase in eukaryotic cells under the control of the human PERIOD 2 gene promoter...
  82. Speed J, Hyndman K, Roth K, Heimlich J, Kasztan M, Fox B, et al. High dietary sodium causes dyssynchrony of the renal molecular clock in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018;314:F89-F98 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, HS caused a significant 5.5-h phase delay in the peak expression of Bmal1 and suppressed Cry1 and Per2 expression in the renal inner medulla, but not the renal cortex, of control rats...
  83. du Pré B, Dierickx P, Crnko S, Doevendans P, Vos M, Geijsen N, et al. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes as an in vitro model for circadian rhythms in the heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017;112:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..circadian rhythmicity, as measured by anti-phasic oscillatory mRNA expression of two core clock genes, Bmal1 and Per2 and that shows functional dependence on the clock as indicated by an oscillating response in apoptosis induced by ..
  84. Luo W, Ma S, Yang Y, Wang C, Zhang D, Zhang Q, et al. TFEB regulates PER3 expression via glucose-dependent effects on CLOCK/BMAL1. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;78:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..function disrupts and dampens the expression of PER3 but not the expression of other circadian genes, such as PER1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2. TFEB physically interacts with CLOCK/BMAL1 through its N-terminal region...
  85. Hiramoto K, Yamate Y, Yokoyama S. Ultraviolet A Eye Irradiation Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis via p53 and Clock Gene Proteins in NC/Nga Mice. Photochem Photobiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), period 2 (PER2), and differentiated embryo chondrocytes 1 (DEC1) protein were decreased in mice treated with UVA ..
  86. von Schantz M. Natural Variation in Human Clocks. Adv Genet. 2017;99:73-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the negative feedback protein-encoding genes PER2 and CRY2 as well as the CSNK1D gene encoding casein kinase I delta have been shown to cause advanced sleep phase ..
  87. Chen S, Choo K, Hou M, Yeh K, Kuo S, Chang J. Deregulated expression of the PER1, PER2 and PER3 genes in breast cancers. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1241-6 pubmed
    ..specific PCR and direct sequencing methods to analyze molecular changes in three most important genes, namely PER1, PER2 and PER3, in circadian rhythm in 55 cases of breast cancer of Taiwanese women...