Gene Symbol: PENK
Description: proenkephalin
Alias: PENK-A, proenkephalin-A, enkephalin A, peptide F, preproenkephalin
Species: human
Products:     PENK

Top Publications

  1. Jiao L, Zhu J, Hassan M, Evans D, Abbruzzese J, Li D. K-ras mutation and p16 and preproenkephalin promoter hypermethylation in plasma DNA of pancreatic cancer patients: in relation to cigarette smoking. Pancreas. 2007;34:55-62 pubmed
    To examine the profiles of K-ras mutations and p16 and preproenkephalin (ppENK) promoter hypermethylation and their associations with cigarette smoking in pancreatic cancer patients...
  2. McTavish N, Copeland L, Saville M, Perkins N, Spruce B. Proenkephalin assists stress-activated apoptosis through transcriptional repression of NF-kappaB- and p53-regulated gene targets. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1700-10 pubmed
    ..In this report, we provide evidence that the growth-responsive nuclear protein, proenkephalin (Penk), is required, in part, for apoptosis induction, in response to activation or overexpression of p53 and RelA(p65)...
  3. Noda M, Teranishi Y, Takahashi H, Toyosato M, Notake M, Nakanishi S, et al. Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene. Nature. 1982;297:431-4 pubmed
  4. Bottger A, Spruce B. Proenkephalin is a nuclear protein responsive to growth arrest and differentiation signals. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:1251-62 pubmed
    ..From this we speculate that nuclear proenkephalin arises from a primary translation product that lacks a signal peptide sequence because of initiation at a different site. ..
  5. Fukushima N, Sato N, Ueki T, Rosty C, Walter K, Wilentz R, et al. Aberrant methylation of preproenkephalin and p16 genes in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:1573-81 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that the preproenkephalin (ppENK) and p16 genes are aberrantly methylated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
  6. Kanagala P, Squire I, Jones D, Cao T, Chan D, McCann G, et al. Proenkephalin and prognosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a GREAT network study. Clin Res Cardiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    Proenkephalin (PENK), a stable endogenous opioid biomarker related to renal function, has prognostic utility in acute and chronic heart failure...
  7. Macpherson T, Mizoguchi H, Yamanaka A, Hikida T. Preproenkephalin-expressing ventral pallidal neurons control inhibitory avoidance learning. Neurochem Int. 2019;126:11-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the expression of preproenkephalin, a polypeptide hormone previously shown to be expressed in nucleus accumbens neurons controlling aversive ..
  8. Garcia Rodríguez L, Jones L, Chen K, Datta I, Divine G, Worsham M. Causal network analysis of head and neck keloid tissue identifies potential master regulators. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:E319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..identified four hierarchical networks that included four master regulators (pyroxamide, tributyrin, PRKG2, and PENK) and 19 intermediate regulators...
  9. Kuramoto E, Fujiyama F, Unzai T, Nakamura K, Hioki H, Furuta T, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-immunopositive terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons selectively form synapses with cholinergic interneurons in the rat neostriatum. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:908-22 pubmed
    ..2 varicosities were often positive for substance P but mostly negative for striatal interneuron markers and preproenkephalin. Thus, striatonigral/striato-entopeduncular MSNs are likely to be the largest source of type 2 mGluR4-..

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Reiss D, Ceredig R, Secher T, Boué J, Barreau F, Dietrich G, et al. Mu and delta opioid receptor knockout mice show increased colonic sensitivity. Eur J Pain. 2017;21:623-634 pubmed publisher
    ..MOR and preproenkephalin (Penk) were the most expressed opioid genes in colon...
  2. Westlund K. Gene therapy for pancreatitis pain. Gene Ther. 2009;16:483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of a replication defective Herpes (HSV-1, DPE) viral vector construct encoding the human preproenkephalin gene (HSV-Enk), used as a molecular therapy for alleviation of pancreatitis pain, is reviewed here...
  3. Lu Y, McNearney T, Wilson S, Yeomans D, Westlund K. Joint capsule treatment with enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioural sequelae in rat CFA monoarthritis. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Replication-conditional HSV-1 recombinant vectors with cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK), or control transgene beta-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-beta-gal; control) were injected into knee ..
  4. Spool J, Stevenson S, Angyal C, Riters L. Contributions of testosterone and territory ownership to sexually-motivated behaviors and mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area of male European starlings. Horm Behav. 2016;86:36-44 pubmed publisher
    ..patterns of gene expression in the mPOA by increasing androgen receptor, aromatase, mu-opioid receptor and preproenkephalin mRNA and decreasing tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression...
  5. Cadet J, Krasnova I, Walther D, Brannock C, Ladenheim B, McCoy M, et al. Increased expression of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs in the nucleus accumbens of compulsive methamphetamine taking rats. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37002 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes included prodynorphin (PDYN) and proenkephalin (PENK), among others...
  6. Zajaczkowska R, Popiolek Barczyk K, Pilat D, Rojewska E, Makuch W, Wordliczek J, et al. Involvement of microglial cells in the antinociceptive effects of metamizol in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2018;175:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..administration did not affect the levels of the opioid prohormones (proopiomelanocortin (POMC), proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and pronociceptin (PNOC))...
  7. Rojewska E, Wawrzczak Bargiela A, Szucs E, Benyhe S, Starnowska J, Mika J, et al. Alterations in the Activity of Spinal and Thalamic Opioid Systems in a Mice Neuropathic Pain Model. Neuroscience. 2018;390:293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, we have studied the changes of μ-(MOP), δ-(DOP) and κ-(KOP) receptors, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) mRNA levels, as well as GTPγS binding of opioid receptors on the ipsi- and contralateral ..
  8. Gonzalez Nunez V, Jimenez González A, Barreto Valer K, Rodriguez R. In vivo regulation of the ? opioid receptor: role of the endogenous opioid agents. Mol Med. 2013;19:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down the dre-oprm1 gene significantly modified the mRNA expression of the penk and pomc genes, thus indicating that oprm1 is involved in shaping penk and pomc expression...
  9. Treskatsch S, Feldheiser A, Shaqura M, Dehe L, Habazettl H, Röpke T, et al. Cellular localization and adaptive changes of the cardiac delta opioid receptor system in an experimental model of heart failure in rats. Heart Vessels. 2016;31:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..LV) myocardium and adaptive changes in DOR and its endogenous ligand, the precursor peptide proenkephalin (PENK), during CHF...
  10. Mendez I, Ostlund S, Maidment N, Murphy N. Involvement of Endogenous Enkephalins and β-Endorphin in Feeding and Diet-Induced Obesity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:2103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied palatable liquid consumption in proenkephalin knockout (PENK KO) and β-endorphin-deficient (BEND KO) mice, and how the body weight of these mice changed during consumption ..
  11. Yang X, Zhao H, Shi H, Wang X, Zhang S, Zhang Z, et al. Intranigral administration of substance P receptor antagonist attenuated levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2015;271:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..signal-regulated kinases 1/2 as well as the levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and Penk in L-dopa-primed PD rats...
  12. van den Heuvel J, Furman K, Gumbs M, Eggels L, Opland D, Land B, et al. Neuropeptide Y activity in the nucleus accumbens modulates feeding behavior and neuronal activity. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we examined co-localization of Y1R with enkephalin and dynorphin neurons and the effect of NPY on preproenkephalin messenger RNA levels in the striatum using fluorescent and radioactive in situ hybridization...
  13. Jourdain V, Morin N, Morissette M, Grégoire L, Di Paolo T. Subthalamotomy-induced changes in dopamine receptors in parkinsonian monkeys. Exp Neurol. 2014;261:816-25 pubmed publisher
    ..D1 and D2 receptors as well as preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin mRNA levels were measured by in situ hybridization...
  14. Marin C, Bonastre M, Mengod G, Cortés R, Rodríguez Oroz M. From unilateral to bilateral parkinsonism: Effects of lateralization on dyskinesias and associated molecular mechanisms. Neuropharmacology. 2015;97:365-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequentially bilateral lesioned animals showed a bilateral increase in striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA without changes in pre-prodynorphin (PDyn) mRNA expression...
  15. Somers D, Beckstead R. Striatal preprotachykinin and preproenkephalin mRNA levels and the levels of nigral substance P and pallidal Met5-enkephalin depend on corticostriatal axons that use the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate and glutamate: quantitative ra. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990;8:143-58 pubmed
    ..with oligonucleotide probes revealed changes in the rostral striatum of preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA levels: cortical ablation reduced PPT mRNA by 17% and PPE mRNA by 20% dorsally, while it increased ..
  16. Spool J, Jay M, Riters L. Nest box exploration may stimulate breeding physiology and alter mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area of female European starlings. J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    ..with other females, females that were housed with and explored nest boxes had higher estradiol, higher preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNA and lower levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the medial preoptic area (mPOA); a region ..
  17. Cannella M, Motolese M, Bucci D, Molinaro G, Gradini R, Bruno V, et al. Changes in the expression of genes encoding for mGlu4 and mGlu5 receptors and other regulators of the indirect pathway in acute mouse models of drug-induced parkinsonism. Neuropharmacology. 2015;95:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..haloperidol injection caused a significant increase in the transcripts of mGlu4 receptors, CB1 receptors and preproenkephalin-A at 2 and 24 h, and a reduction in the transcripts of mGlu5 and A2A receptors at 2 h...
  18. Suzuki M, Chiwaki F, Sawada Y, Ashikawa M, Aoyagi K, Fujita T, et al. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123407 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF) and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type ..
  19. Nguyen T, Petersen N, Rand K. A simple sheathless CE-MS interface with a sub-micrometer electrical contact fracture for sensitive analysis of peptide and protein samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2016;936:157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the described CE-MS setup should be useful for a wide range of high-sensitivity applications in protein research. ..
  20. Compan V, Salin P, Daszuta A. Selective effects of partial and severe lesions of the serotonergic systems on Met-enkephalin and substance P neurons in rat basal ganglia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;50:246-56 pubmed
    ..Neither striatal preproenkephalin nor preprotachykinin levels showed significant differences with the control values...
  21. Png E, Alisjahbana B, Sahiratmadja E, Marzuki S, Nelwan R, Balabanova Y, et al. A genome wide association study of pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Indonesians. BMC Med Genet. 2012;13:5 pubmed publisher
    ..located within or near the following genes involved in immune signaling: JAG1, DYNLRB2, EBF1, TMEFF2, CCL17, HAUS6, PENK and TXNDC4...
  22. Jin T, Hao J, Fan D. Nicotine induces aberrant hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in pancreatic epithelial ductal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;499:934-940 pubmed publisher
    ..Proenkephalin (PENK) was chosen as the target gene and methylation level of PENK promoter region was measured...
  23. Thompson A, Feeney C, Kristal M. Amniotic-fluid ingestion enhances central ?-opioid-induced hypoalgesia in rats in the cold-water tail-flick assay in a repeated-measures design. Brain Res. 2018;1697:53-58 pubmed publisher
  24. Beckley J, Randall P, Smith R, Hughes B, Kalivas P, Woodward J. Phenotype-dependent inhibition of glutamatergic transmission on nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons by the abused inhalant toluene. Addict Biol. 2016;21:530-46 pubmed publisher
    ..using dual histochemistry and shows that toluene-sensitive NAc neurons are dopamine D2 MSNs that express preproenkephalin mRNA...
  25. Roperch J, Benzekri K, Mansour H, Incitti R. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer. BMC Biotechnol. 2015;15:41 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC...
  26. Laprairie R, Petr G, Sun Y, Fischer K, Denovan Wright E, Rosenberg P. Huntington's disease pattern of transcriptional dysregulation in the absence of mutant huntingtin is produced by knockout of neuronal GLT-1. Neurochem Int. 2019;123:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further suggest that specific changes in expression of cannabinoid receptors, preproenkephalin, and PDE10A, considered to be the hallmark of HD transcriptional dysregulation, may be produced by an ..
  27. Kononenko O, Mityakina I, Galatenko V, Watanabe H, Bazov I, Gerashchenko A, et al. Differential effects of left and right neuropathy on opioid gene expression in lumbar spinal cord. Brain Res. 2018;1695:78-83 pubmed publisher each the left and right-side SNL, while changes in expression of μ-opioid receptor (Oprm1) and proenkephalin (Penk) genes were dependent on the SNL side...
  28. Neyama H, Hamada Y, Tsukahara R, Narita M, Tsukamoto K, Ueda H. Blockade of analgesic effects following systemic administration of N-methyl-kyotorphin, NMYR and arginine in mice deficient of preproenkephalin or proopiomelanocortin gene. Peptides. 2018;107:10-16 pubmed publisher
    ..NMYR-analgesia was significantly attenuated in preproenkephalin (PENK)- or proopioimelanocortin (POMC)-KO mice...
  29. Cordes M, Stevenson S, Driessen T, Eisinger B, Riters L. Sexually-motivated song is predicted by androgen-and opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus of male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Behav Brain Res. 2015;278:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..associations between sexually-motivated song and relative expression of ARs, mu opioid receptors (muORs), and preproenkephalin (PENK) in the POM (and other regions) of male European starlings using qPCR...
  30. Nicolle P, Liang H, Reboussin E, Rabut G, Warcoin E, Brignole Baudouin F, et al. Proinflammatory Markers, Chemokines, and Enkephalin in Patients Suffering from Dry Eye Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..of the proinflammatory markers HLA-DR, IL-6, CXCL12, and CCL2 and the receptors CXCR4 and CCR2, as well as PENK (enkephalin precursor), was therefore quantified in conjunctival impression cytology specimens...
  31. Donato L, Meeusen J, Lieske J, Bergmann D, Sparwaßer A, Jaffe A. Analytical performance of an immunoassay to measure proenkephalin. Clin Biochem. 2018;58:72-77 pubmed publisher
    ..mature pentapeptides are unstable, we evaluated the performance of an assay that measures proenkephalin 119-159 (PENK), a stable peptide formed concomitantly with mature enkephalins...
  32. Szklarczyk K, Korostynski M, Cieslak P, Wawrzczak Bargiela A, Przewlocki R. Opioid-dependent regulation of high and low fear responses in two inbred mouse strains. Behav Brain Res. 2015;292:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..SWR/J mice did not develop conditioned fear but exhibited increased transcriptional expression of Pdyn and Penk in the amygdala region...
  33. Kim H, Hur M, Lee S, Marino R, Magrini L, Cardelli P, et al. Proenkephalin, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Patients With Sepsis. Ann Lab Med. 2017;37:388-397 pubmed publisher
    Proenkephalin (PENK) has been suggested as a novel biomarker for kidney function...
  34. Galani V, Lampri E, Varouktsi A, Alexiou G, Mitselou A, Kyritsis A. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in meningiomas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2017;158:119-125 pubmed publisher
    ..hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes p73 in grade I meningiomas and TIMP3 GSTP1, MEG3, HOXA6, HOXA9, PENK, WNK2 and UPK3A genes with an increasing frequency according to grade...
  35. Kananen L, Marttila S, Nevalainen T, Jylhävä J, Mononen N, Kähönen M, et al. Aging-associated DNA methylation changes in middle-aged individuals: the Young Finns study. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeatedly reported a-CpGs located in genes ELOVL2, FHL2, PENK and KLF14 were also identified...
  36. Schulz C, Christensson A, Ericson U, Almgren P, Hindy G, Nilsson P, et al. High Level of Fasting Plasma Proenkephalin-A Predicts Deterioration of Kidney Function and Incidence of CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..4150 participants of the same cohort revealed the strongest association of pro-ENK levels with rs1012178 near the PENK gene, where the minor T-allele associated with a 0.057 pmol/L higher pro-ENK level per allele (P=4...
  37. Navarro S, Soletto L, Puchol S, Rotllant J, Soengas J, Cerdá Reverter J. 60 YEARS OF POMC: POMC: an evolutionary perspective. J Mol Endocrinol. 2016;56:T113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..during early tetraploidizations of the vertebrate genome to generate four different precursors: proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) as well as POMC, although both PNOC and POMC seem to have ..
  38. Hu C, Cai Z, Lu Y, Cheng X, Guo Q, Wu Z, et al. Nonviral vector plasmid DNA encoding human proenkephalin gene attenuates inflammatory and neuropathic pain-related behaviors in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016;634:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the anti-nociceptive efficacy of delivery of human proenkephalin gene by a plasmid DNA vector (pVAX1-PENK) on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain and spared nerve injury (SNI) induced neuropathic ..
  39. Ng L, Squire I, Jones D, Cao T, Chan D, Sandhu J, et al. Proenkephalin, Renal Dysfunction, and Prognosis in Patients With Acute Heart Failure: A GREAT Network Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:56-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Proenkephalin A (PENK) and its receptors are widely distributed. Enkephalins are cardiodepressive and difficult to measure directly...
  40. Lee B, Lee M, Song S, Loi L, Lam D, Yoon J, et al. Specification of neurotransmitter identity by Tal1 in thalamic nuclei. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:749-758 pubmed publisher
    ..Tal1-deficient thalamic neurons lost their GABAergic markers such as Gad1, Npy, and Penk in IGL/vLG. These defects may be associated at least in part with down-regulation of Nkx2...
  41. Yang X, Zhu Z, Ding X, Wang X, Cui G, Hua F, et al. CaMKII inhibition ameliorated levodopa-induced dyskinesia by downregulating tyrosine hydroxylase activity in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2018;1687:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, KN-93 treatment reduced the expression of Arc and Penk, two immediate early genes, induced by chronic L-dopa...
  42. Lee E, Rath P, Liu J, Ryu D, Pei L, Noonepalle S, et al. Identification of Global DNA Methylation Signatures in Glioblastoma-Derived Cancer Stem Cells. J Genet Genomics. 2015;42:355-71 pubmed publisher
    ..identified candidate tumor suppressor genes that are frequently down-regulated in GBMs such as SPINT2, NEFM and PENK. Forced re-expression of SPINT2 reduced glioma cell proliferative capacity, anchorage independent growth, cell ..
  43. Ikeda H, Ardianto C, Yonemochi N, Yang L, Ohashi T, Ikegami M, et al. Inhibition of opioid systems in the hypothalamus as well as the mesolimbic area suppresses feeding behavior of mice. Neuroscience. 2015;311:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), preproenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN), the precursors of endogenous opioid peptides, were measured by reverse ..
  44. Bettin A, Reyes I, Reyes N. Gene expression profiling of prostate cancer-associated genes identifies fibromodulin as potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2016;31:e153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes evaluated were ESM-1, SERPINE2, CLU, BGN, A2M, PENK, FMOD, CD81, DCN, TSPAN8, KBTBD10, F2RL1, TMSB4X, SNCG, CXXC5, FOXQ1, PDPN, SPN, CAV1, CD24 and KLK3...
  45. Li H, Li D. Preparation of a pipette tip-based molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith by epitope approach and its application for determination of enkephalins in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015;115:330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection limits were 0.05-0.08nM. This MISPME/HPLC-UV method was used to quantify Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin levels in the CSF of patients with cancer pain. ..
  46. Foy J, Pickering C, Papadimitrakopoulou V, Jelinek J, Lin S, William W, et al. New DNA methylation markers and global DNA hypomethylation are associated with oral cancer development. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8:1027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..pyrosequencing in a validation cohort of 44 patients to evaluate the degree of methylation of AGTR1, FOXI2, and PENK promoters CpG sites that were included in the top 86 genes and of LINE1 repetitive element methylation, a surrogate ..
  47. Bowman B, Goodchild A. GABA and enkephalin tonically alter sympathetic outflows in the rat spinal cord. Auton Neurosci. 2015;193:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA were found in all regions containing sympathetic premotor neurons, with the medullary raphe and ..
  48. Nishiyama K, Suzuki H, Maruyama M, Yoshihara T, Ohta H. Genetic deletion of GPR52 enhances the locomotor-stimulating effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in mice: A potential role of GPR52 in the function of striatopallidal neurons. Brain Res. 2017;1670:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results imply the physiological relevance of GPR52 in modulating the function of striatopallidal neurons, possibly by interaction of GPR52 with ADORA2A and DRD2. ..
  49. Morin N, Morissette M, Grégoire L, Di Paolo T. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016;14:481-93 pubmed
    ..of dopamine D2receptors, their associated signaling proteins (ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β) and neuropeptides (preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin) as well as the adenosine A2A receptors expression...
  50. Buzhdygan T, Lisinicchia J, Patel V, Johnson K, Neugebauer V, Paessler S, et al. Neuropsychological, Neurovirological and Neuroimmune Aspects of Abnormal GABAergic Transmission in HIV Infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2016;11:279-93 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly with high expression of endothelial cell markers, dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2L), and preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNAs, and with worse performance on tasks of verbal fluency...
  51. Xuei X, Flury Wetherill L, Bierut L, Dick D, Nurnberger J, Foroud T, et al. The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:877-84 pubmed
    ..We analyzed 18 OPRM1 SNPs, 18 OPRD1 SNPs, 7 PENK SNPs, and 7 POMC SNPs in a sample of 1923 European Americans from 219 multiplex alcohol dependent families...
  52. Weiss D, Infante Duarte C, Salbach Andrae H, Burghardt R, Hamann I, Pfeiffer E, et al. Preproenkephalin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of acutely underweight and recovered patients with anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychobiology. 2010;62:151-7 pubmed publisher
    The prohormone preproenkephalin (ppE) and its derived peptides are involved in leukocyte functioning as well as in the regulation of hunger and satiety...
  53. Malvasi A, Cavallotti C, Nicolardi G, Pellegrino M, Vergara D, Greco M, et al. The opioid neuropeptides in uterine fibroid pseudocapsules: a putative association with cervical integrity in human reproduction. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:982-8 pubmed publisher
  54. Legon S, Glover D, Hughes J, Lowry P, Rigby P, Watson C. The structure and expression of the preproenkephalin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:7905-18 pubmed
    ..The sequence of cloned cDNA shows that the preproenkephalin mRNA encodes four copies of met-enkephalin, two copies of met-enkephalin extended sequences and one copy of ..
  55. Voorn P, Brady L, Schotte A, Berendse H, Richfield E. Evidence for two neurochemical divisions in the human nucleus accumbens. Eur J Neurosci. 1994;6:1913-6 pubmed
    ..opioid receptor), [3H]SCH-23390 (D1-like dopamine receptor), [3H]7-OH-DPAT (D3 dopamine receptor) binding, preproenkephalin mRNA and acetylcholinesterase activity in sections of post mortem human striatum...
  56. Konoshita T, Gasc J, Villard E, Takeda R, Seidah N, Corvol P, et al. Expression of PC2 and PC1/PC3 in human pheochromocytomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;99:307-14 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that functional Kex2-related endoproteases are expressed in human pheochromocytomas and may be involved in the processing of proenkephalin. ..
  57. Kamphuis S, Kavelaars A, Brooimans R, Kuis W, Zegers B, Heijnen C. T helper 2 cytokines induce preproenkephalin mRNA expression and proenkephalin A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Neuroimmunol. 1997;79:91-9 pubmed
    We investigated the regulatory influence of several cytokines on the expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
  58. Quezada M, Henríquez S, Vargas M, Cardenas H, Tapia A, Rios M, et al. Proenkephalin A and the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor pi subunit: expression, localization, and dynamic changes in human secretory endometrium. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1750-7 pubmed
    To compare mRNA and protein levels of proenkephalin A (PEA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor pi subunit (piGABA-R) in human secretory endometrium before and during receptivity and to determine the cell phenotypes where they are ..
  59. Denning G, Ackermann L, Barna T, Armstrong J, Stoll L, Weintraub N, et al. Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues. Peptides. 2008;29:83-92 pubmed
    ..We found widespread expression of preproenkephalin (pPENK) mRNA and production of the enkephalin precursor protein proenkephalin (PENK) in rat and mouse tissues,..
  60. Nikoshkov A, Drakenberg K, Wang X, Horvath M, Keller E, Hurd Y. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:786-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined polymorphisms of proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes in relation to heroin abuse and gene expression in the human striatum and the ..
  61. Gelman B, Lisinicchia J, Chen T, Johnson K, Jennings K, Freeman D, et al. Prefrontal dopaminergic and enkephalinergic synaptic accommodation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and encephalitis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:686-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the opioid neurotransmitter preproenkephalin mRNA (PENK) was significantly decreased in a sampling of 446 brain specimens from HIV-1 infected people ..
  62. Funkelstein L, Lu W, Koch B, Mosier C, Toneff T, Taupenot L, et al. Human cathepsin V protease participates in production of enkephalin and NPY neuropeptide neurotransmitters. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate the unique function of human cathepsin V for producing enkephalin and NPY neuropeptides required for neurotransmission in health and neurological diseases. ..
  63. Jutras Aswad D, Jacobs M, Yiannoulos G, Roussos P, Bitsios P, Nomura Y, et al. Cannabis-dependence risk relates to synergism between neuroticism and proenkephalin SNPs associated with amygdala gene expression: case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39243 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and proenkephalin (PENK) genes have been implicated in animal studies with cannabis exposure...
  64. Chen X, Yu B, Chen M. Circulating levels of neuropeptide proenkephalin A predict outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Peptides. 2014;56:111-5 pubmed publisher
    High plasma proenkephalin A level has been associated with ischemic stroke severity and clinical outcomes...
  65. Zhang H, Chen L, Bu H, Yu Q, Jiang D, Pan F, et al. Effects of emodin on the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. Oncol Rep. 2015;33:3015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The related mechanism may be through the inhibition of methyltransferase expression. ..
  66. Sarkisyan D, Hussain M, Watanabe H, Kononenko O, Bazov I, Zhou X, et al. Downregulation of the endogenous opioid peptides in the dorsal striatum of human alcoholics. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:187 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the levels of prodynorphin (PDYN) and proenkephalin (PENK) mRNAs (by qRT-PCR), and dynorphins and enkephalins (by radioimmunoassay) in the caudate nucleus and putamen ..
  67. van Hateren K, Landman G, Arnold J, Joosten H, Groenier K, Navis G, et al. Serum Proenkephalin A Levels and Mortality After Long-Term Follow-Up in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ZODIAC-32). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133065 pubmed publisher
    Two previous studies concluded that proenkephalin A (PENK-A) had predictive capabilities for stroke severity, recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure and mortality in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction...
  68. Dupont W, Kraemer W, Nindl B, Lee E, Fragala M, Hatfield D, et al. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women. Peptides. 2017;91:26-32 pubmed publisher
    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined ..
  69. Liu F, Housley P, Wilson S. Initial processing of human proenkephalin in bovine chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1996;67:1457-62 pubmed
    The opioid peptide precursor preproenkephalin (PPE) contains seven enkephalin sequences and is synthesized by epinephrine-producing adrenal chromaffin cells and various peripheral and central neurons...
  70. Kelley A, Will M, Steininger T, Zhang M, Haber S. Restricted daily consumption of a highly palatable food (chocolate Ensure(R)) alters striatal enkephalin gene expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2592-8 pubmed
    ..One day following the end of this period, preproenkephalin gene expression was measured with quantitative in situ hybridization...
  71. Ernst A, Kohrle J, Bergmann A. Proenkephalin A 119-159, a stable proenkephalin A precursor fragment identified in human circulation. Peptides. 2006;27:1835-40 pubmed
    In this report, we describe a newly developed sandwich immunoassay using antibodies against the proenkephalin A 119-159 peptide (PENK A 119-159)...
  72. Lu W, Liu T, Li S, Woods V, Hook V. The prohormone proenkephalin possesses differential conformational features of subdomains revealed by rapid H-D exchange mass spectrometry. Protein Sci. 2012;21:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that differential tertiary conformations of PE subdomains undergo ordered proteolytic processing to generate active enkephalin peptides for cell-cell communication in the nervous and endocrine systems. ..
  73. Milwid J, Elman J, Li M, Shen K, Manrai A, Gabow A, et al. Enriched protein screening of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell secretions reveals MFAP5 and PENK as novel IL-10 modulators. Mol Ther. 2014;22:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater than 85% of secreted factors were recaptured that were otherwise undetected by proteomic methods, and remarkable hit rates of 18% in vitro and 9% in vivo were achieved. ..
  74. Liu F, Zhang M, Zeng P, Liu W, Wang J, Yang B, et al. Study on the molecular mechanism of antinociception induced by ghrelin in acute pain in mice. Peptides. 2016;83:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of δ-opioid peptide PENK and δ-opioid receptor OPRD were increased after i.c.v injection of ghrelin...
  75. Blum K, Chen A, Thanos P, Febo M, Demetrovics Z, Dushaj K, et al. Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) ™, a predictor of vulnerability to opioid dependence. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2018;10:175-196 pubmed
    ..Pharmacogenomic testing of candidate genes like CB1, mu receptors, and PENK might result in pharmacogenomic, personalized solutions, and improved clinical outcomes...
  76. Shi Y, Stornetta R, Stornetta D, Onengut Gumuscu S, Farber E, Turner S, et al. Neuromedin B Expression Defines the Mouse Retrotrapezoid Nucleus. J Neurosci. 2017;37:11744-11757 pubmed publisher
    ..These Nmb-low RTN neurons also express varying levels of transcripts for Gal, Penk, and Adcyap1, and receptors for substance P, orexin, serotonin, and ATP...
  77. Tsuneoka Y, Yoshida S, Takase K, Oda S, Kuroda M, Funato H. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in medial preoptic area subregions of the male mouse. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9809 pubmed publisher
    ..Prodynorphin, preproenkephalin (Penk), cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript, neurotensin, galanin, tachykinin (Tac)1, Tac2 and ..
  78. Volk D, Radchenkova P, Walker E, Sengupta E, Lewis D. Cortical opioid markers in schizophrenia and across postnatal development. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In schizophrenia, higher MOR mRNA levels may contribute to suppressed PFC GABA neuron activity and might be attributable to alterations in the postnatal developmental trajectory of MOR signaling. ..
  79. Padros M, Saravia F, Vindrola O. Antibodies against the amino-terminal portion of pro-enkephalin inhibit DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear cells. J Neuroimmunol. 1995;61:79-83 pubmed
    Pro-enkephalin (PENK) mRNA and PENK-derived peptides have been reported in lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages...
  80. Lecchi P, Loh Y, Snell C, Pannell L. The structure of synenkephalin (pro-enkephalin 1-73) is dictated by three disulfide bridges. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;232:800-5 pubmed
    ..Three disulfide bridges between Cys2-Cys24, Cys6-Cys28, and Cys9-Cys41 were identified. Protein conformational prediction of synenkephalin1-42 shows beta-turns which facilitate the formation of these disulfide bonds. ..
  81. Ernst A, Buerger K, Hartmann O, Dodel R, Noelker C, Sommer N, et al. Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;221:62-7 pubmed publisher
    Midregional Proenkephalin A (MR-PENK A) and N-terminal Protachykinin A (NT-PTA) are stable fragments of the precursor peptides for enkephalins and substance P, respectively...
  82. Valenza M, Picetti R, Yuferov V, Butelman E, Kreek M. Strain and cocaine-induced differential opioid gene expression may predispose Lewis but not Fischer rats to escalate cocaine self-administration. Neuropharmacology. 2016;105:639-650 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare here Fischer and Lewis rats in the gene expression of endogenous opioid peptides (Pomc, Penk, Pdyn) and cognate receptors (Oprm, Oprk and Oprd) in reward-related brain regions, after exposure to either ..
  83. Lindberg I, Shaw E. Posttranslational processing of proenkephalin in SK-N-MC cells: evidence for phosphorylation. J Neurochem. 1992;58:448-53 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the SK-N-MC cell line represents a useful model to study the earliest steps of the posttranslational processing of human proenkephalin in a neuronal cell type. ..
  84. Comb M, Seeburg P, Adelman J, Eiden L, Herbert E. Primary structure of the human Met- and Leu-enkephalin precursor and its mRNA. Nature. 1982;295:663-6 pubmed
    ..Five of the seven enkephalins are flanked on both sides by pairs of basic amino acid residues. The precursors does not contain the sequences of the opioid peptides, dynorphin, alpha-neo-endorphin or beta-endorphin. ..
  85. Sukhov R, Walker L, Rance N, Price D, Young W. Opioid precursor gene expression in the human hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1995;353:604-22 pubmed
    ..the distribution of neurons that express preproopiomelanocortin (pre-POMC), preprodynorphin (pre-PDYN), and preproenkephalin (pre-PENK) gene transcripts within the human hypothalamus and surrounding structures...
  86. Gauda E, Cooper R, Akins P, Wu G. Prenatal nicotine affects catecholamine gene expression in newborn rat carotid body and petrosal ganglion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:2157-65 pubmed
    ..and early postnatal nicotine exposure on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), preproenkephalin (PPE), and D2-dopamine receptor mRNA levels in the rat carotid body and petrosal ganglion during postnatal ..
  87. Bush J, Mastro A, Kraemer W. Proenkephalin peptide F immunoreactivity in different circulatory biocompartments after exercise. Peptides. 2006;27:1498-506 pubmed
    ..Proenkephalin peptide F (PF) is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla...
  88. Yang X, An H, Zhang J. Neuropeptide proenkephalin A is associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Peptides. 2014;58:47-51 pubmed publisher
    High plasma proenkephalin A (PENK-A) levels are associated with poor clinical outcome after ischemic stroke. However, not much is known regarding the change of its level in acute intracerebral hemorrhage...
  89. Gao J, Tang W, Wang X, Shen J. Prognostic value of neuropeptide proenkephalin A in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Peptides. 2014;58:42-6 pubmed publisher
    High plasma proenkephalin A levels have been associated with poor clinical outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
  90. Ashour N, Angulo J, Andrés G, Alelú R, González Corpas A, Toledo M, et al. A DNA hypermethylation profile reveals new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Prostate. 2014;74:1171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Of these, we newly identified GSTM2 and PENK as being genes that are hypermethylated in prostate cancer and that were simultaneously methylated in 40...
  91. Moeller S, Beebe Wang N, Schneider K, Konova A, Parvaz M, Alia Klein N, et al. Effects of an opioid (proenkephalin) polymorphism on neural response to errors in health and cocaine use disorder. Behav Brain Res. 2015;293:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..genetics study, we investigated a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the protein-coding proenkephalin gene (PENK: rs2609997, recently shown to be associated with cannabis dependence) in 55 individuals with cocaine use disorder ..
  92. Minett M, Pereira V, Sikandar S, Matsuyama A, Lolignier S, Kanellopoulos A, et al. Endogenous opioids contribute to insensitivity to pain in humans and mice lacking sodium channel Nav1.7. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8967 pubmed publisher
    ..7 deletion has profound effects on gene expression, leading to an upregulation of enkephalin precursor Penk mRNA and met-enkephalin protein in sensory neurons. In contrast, Nav1...