Gene Symbol: PDCD1
Description: programmed cell death 1
Alias: CD279, PD-1, PD1, SLEB2, hPD-1, hPD-l, hSLE1, programmed cell death protein 1, programmed cell death 1 protein, protein PD-1, systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility 2
Species: human
Products:     PDCD1

Top Publications

  1. Keir M, Butte M, Freeman G, Sharpe A. PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:677-704 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their therapeutic potential. ..
  2. Huang X, Venet F, Wang Y, Lepape A, Yuan Z, Chen Y, et al. PD-1 expression by macrophages plays a pathologic role in altering microbial clearance and the innate inflammatory response to sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6303-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Carreras J, Lopez Guillermo A, Roncador G, Villamor N, Colomo L, Martinez A, et al. High numbers of tumor-infiltrating programmed cell death 1-positive regulatory lymphocytes are associated with improved overall survival in follicular lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1470-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the impact of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) -positive inhibitory immunoregulatory lymphoid cells in the clinicobiologic features and outcome of patients with FL...
  4. Armand P, Nagler A, Weller E, Devine S, Avigan D, Chen Y, et al. Disabling immune tolerance by programmed death-1 blockade with pidilizumab after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of an international phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:4199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of clinical activity of PD-1 blockade in DLBCL. Given these results, PD-1 blockade after AHSCT using pidilizumab may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in this disease. ..
  5. Fisicaro P, Valdatta C, Massari M, Loggi E, Biasini E, Sacchelli L, et al. Antiviral intrahepatic T-cell responses can be restored by blocking programmed death-1 pathway in chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:682-93, 693.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..By restoring antiviral T-cell functions, not only in peripheral but also in intrahepatic lymphocytes, anti-PD-L1 might be a good therapeutic candidate for chronic HBV infection. ..
  6. Riella L, Paterson A, Sharpe A, Chandraker A. Role of the PD-1 pathway in the immune response. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:2575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their therapeutic potential in transplantation. ..
  7. French J, Kotnis G, Said S, Raeburn C, McIntyre R, Klopper J, et al. Programmed death-1+ T cells and regulatory T cells are enriched in tumor-involved lymph nodes and associated with aggressive features in papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E934-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased Treg and PD-1(+) T cell frequencies in LN may be indicative of aggressive recurrent PTC. Future prospective studies are necessary to determine the prognostic and therapeutic value of these findings in PTC. ..
  8. Fourcade J, Sun Z, Benallaoua M, Guillaume P, Luescher I, Sander C, et al. Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction in melanoma patients. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings support the use of Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade together with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade to reverse tumor-induced T cell exhaustion/dysfunction in patients with advanced melanoma. ..
  9. Taube J, Klein A, Brahmer J, Xu H, Pan X, Kim J, et al. Association of PD-1, PD-1 ligands, and other features of the tumor immune microenvironment with response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:5064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Clin Cancer Res; 20(19); 5064-74. ©2014 AACR. ..

More Information


  1. Meng Q, Liu X, Yang P, Hou S, Du L, Zhou H, et al. PDCD1 genes may protect against extraocular manifestations in Chinese Han patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Mol Vis. 2009;15:386-92 pubmed
    To analyze the potential association of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome in a Chinese Han population.
  2. Fourcade J, Kudela P, Sun Z, Shen H, Land S, Lenzner D, et al. PD-1 is a regulator of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cell expansion in melanoma patients. J Immunol. 2009;182:5240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They further support the use of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in cancer patients to partially restore NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cell numbers and functions, increasing the likelihood of tumor regression. ..
  3. Muenst S, Hoeller S, Dirnhofer S, Tzankov A. Increased programmed death-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma substantiate reduced overall survival. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with the latter, PD-1+ cells might represent important lymphoma/host microenvironment modulators. ..
  4. Shi F, Shi M, Zeng Z, Qi R, Liu Z, Zhang J, et al. PD-1 and PD-L1 upregulation promotes CD8(+) T-cell apoptosis and postoperative recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study extends our knowledge of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in tumor evasion and provides evidence for a new therapeutic target in HCC patients. ..
  5. Raziorrouh B, Schraut W, Gerlach T, Nowack D, Grüner N, Ulsenheimer A, et al. The immunoregulatory role of CD244 in chronic hepatitis B infection and its inhibitory potential on virus-specific CD8+ T-cell function. Hepatology. 2010;52:1934-47 pubmed publisher
    ..CD244 may thus be another potential target for immunotherapy in chronic viral infections. ..
  6. McMahan R, Golden Mason L, Nishimura M, McMahon B, Kemper M, Allen T, et al. Tim-3 expression on PD-1+ HCV-specific human CTLs is associated with viral persistence, and its blockade restores hepatocyte-directed in vitro cytotoxicity. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:4546-57 pubmed publisher
  7. Richendollar B, Pohlman B, Elson P, Hsi E. Follicular programmed death 1-positive lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment are an independent prognostic factor in follicular lymphoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies, performed prospectively on uniformly treated patient cohorts, should be performed to validate these findings. ..
  8. Fife B, Pauken K. The role of the PD-1 pathway in autoimmunity and peripheral tolerance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1217:45-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss the potential to selectively target the PD-1 pathway therapeutically to alter T cell function during autoimmunity. ..
  9. Porichis F, Kwon D, Zupkosky J, Tighe D, McMullen A, Brockman M, et al. Responsiveness of HIV-specific CD4 T cells to PD-1 blockade. Blood. 2011;118:965-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that PD-1 impairs HIV-specific T helper responses both by limiting expansion of these cells and by inhibiting effector functions of multiple differentiated CD4 T-cell subsets. ..
  10. Locci M, Havenar Daughton C, Landais E, Wu J, Kroenke M, Arlehamn C, et al. Human circulating PD-1+CXCR3-CXCR5+ memory Tfh cells are highly functional and correlate with broadly neutralizing HIV antibody responses. Immunity. 2013;39:758-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the frequency of these cells correlated with the development of bnAbs against HIV in a large cohort of HIV? individuals. ..
  11. Youngblood B, Oestreich K, Ha S, Duraiswamy J, Akondy R, West E, et al. Chronic virus infection enforces demethylation of the locus that encodes PD-1 in antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Immunity. 2011;35:400-12 pubmed publisher
    ..naive to effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation was accompanied by a transient loss of DNA methylation of the Pdcd1 locus that was directly coupled to the duration and strength of T cell receptor signaling...
  12. Myklebust J, Irish J, Brody J, Czerwinski D, Houot R, Kohrt H, et al. High PD-1 expression and suppressed cytokine signaling distinguish T cells infiltrating follicular lymphoma tumors from peripheral T cells. Blood. 2013;121:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Because FL TILs in vivo probably receive suppressive signals through PD-1, this provides a rationale for testing PD-1 Ab in combination with immunotherapy in patients with FL. ..
  13. Salisch N, Kaufmann D, Awad A, Reeves R, Tighe D, Li Y, et al. Inhibitory TCR coreceptor PD-1 is a sensitive indicator of low-level replication of SIV and HIV-1. J Immunol. 2010;184:476-87 pubmed publisher
  14. Bertsias G, Nakou M, Choulaki C, Raptopoulou A, Papadimitraki E, Goulielmos G, et al. Genetic, immunologic, and immunohistochemical analysis of the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway in human systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:207-18 pubmed publisher
    A putative regulatory intronic polymorphism (PD1.3) in the programmed death 1 (PD-1) gene, a negative regulator of T cells involved in peripheral tolerance, is associated with increased risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  15. Gianchecchi E, Delfino D, Fierabracci A. Recent insights into the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2013;12:1091-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We finally speculate on the possible development of novel therapeutic treatments in human autoimmunity by modulating the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. ..
  16. Ahmadzadeh M, Johnson L, Heemskerk B, Wunderlich J, Dudley M, White D, et al. Tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells infiltrating the tumor express high levels of PD-1 and are functionally impaired. Blood. 2009;114:1537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the tumor microenvironment can lead to up-regulation of PD-1 on tumor-reactive T cells and contribute to impaired antitumor immune responses. ..
  17. Kassel R, Cruise M, Iezzoni J, Taylor N, Pruett T, Hahn Y. Chronically inflamed livers up-regulate expression of inhibitory B7 family members. Hepatology. 2009;50:1625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The PD-1 pathway may assist the liver in protecting itself from immune-mediated destruction. ..
  18. Lyford Pike S, Peng S, Young G, Taube J, Westra W, Akpeng B, et al. Evidence for a role of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway in immune resistance of HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1733-41 pubmed publisher
  19. Raptopoulou A, Bertsias G, Makrygiannakis D, Verginis P, Kritikos I, Tzardi M, et al. The programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 inhibitory pathway is up-regulated in rheumatoid synovium and regulates peripheral T cell responses in human and murine arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1870-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative costimulatory PD-1/PDL-1 pathway regulates peripheral T cell responses in both human and murine RA. PD-1/PDL-1 in rheumatoid synovium may represent an additional target for immunomodulatory therapy in RA. ..
  20. Zhang Y, Huang S, Gong D, Qin Y, Shen Q. Programmed death-1 upregulation is correlated with dysfunction of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes in human non-small cell lung cancer. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide direct evidence that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is involved in CD8+ T-cell dysfunction in NSCLC patients. Moreover, blocking this pathway provides a potential therapy target in lung cancer. ..
  21. Muenst S, Hoeller S, Willi N, Dirnhofera S, Tzankov A. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of PD-1 in B cell lymphomas. Dis Markers. 2010;29:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data suggest prognostic importance of PD-1 in follicular lymphoma (FL). We assessed the diagnostic potential and the prognostic importance of PD-1 in B-cell lymphomas...
  22. Zeng Z, Shi F, Zhou L, Zhang M, Chen Y, Chang X, et al. Upregulation of circulating PD-L1/PD-1 is associated with poor post-cryoablation prognosis in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23621 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of circulating PD-L1/PD-1 is associated with poor post-cryoablation prognosis in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  23. Xie Z, Chen Y, Zhao S, Yang Z, Yao X, Guo S, et al. Intrahepatic PD-1/PD-L1 up-regulation closely correlates with inflammation and virus replication in patients with chronic HBV infection. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:624-38 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the intrahepatic interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 might play an important role in balancing the immune response to HBV and immune-mediated liver damage in chronic HBV infection. ..
  24. Francisco L, Sage P, Sharpe A. The PD-1 pathway in tolerance and autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. 2010;236:219-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this review also discusses how the PD-1 pathway regulates a number of autoimmune diseases and the therapeutic potential of PD-1: PD-L modulation. ..
  25. Petrovas C, Chaon B, Ambrozak D, Price D, Melenhorst J, Hill B, et al. Differential association of programmed death-1 and CD57 with ex vivo survival of CD8+ T cells in HIV infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:1120-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data further support the role of PD-1 as a preapoptotic factor for CD8(+) T cells in HIV infection. ..
  26. Mumprecht S, Schürch C, Schwaller J, Solenthaler M, Ochsenbein A. Programmed death 1 signaling on chronic myeloid leukemia-specific T cells results in T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Blood. 2009;114:1528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction may restore the function of CML-specific CTLs and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for CML. ..
  27. Lee S, Lee Y, Woo D, Song R, Park E, Ryu M, et al. Association of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene polymorphism with ankylosing spondylitis in the Korean population. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R163 pubmed
    The PD-1 (programmed death 1) molecule is a negative regulator of T cells. PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1) has been reported to have a genetic association in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in Caucasians...
  28. Urbani S, Amadei B, Tola D, Massari M, Schivazappa S, Missale G, et al. PD-1 expression in acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with HCV-specific CD8 exhaustion. J Virol. 2006;80:11398-403 pubmed
    ..Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 interaction with an anti-PDL-1 antibody improved the capacity of expansion of virus-specific CD8 cells. ..
  29. Chemnitz J, Parry R, Nichols K, June C, Riley J. SHP-1 and SHP-2 associate with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif of programmed death 1 upon primary human T cell stimulation, but only receptor ligation prevents T cell activation. J Immunol. 2004;173:945-54 pubmed
    ..Despite this interaction, the ability of PD-1 to block T cell activation required receptor ligation, suggesting that colocalization of PD-1 with CD3 and/or CD28 may be necessary for inhibition of T cell activation. ..
  30. Nielsen C, Hansen D, Husby S, Jacobsen B, Lillevang S. Association of a putative regulatory polymorphism in the PD-1 gene with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Tissue Antigens. 2003;62:492-7 pubmed
    ..92]. The associated allele is previously shown to alter a transcription factor-binding site (RUNX1/AML1), and the results of this study suggest that this allele could act as an additional susceptibility allele to type 1 diabetes. ..
  31. Nielsen C, Ohm Laursen L, Barington T, Husby S, Lillevang S. Alternative splice variants of the human PD-1 gene. Cell Immunol. 2005;235:109-16 pubmed
  32. Saunders P, Hendrycks V, Lidinsky W, Woods M. PD-L2:PD-1 involvement in T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and integrin-mediated adhesion. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:3561-9 pubmed
    ..Anti-CD3 mAb + PD-L2 stimulation also increased the level of SHP-2 associated with the PD-1 receptor. These results suggest that catalytically active SHP-2 associated with the PD-1 receptor is involved in modulating T cell function. ..
  33. Vibhakar R, Juan G, Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z, Finger L. Activation-induced expression of human programmed death-1 gene in T-lymphocytes. Exp Cell Res. 1997;232:25-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for hPD-1 during activation and differentiation of T-lymphocytes. ..
  34. Parry R, Chemnitz J, Frauwirth K, Lanfranco A, Braunstein I, Kobayashi S, et al. CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9543-53 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibit T-cell activation through distinct and potentially synergistic mechanisms. ..
  35. Kroner A, Mehling M, Hemmer B, Rieckmann P, Toyka K, Maurer M, et al. A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2005;58:50-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that PD-1 polymorphism is a genetic modifier of the progression of MS, possibly through inducing a partial defect in PD-1-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation. ..
  36. Iwamoto T, Ikari K, Inoue E, Toyama Y, Hara M, Yamanaka H, et al. Failure to confirm association between PDCD1 polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population. J Hum Genet. 2007;52:557-60 pubmed
    Programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) is a necessary negative regulator to maintain peripheral tolerance and is a key molecule in the development of autoimmune diseases...
  37. Kinter A, Godbout E, McNally J, Sereti I, Roby G, O Shea M, et al. The common gamma-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 induce the expression of programmed death-1 and its ligands. J Immunol. 2008;181:6738-46 pubmed
  38. Newby P, Roberts Davies E, Brand O, Heward J, Franklyn J, Gough S, et al. Tag SNP screening of the PDCD1 gene for association with Graves' disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;67:125-8 pubmed
    The Programmed Cell Death 1 gene (PDCD1) on chromosome 2q37.3 encodes PD-1 which is involved in providing a negative signal to activated T cells...
  39. Shimauchi T, Kabashima K, Nakashima D, Sugita K, Yamada Y, Hino R, et al. Augmented expression of programmed death-1 in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic CD4+ T-cells in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2585-90 pubmed
  40. Prokunina L, Castillejo Lopez C, Oberg F, Gunnarsson I, Berg L, Magnusson V, et al. A regulatory polymorphism in PDCD1 is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in humans. Nat Genet. 2002;32:666-9 pubmed
    ..We previously reported a susceptibility locus (SLEB2) for Nordic multi-case families...
  41. Asad S, Fawwaz S, Nikamo P, Torn C, Landin Olsson M, Lernmark A, et al. No evidence of association of the PDCD1 gene with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2007;24:1473-7 pubmed
    To test the association between the immunoreceptor PD-1 (PDCD1) gene and Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
  42. Iwai Y, Okazaki T, Nishimura H, Kawasaki A, Yagita H, Honjo T. Microanatomical localization of PD-1 in human tonsils. Immunol Lett. 2002;83:215-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PD-1 may play an important role in GC reaction. ..
  43. Zhang Z, Zhang J, Wherry E, Jin B, Xu B, Zou Z, et al. Dynamic programmed death 1 expression by virus-specific CD8 T cells correlates with the outcome of acute hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1938-49, 1949.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore shows how this negative signaling pathway functions in such early HBV infection, which will be important for better clinical management, prognosis, and new HBV treatments. ..
  44. Bennett F, Luxenberg D, Ling V, Wang I, Marquette K, Lowe D, et al. Program death-1 engagement upon TCR activation has distinct effects on costimulation and cytokine-driven proliferation: attenuation of ICOS, IL-4, and IL-21, but not CD28, IL-7, and IL-15 responses. J Immunol. 2003;170:711-8 pubmed
  45. Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies D, Dong H, Honjo T, Chen L. Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1083-91 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal unique binding characteristics of B7-H1 and B7-DC and provide direct evidence for an independent costimulatory receptor other than PD-1. ..
  46. Latchman Y, Wood C, Chernova T, Chaudhary D, Borde M, Chernova I, et al. PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:261-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies show overlapping functions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and indicate a key role for the PD-L-PD-1 pathway in regulatingT cell responses. ..
  47. Rutebemberwa A, Ray S, Astemborski J, Levine J, Liu L, Dowd K, et al. High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection. J Immunol. 2008;181:8215-25 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that PD-1 expression on T cells specific for nonescaped epitopes contributes to viral persistence and suggest that PD-1 blockade may alter the outcome of HCV infection. ..
  48. Kong E, Prokunina Olsson L, Wong W, Lau C, Chan T, ALARCON RIQUELME M, et al. A new haplotype of PDCD1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Hong Kong Chinese. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:1058-62 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PDCD1 polymorphisms and haplotypes with RA in the Chinese population. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PD-1...
  49. Ishida Y, Agata Y, Shibahara K, Honjo T. Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death. EMBO J. 1992;11:3887-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that activation of the PD-1 gene may be involved in the classical type of programmed cell death. ..
  50. Trautmann L, Janbazian L, Chomont N, Said E, Gimmig S, Bessette B, et al. Upregulation of PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD8+ T cells leads to reversible immune dysfunction. Nat Med. 2006;12:1198-202 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of HIV-specific dysfunctional CD8(+) T cells in the infected host could prevent the renewal of a functionally competent HIV-specific CD8(+) repertoire. ..
  51. Yao Z, King E, Prayther D, Yin D, Moorman J. T cell dysfunction by hepatitis C virus core protein involves PD-1/PDL-1 signaling. Viral Immunol. 2007;20:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This upregulation of the PD-1 and PDL-1 pathway in humans represents a novel and perhaps common mechanism by which a virus usurps host machinery to facilitate persistence...
  52. Kobayashi M, Kawano S, Hatachi S, Kurimoto C, Okazaki T, Iwai Y, et al. Enhanced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:2156-63 pubmed
    ..PD-1 is expressed on T lymphocytes and PD-L1 on epithelial cells from inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS, which suggests that dysfunction of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be related to tolerance for lymphocytes, which causes SS. ..
  53. Petrovas C, Casazza J, Brenchley J, Price D, Gostick E, Adams W, et al. PD-1 is a regulator of virus-specific CD8+ T cell survival in HIV infection. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2281-92 pubmed
  54. Wang S, Chen Y, Ou T, Wu C, Tsai W, Liu H, et al. Programmed death-1 gene polymorphisms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan. J Clin Immunol. 2006;26:506-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the association of PD-1 7209 C with susceptibility to SLE was independent of the PD-1 ligand. This study also showed that the PD-1-536 A 7146 G 7209 C 7499 G haplotype was associated with the development of SLE in Taiwan. ..
  55. Thorburn C, Prokunina Olsson L, Sterba K, Lum R, Seldin M, Alarcon Riquelme M, et al. Association of PDCD1 genetic variation with risk and clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic cohort. Genes Immun. 2007;8:279-87 pubmed
    We evaluated the roles of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PDCD1, and haplotypes defined by these SNPs, for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and specific sub-phenotypes (nephritis, antiphospholipid ..
  56. Lin S, Yen J, Tsai J, Tsai W, Ou T, Liu H, et al. Association of a programmed death 1 gene polymorphism with the development of rheumatoid arthritis, but not systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:770-5 pubmed
    ..32, P < 0.0001) or the C/T genotype (odds ratio 3.52, P < 0.00005). The PD-1 gene is significantly associated with RA susceptibility, suggesting the possibility that PD-1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  57. Golden Mason L, Palmer B, Klarquist J, Mengshol J, Castelblanco N, Rosen H. Upregulation of PD-1 expression on circulating and intrahepatic hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells associated with reversible immune dysfunction. J Virol. 2007;81:9249-58 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the PD-1/PD-L pathway is critical in persistent HCV infection in humans and represents a potential novel target for restoring function of exhausted HCV-specific CTLs. ..
  58. Peng G, Li S, Wu W, Tan X, Chen Y, Chen Z. PD-1 upregulation is associated with HBV-specific T cell dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B patients. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:963-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, PD-1 upregulation on HBV-specific CD8 T cells is engaged in the dysfunction of T cells and high viraemia in CHB patients, and the antiviral T-cell responses could be improved by the blockade of this inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. ..
  59. Kasprowicz V, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Kuntzen T, Nolan B, Longworth S, Berical A, et al. High level of PD-1 expression on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during acute HCV infection, irrespective of clinical outcome. J Virol. 2008;82:3154-60 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that an analysis of PD-1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict infection outcome or to determine T-cell functionality in HCV infection. ..
  60. Yamamoto R, Nishikori M, Kitawaki T, Sakai T, Hishizawa M, Tashima M, et al. PD-1-PD-1 ligand interaction contributes to immunosuppressive microenvironment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2008;111:3220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding provides a potentially effective immunologic strategy for the treatment of HL. ..
  61. Day C, Kaufmann D, Kiepiela P, Brown J, Moodley E, Reddy S, et al. PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Nature. 2006;443:350-4 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific ..
  62. Sanghera D, Manzi S, Bontempo F, Nestlerode C, Kamboh M. Role of an intronic polymorphism in the PDCD1 gene with the risk of sporadic systemic lupus erythematosus and the occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Hum Genet. 2004;115:393-8 pubmed
    Recently, a polymorphism in intron 4 (G/A) of the programmed cell death 1 ( PDCD1) gene was shown to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk in familial and sporadic patients of European, European American, and Mexican ..
  63. Prokunina L, Padyukov L, Bennet A, de Faire U, Wiman B, Prince J, et al. Association of the PD-1.3A allele of the PDCD1 gene in patients with rheumatoid arthritis negative for rheumatoid factor and the shared epitope. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1770-3 pubmed
    To study the frequency of allele A of polymorphism PD-1.3 of the PDCD1 gene in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its subsets, based on the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and the shared epitope (SE) alleles...
  64. Hayashi M, Kouki T, Takasu N, Sunagawa S, Komiya I. Association of an A/C single nucleotide polymorphism in programmed cell death-ligand 1 gene with Graves' disease in Japanese patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..An A/C polymorphism at position 8923 in PD-L1 is associated with GD. The PD-L1 polymorphism plays a role in GD development. GD patients with the C allele at position 8923 in PD-L1 gene had difficulty in achieving remission. ..