Gene Symbol: PDCD6IP
Description: programmed cell death 6 interacting protein
Alias: AIP1, ALIX, DRIP4, HP95, programmed cell death 6-interacting protein, ALG-2 interacting protein 1, ALG-2-interacting protein X, PDCD6-interacting protein, apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X, dopamine receptor interacting protein 4
Species: human
Products:     PDCD6IP

Top Publications

  1. Lazert C, Chazal N, Briant L, Gerlier D, Cortay J. Refined study of the interaction between HIV-1 p6 late domain and ALIX. Retrovirology. 2008;5:39 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between the HIV-1 p6 late budding domain and ALIX, a class E vacuolar protein sorting factor, was explored by using the yeast two-hybrid approach...
  2. Schmidt M, Dikic I, Bogler O. Src phosphorylation of Alix/AIP1 modulates its interaction with binding partners and antagonizes its activities. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3414-25 pubmed
    Alix/AIP1 is an adaptor protein involved in regulating the function of receptor and cytoskeleton-associated tyrosine kinases. Here, we investigated its interaction with and regulation by Src...
  3. Fujii K, Hurley J, Freed E. Beyond Tsg101: the role of Alix in 'ESCRTing' HIV-1. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:912-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on the use of host-cell factors during HIV-1 budding and highlight recent progress in our understanding of the role of one such factor, Alix, in both viral and cellular membrane budding and fission events.
  4. Irie T, Shimazu Y, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T. The YLDL sequence within Sendai virus M protein is critical for budding of virus-like particles and interacts with Alix/AIP1 independently of C protein. J Virol. 2007;81:2263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (SeV) matrix protein M and accessory protein C contribute to virus budding by physically interacting with Alix/AIP1...
  5. Bissig C, Lenoir M, Velluz M, Kufareva I, Abagyan R, Overduin M, et al. Viral infection controlled by a calcium-dependent lipid-binding module in ALIX. Dev Cell. 2013;25:364-73 pubmed publisher
    b>ALIX plays a role in nucleocapsid release during viral infection, as does lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). However, the mechanism remains unclear...
  6. Dowlatshahi D, Sandrin V, Vivona S, Shaler T, Kaiser S, Melandri F, et al. ALIX is a Lys63-specific polyubiquitin binding protein that functions in retrovirus budding. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We used affinity capture/mass spectrometry to identify ALIX, a component of the ESCRT pathway, as a Ub binding protein...
  7. Dores M, Chen B, Lin H, Soh U, Paing M, Montagne W, et al. ALIX binds a YPX(3)L motif of the GPCR PAR1 and mediates ubiquitin-independent ESCRT-III/MVB sorting. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that ALIX, a charged MVB protein 4-ESCRT-III interacting protein, bound to a YPX(3)L motif of PAR1 via its central V domain ..
  8. Hurley J. The ESCRT complexes. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;45:463-87 pubmed publisher
    ..machinery consists of the peripheral membrane protein complexes ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III, and Vps4-Vta1, and the ALIX homodimer...
  9. Weiss E, Gottlinger H. The role of cellular factors in promoting HIV budding. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, HIV-1 requires only a subset of ESCRT-III components, indicating that the membrane fission reaction that occurs during HIV-1 budding differs in crucial aspects from topologically related cellular abscission events. ..

More Information


  1. McCullough J, Fisher R, Whitby F, Sundquist W, Hill C. ALIX-CHMP4 interactions in the human ESCRT pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7687-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To promote HIV budding and cytokinesis, the ALIX protein must bind and recruit CHMP4 subunits of the ESCRT-III complex, which in turn participate in essential ..
  2. Ichioka F, Takaya E, Suzuki H, Kajigaya S, Buchman V, Shibata H, et al. HD-PTP and Alix share some membrane-traffic related proteins that interact with their Bro1 domains or proline-rich regions. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;457:142-9 pubmed
    Mammalian Alix is a multifunctional adaptor protein involved in cell death, receptor endocytosis, endosomal protein sorting and cell adhesion by associating with various proteins such as ALG-2, CIN85/Rukl/SETA, endophilins, CHMP4s and ..
  3. Schmidt M, Hoeller D, Yu J, Furnari F, Cavenee W, Dikic I, et al. Alix/AIP1 antagonizes epidermal growth factor receptor downregulation by the Cbl-SETA/CIN85 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8981-93 pubmed
    ..We found that the SETA/CIN85-interacting protein Alix/AIP1, which also binds endophilins, modulates this complex...
  4. Pashkova N, Gakhar L, Winistorfer S, Sunshine A, Rich M, Dunham M, et al. The yeast Alix homolog Bro1 functions as a ubiquitin receptor for protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes. Dev Cell. 2013;25:520-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Bro1 and other Bro1 family members function in parallel with ESCRT-0 to recognize and sort Ub-cargoes...
  5. Zhan L, Liu B, Jose Lafuente M, Chibalina M, Grierson A, Maclean A, et al. ALG-2 interacting protein AIP1: a novel link between D1 and D3 signalling. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the C-terminal domain of D1 receptor as bait, we identified AIP1 (ALG-2 interacting protein 1), a known modulator of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death, including ..
  6. Maki M, Suzuki H, Shibata H. Structure and function of ALG-2, a penta-EF-hand calcium-dependent adaptor protein. Sci China Life Sci. 2011;54:770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro-rich regions, and ALG-2 recognizes at least two distinct Pro-containing motifs: PPYP(X)nYP (X, variable; n=4 in ALIX and PLSCR3) and PXPGF (represented by Sec31A)...
  7. Doyotte A, Mironov A, McKenzie E, Woodman P. The Bro1-related protein HD-PTP/PTPN23 is required for endosomal cargo sorting and multivesicular body morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian ortholog of Bro1p is not known; although Alix, a structurally related protein, supports the topologically similar process of virus budding, functional studies ..
  8. Zhai Q, Landesman M, Robinson H, Sundquist W, Hill C. Identification and structural characterization of the ALIX-binding late domains of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 and SIVagmTan-1. J Virol. 2011;85:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX(n)L (where X(n) can vary in sequence and length)...
  9. Yamasaki A, Tani K, Yamamoto A, Kitamura N, Komada M. The Ca2+-binding protein ALG-2 is recruited to endoplasmic reticulum exit sites by Sec31A and stabilizes the localization of Sec31A. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4876-87 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ALG-2 is recruited to ER exit sites via Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with Sec31A and in turn stabilizes the localization of Sec31A at these sites. ..
  10. Popov S, Popova E, Inoue M, Gottlinger H. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag engages the Bro1 domain of ALIX/AIP1 through the nucleocapsid. J Virol. 2008;82:1389-98 pubmed
    ..Additionally, HIV-1 p6 harbors an auxiliary L domain that binds to the V domain of ALIX, another component of the MVB pathway...
  11. Martin Serrano J, Marsh M. ALIX catches HIV. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;1:5-7 pubmed
    ..Two new papers provide structures for the ESCRT-associated protein ALIX/AIP1 and demonstrate how this protein interacts with HIV Gag...
  12. Mahul Mellier A, Strappazzon F, Petiot A, Chatellard Causse C, Torch S, Blot B, et al. Alix and ALG-2 are involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34954-65 pubmed publisher
    Alix/AIP1 regulates cell death in a way involving interactions with the calcium-binding protein ALG-2 and with proteins of ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)...
  13. Okumura M, Ichioka F, Kobayashi R, Suzuki H, Yoshida H, Shibata H, et al. Penta-EF-hand protein ALG-2 functions as a Ca2+-dependent adaptor that bridges Alix and TSG101. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386:237-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Alix and TSG101, known to physically interact with each other, have Pro-rich regions that are bound by ALG-2 Ca2+-dependently...
  14. Pawliczek T, Crump C. Herpes simplex virus type 1 production requires a functional ESCRT-III complex but is independent of TSG101 and ALIX expression. J Virol. 2009;83:11254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The best-characterized late-domain interacting ESCRT proteins are ALIX and TSG101...
  15. Cabezas A, Bache K, Brech A, Stenmark H. Alix regulates cortical actin and the spatial distribution of endosomes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2625-35 pubmed
    b>Alix/AIP1 is a proline-rich protein that has been implicated in apoptosis, endocytic membrane trafficking and viral budding. To further elucidate the functions of Alix, we used RNA interference to specifically suppress its expression...
  16. Strack B, Calistri A, Craig S, Popova E, Gottlinger H. AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding. Cell. 2003;114:689-99 pubmed
    ..We now show that HIV Gag p6 contains a second region involved in L domain function that binds AIP1, a homolog of the yeast class E Vps protein Bro1...
  17. Popov S, Popova E, Inoue M, Gottlinger H. Divergent Bro1 domains share the capacity to bind human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid and to enhance virus-like particle production. J Virol. 2009;83:7185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 (HIV-1) exploits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway by engaging Tsg101 and ALIX through late assembly (L) domains in p6 Gag...
  18. Munshi U, Kim J, Nagashima K, Hurley J, Freed E. An Alix fragment potently inhibits HIV-1 budding: characterization of binding to retroviral YPXL late domains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3847-55 pubmed
    ..well characterized PTAP late domain, the p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains a binding site for the host cell protein Alix. To better understand the functional role of the Gag/Alix interaction, we overexpressed an Alix fragment composed ..
  19. Suzuki H, Kawasaki M, Inuzuka T, Okumura M, Kakiuchi T, Shibata H, et al. Structural basis for Ca2+ -dependent formation of ALG-2/Alix peptide complex: Ca2+/EF3-driven arginine switch mechanism. Structure. 2008;16:1562-73 pubmed publisher
    ALG-2 belongs to the penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein family and interacts with various intracellular proteins, such as Alix and TSG101, that are involved in endosomal sorting and HIV budding...
  20. Lee S, Joshi A, Nagashima K, Freed E, Hurley J. Structural basis for viral late-domain binding to Alix. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:194-9 pubmed
    The modular protein Alix is a central node in endosomal-lysosomal trafficking and the budding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1...
  21. Carlson L, Hurley J. In vitro reconstitution of the ordered assembly of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport at membrane-bound HIV-1 Gag clusters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16928-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct interactions between HIV-1 and the early ESCRT factors TSG101 and ALIX have been mapped in detail...
  22. Sette P, Nagashima K, Piper R, Bouamr F. Ubiquitin conjugation to Gag is essential for ESCRT-mediated HIV-1 budding. Retrovirology. 2013;10:79 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 relies on the host ESCRTs for release from cells. HIV-1 Gag engages ESCRTs by directly binding TSG101 or Alix. ESCRTs also sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins through endosomes to facilitate their lysosomal degradation...
  23. Morita E, Colf L, Karren M, Sandrin V, Rodesch C, Sundquist W. Human ESCRT-III and VPS4 proteins are required for centrosome and spindle maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, two early acting proteins of the ESCRT pathway, ALIX and TSG101, are recruited to the midbody through direct interactions with the phosphoprotein CEP55...
  24. Bardens A, Döring T, Stieler J, Prange R. Alix regulates egress of hepatitis B virus naked capsid particles in an ESCRT-independent manner. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:602-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike virions, naked capsid budding does not require the ESCRT machinery. Rather, we identified Alix, a multifunctional protein with key roles in membrane biology, as a regulator of capsid budding...
  25. Usami Y, Popov S, Gottlinger H. Potent rescue of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 late domain mutants by ALIX/AIP1 depends on its CHMP4 binding site. J Virol. 2007;81:6614-22 pubmed
    ..In addition, an auxiliary L domain near the C terminus of p6 binds to ALIX/AIP1, which functions in the same endosomal sorting pathway as Tsg101...
  26. Dordor A, Poudevigne E, Gottlinger H, Weissenhorn W. Essential and supporting host cell factors for HIV-1 budding. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of host cell factors recruited by Gag during HIV-1 assembly and budding. ..
  27. Missotten M, Nichols A, Rieger K, Sadoul R. Alix, a novel mouse protein undergoing calcium-dependent interaction with the apoptosis-linked-gene 2 (ALG-2) protein. Cell Death Differ. 1999;6:124-9 pubmed
    ..We found that ALG-2 binds to itself and to a novel protein that we call ALG-2 interacting protein X, Alix. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we confirmed ALG-2/ALG-2 binding and demonstrated that this interaction ..
  28. Vito P, Pellegrini L, Guiet C, D ADAMIO L. Cloning of AIP1, a novel protein that associates with the apoptosis-linked gene ALG-2 in a Ca2+-dependent reaction. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1533-40 pubmed
    ..screening system, we have isolated and characterized the mouse cDNA encoding for ALG-2 interacting protein 1 (AIP1), a novel protein that interacts with ALG-2...
  29. Peck J, Bowden E, Burbelo P. Structure and function of human Vps20 and Snf7 proteins. Biochem J. 2004;377:693-700 pubmed
    ..mammalian homologues of such yeast Snf7p-interacting proteins, we found that all three hSnf7s interacted with mouse AIP1 [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2) interacting protein 1], a mammalian Bro1p [BCK1 (bypass of C kinase)-like ..
  30. Ichioka F, Horii M, Katoh K, Terasawa Y, Shibata H, Maki M. Identification of Rab GTPase-activating protein-like protein (RabGAPLP) as a novel Alix/AIP1-interacting protein. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:861-5 pubmed
    b>Alix/AIP1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein involved in endocytosis, cell adhesion, and cell death...
  31. Fossen T, Wray V, Bruns K, Rachmat J, Henklein P, Tessmer U, et al. Solution structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p6 protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42515-27 pubmed
    ..and functional domains; helix-2 perfectly defines the region that binds to the virus budding factor AIP-1/ALIX, indicating that this structure is required for interaction with the endosomal sorting complex required for ..
  32. Shibata H, Suzuki H, Yoshida H, Maki M. ALG-2 directly binds Sec31A and localizes at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:756-63 pubmed
    ..These findings establish Sec31A as a novel target for ALG-2 and provide a framework for studies on the roles of ALG-2 in ER-Golgi transport. ..
  33. Zhang F, Zang T, Wilson S, Johnson M, Bieniasz P. Clathrin facilitates the morphogenesis of retrovirus particles. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002119 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which clathrin contributes to the spatial organization of Gag and Pol proteins, and thereby regulates proteolytic processing of virion components during particle assembly. ..
  34. Kim B, Olzmann J, Barsh G, Chin L, Li L. Spongiform neurodegeneration-associated E3 ligase Mahogunin ubiquitylates TSG101 and regulates endosomal trafficking. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1129-42 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a role for Mahogunin in a proteasome-independent ubiquitylation pathway and suggest a link between dysregulation of endosomal trafficking and spongiform neurodegeneration. ..
  35. Shtanko O, Watanabe S, Jasenosky L, Watanabe T, Kawaoka Y. ALIX/AIP1 is required for NP incorporation into Mopeia virus Z-induced virus-like particles. J Virol. 2011;85:3631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that ALIX/AIP1, an ESCRT-associated host protein, is required for the incorporation of the NP of Mopeia virus, a close ..
  36. Jouvenet N, Zhadina M, Bieniasz P, Simon S. Dynamics of ESCRT protein recruitment during retroviral assembly. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..the recruitment of several ESCRT and associated proteins during the assembly of two retroviruses, we show that Alix progressively accumulated at viral assembly sites, coincident with the accumulation of the main viral structural ..
  37. Baietti M, Zhang Z, Mortier E, Melchior A, Degeest G, Geeraerts A, et al. Syndecan-syntenin-ALIX regulates the biogenesis of exosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Syntenin interacts directly with ALIX through LYPX(n)L motifs, similarly to retroviral proteins, and supports the intraluminal budding of endosomal ..
  38. Fisher R, Chung H, Zhai Q, Robinson H, Sundquist W, Hill C. Structural and biochemical studies of ALIX/AIP1 and its role in retrovirus budding. Cell. 2007;128:841-52 pubmed
    ALIX/AIP1 functions in enveloped virus budding, endosomal protein sorting, and many other cellular processes...
  39. von Schwedler U, Stuchell M, Muller B, Ward D, Chung H, Morita E, et al. The protein network of HIV budding. Cell. 2003;114:701-13 pubmed
    ..These proteins were connected into a coherent network by 43 different protein-protein interactions, with AIP1 playing a key role in linking complexes that act early (TSG101/ESCRT-I) and late (CHMP4/ESCRT-III) in the pathway...
  40. Carlton J, Martin Serrano J. Parallels between cytokinesis and retroviral budding: a role for the ESCRT machinery. Science. 2007;316:1908-12 pubmed
    ..gene 101 (Tsg101), a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I), and Alix, an ESCRT-associated protein-were recruited to the midbody during cytokinesis by interaction with centrosome ..
  41. Sette P, Mu R, Dussupt V, Jiang J, Snyder G, Smith P, et al. The Phe105 loop of Alix Bro1 domain plays a key role in HIV-1 release. Structure. 2011;19:1485-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Alix and cellular paralogs HD-PTP and Brox contain N-terminal Bro1 domains that bind ESCRT-III CHMP4...
  42. Rauch S, Martin Serrano J. Multiple interactions between the ESCRT machinery and arrestin-related proteins: implications for PPXY-dependent budding. J Virol. 2011;85:3546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..HECT ubiquitin ligases, and they also exhibit multiple interactions with components of the ESCRT pathway, namely, ALIX and Tsg101, and perhaps with an as yet unidentified factor...
  43. Bleck M, Itano M, Johnson D, Thomas V, North A, Bieniasz P, et al. Temporal and spatial organization of ESCRT protein recruitment during HIV-1 budding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using two-color superresolution imaging, we observed that the ESCRT machinery (Tsg101, Alix, and Chmp4b/c proteins) is positioned at the periphery of the nascent virions, with the Tsg101 assemblages ..
  44. Ku P, Bendjennat M, Ballew J, Landesman M, Saffarian S. ALIX is recruited temporarily into HIV-1 budding sites at the end of gag assembly. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96950 pubmed publisher
    ..ESCRT assembly is initiated by recruitment of ALIX and TSG101/ESCRT-I, which bind directly to the viral Gag protein and then recruit the downstream ESCRT-III and VPS4 ..
  45. Sette P, Jadwin J, Dussupt V, Bello N, Bouamr F. The ESCRT-associated protein Alix recruits the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release through the LYPXnL L domain motif. J Virol. 2010;84:8181-92 pubmed publisher
    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPX(n)L, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively...
  46. Martin Serrano J, Yarovoy A, Perez Caballero D, Bieniasz P, Yaravoy A. Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12414-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, interactions between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III are bridged by AIP-1/ALIX, a mammalian orthologue of the yeast class E VPS factor, Bro1...
  47. Eastman S, Martin Serrano J, Chung W, Zang T, Bieniasz P. Identification of human VPS37C, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I important for viral budding. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:628-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study identifies VPS37C as a functional component of mammalian ESCRT-I...
  48. Morita E, Sandrin V, Chung H, Morham S, Gygi S, Rodesch C, et al. Human ESCRT and ALIX proteins interact with proteins of the midbody and function in cytokinesis. EMBO J. 2007;26:4215-27 pubmed
    TSG101 and ALIX both function in HIV budding and in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body (MVB), where they interact with other Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) pathway factors required for release of ..
  49. Zhou X, Pan S, Sun L, Corvera J, Lee Y, Lin S, et al. The CHMP4b- and Src-docking sites in the Bro1 domain are autoinhibited in the native state of Alix. Biochem J. 2009;418:277-84 pubmed publisher
    The Bro1 domain of Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X], which plays important roles in endosomal sorting and multiple ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-linked processes, contains the docking ..
  50. Carlton J, Agromayor M, Martin Serrano J. Differential requirements for Alix and ESCRT-III in cytokinesis and HIV-1 release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10541-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the ESCRT-III-binding protein Alix is recruited to the midbody of dividing cells through binding Cep55 via an evolutionarily conserved peptide...
  51. Matsuo H, Chevallier J, Mayran N, Le Blanc I, Ferguson C, Faure J, et al. Role of LBPA and Alix in multivesicular liposome formation and endosome organization. Science. 2004;303:531-4 pubmed
    ..This process depended on the same pH gradient that exists across endosome membranes in vivo and was selectively controlled by Alix. In turn, Alix regulated the organization of LBPA-containing endosomes in vivo.
  52. Shibata H, Yamada K, Mizuno T, Yorikawa C, Takahashi H, Satoh H, et al. The penta-EF-hand protein ALG-2 interacts with a region containing PxY repeats in Alix/AIP1, which is required for the subcellular punctate distribution of the amino-terminal truncation form of Alix/AIP1. J Biochem. 2004;135:117-28 pubmed
    ..to the penta-EF-hand protein family and associates with several proteins, including annexin VII, annexin XI, and Alix/AIP1, in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
  53. Welsch S, Habermann A, Jäger S, Muller B, Krijnse Locker J, Kräusslich H. Ultrastructural analysis of ESCRT proteins suggests a role for endosome-associated tubular-vesicular membranes in ESCRT function. Traffic. 2006;7:1551-66 pubmed
    ..These results represent the first systematic ultrastructural localization of ESCRT and provide insights into its role in uninfected and HIV-infected cells. ..
  54. Carlson L, Briggs J, Glass B, Riches J, Simon M, Johnson M, et al. Three-dimensional analysis of budding sites and released virus suggests a revised model for HIV-1 morphogenesis. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that ESCRT functions early in HIV-1 release--akin to its role in vesicle formation--and is not restricted to severing the thin membrane tether. ..
  55. Chen H, Fermin A, Vardhana S, Weng I, Lo K, Chang E, et al. Galectin-3 negatively regulates TCR-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation at the immunological synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14496-501 pubmed publisher
    ..By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified as a galectin-3-binding partner, Alix, which is known to be involved in protein transport and regulation of cell surface expression of certain receptors...
  56. Okumura M, Katsuyama A, Shibata H, Maki M. VPS37 isoforms differentially modulate the ternary complex formation of ALIX, ALG-2, and ESCRT-I. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1715-21 pubmed
    ..There are four VPS37 isoforms. We have reported that ALIX (an ALG-2-interacting protein and accessory protein in the ESCRT system) is physically linked with TSG101 by ALG-2 ..
  57. Katoh K, Shibata H, Hatta K, Maki M. CHMP4b is a major binding partner of the ALG-2-interacting protein Alix among the three CHMP4 isoforms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;421:159-65 pubmed
    The ALG-2-interacting protein Alix has recently been demonstrated to associate with CHMP4b that is a human homologue of yeast Snf7p (also named Vps32p) and a member of the family of small coiled-coil proteins named CHMP implicated in ..
  58. Zhou X, Pan S, Sun L, Corvera J, Lin S, Kuang J. The HIV-1 p6/EIAV p9 docking site in Alix is autoinhibited as revealed by a conformation-sensitive anti-Alix monoclonal antibody. Biochem J. 2008;414:215-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X], a component of the endosomal sorting machinery, contains a three-dimensional docking site for HIV-1 p6(Gag) or EIAV (equine infectious anaemia virus) p9(Gag), and binding of ..
  59. Pires R, Hartlieb B, Signor L, Schoehn G, Lata S, Roessle M, et al. A crescent-shaped ALIX dimer targets ESCRT-III CHMP4 filaments. Structure. 2009;17:843-56 pubmed publisher
    b>ALIX recruits ESCRT-III CHMP4 and is involved in membrane remodeling during endosomal receptor sorting, budding of some enveloped viruses, and cytokinesis. We show that ALIX dimerizes via the middle domain (ALIX(-V)) in solution...
  60. Irie T, Inoue M, Sakaguchi T. Significance of the YLDL motif in the M protein and Alix/AIP1 for Sendai virus budding in the context of virus infection. Virology. 2010;405:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of an M-deficient SeV, formed VLPs when expressed with viral C protein, and restored the capacity to bind with Alix/AIP1...
  61. Ren X, Hurley J. Proline-rich regions and motifs in trafficking: from ESCRT interaction to viral exploitation. Traffic. 2011;12:1282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The PRR of the ESCRT-associated protein, ALIX, autoregulates its conformation and activity...
  62. Katoh K, Shibata H, Suzuki H, Nara A, Ishidoh K, Kominami E, et al. The ALG-2-interacting protein Alix associates with CHMP4b, a human homologue of yeast Snf7 that is involved in multivesicular body sorting. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39104-13 pubmed
    b>Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X) is a 95-kDa protein that interacts with an EF-hand type Ca(2+)-binding protein, ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2), through its C-terminal proline-rich region...
  63. Zhai Q, Landesman M, Chung H, Dierkers A, Jeffries C, Trewhella J, et al. Activation of the retroviral budding factor ALIX. J Virol. 2011;85:9222-6 pubmed publisher
    The cellular ALIX protein functions within the ESCRT pathway to facilitate intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding...
  64. Shibata H, Suzuki H, Kakiuchi T, Inuzuka T, Yoshida H, Mizuno T, et al. Identification of Alix-type and Non-Alix-type ALG-2-binding sites in human phospholipid scramblase 3: differential binding to an alternatively spliced isoform and amino acid-substituted mutants. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9623-32 pubmed publisher
    ALG-2, a prototypic member of the penta-EF-hand protein family, interacts with Alix at its C-terminal Pro-rich region containing four tandem PXY repeats...
  65. Meng B, Lever A. Wrapping up the bad news: HIV assembly and release. Retrovirology. 2013;10:5 pubmed publisher
  66. Sette P, Dussupt V, Bouamr F. Identification of the HIV-1 NC binding interface in Alix Bro1 reveals a role for RNA. J Virol. 2012;86:11608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Gag protein gains access to ESCRT directly by binding Alix, an ESCRT-associated protein that promotes budding...
  67. Petiot A, Strappazzon F, Chatellard Causse C, Blot B, Torch S, Verna J, et al. Alix differs from ESCRT proteins in the control of autophagy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:63-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Alix/AIP1 is a cytosolic protein that regulates cell death through mechanisms that remain unclear...
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    ..Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X)/AIP1 (ALG-2-interacting protein 1), one of its binding partners, interacts with TSG101 and CHMP4 (charged multivesicular ..
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    b>Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X] was originally identified as a protein that interacts with ALG-2, a member of the penta-EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein family...
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    ..PEF) protein family and Ca2+-dependently interacts with various intracellular proteins including mammalian Alix, an adaptor protein in the ESCRT system...
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    ..The YPX(n)L late domains of HIV and other lentiviruses recruit the protein ALIX (also known as AIP1), which also functions in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body and in the abscission ..
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    ..gene 101), and an auxiliary LYPX(n)L (Leu-Tyr-Pro-Xaa(n)-Leu)-type L domain recruits the ESCRT-III-binding partner Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X]...
  73. Medina G, Ehrlich L, Chen M, Khan M, Powell M, Carter C. Sprouty 2 binds ESCRT-II factor Eap20 and facilitates HIV-1 gag release. J Virol. 2011;85:7353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..in Gag and that bypass of ESCRT-II is achieved by the linkage of Gag to ESCRT-III through the adaptor protein Alix. However, the mechanism by which Gag suppresses the interaction of bound ESCRT-I with ESCRT-II is unknown...
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    The adaptor protein ALIX [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked-gene-2 product)-interacting protein X] links retroviruses to ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery during retroviral budding...
  75. Lee H, Elia N, Ghirlando R, Lippincott Schwartz J, Hurley J. Midbody targeting of the ESCRT machinery by a noncanonical coiled coil in CEP55. Science. 2008;322:576-80 pubmed publisher
    ..An essential step in cytokinesis is recruitment of the ESCRT-I complex and the ESCRT-associated protein ALIX to the midbody (the structure that tethers two daughter cells) by the protein CEP55...
  76. Iwamori T, Iwamori N, Ma L, Edson M, Greenbaum M, Matzuk M. TEX14 interacts with CEP55 to block cell abscission. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2280-92 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, abscission, the physical separation of daughter cells at the completion of cytokinesis, requires CEP55, ALIX, and TSG101...
  77. Dussupt V, Javid M, Abou Jaoudé G, Jadwin J, de La Cruz J, Nagashima K, et al. The nucleocapsid region of HIV-1 Gag cooperates with the PTAP and LYPXnL late domains to recruit the cellular machinery necessary for viral budding. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000339 pubmed publisher
    ..mediated through two motifs in the p6 region of Gag, PTAP and LYPX(n)L, which recruit cellular proteins Tsg101 and Alix, respectively...
  78. Fujii K, Munshi U, Ablan S, Demirov D, Soheilian F, Nagashima K, et al. Functional role of Alix in HIV-1 replication. Virology. 2009;391:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The P(T/S)AP and YPX(n)L motifs interact with the endosomal sorting factors Tsg101 and Alix, respectively...
  79. Vincent O, Rainbow L, Tilburn J, Arst H, Peñalva M. YPXL/I is a protein interaction motif recognized by aspergillus PalA and its human homologue, AIP1/Alix. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1647-55 pubmed
    ..PalA is a component of the fungal ambient pH signal transduction pathway. Its mammalian homologue AIP1/Alix interacts with the apoptosis-linked protein ALG-2...