PCYT1B

Summary

Gene Symbol: PCYT1B
Description: phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta
Alias: CCTB, CTB, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B, CCT B, CCT-beta, CT B, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase b, phosphorylcholine transferase B
Species: human
Products:     PCYT1B

Top Publications

  1. Terrinoni M, Nordqvist S, Källgård S, Holmgren J, Lebens M. A Novel Nonantibiotic, lgt-Based Selection System for Stable Maintenance of Expression Vectors in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84: pubmed publisher
    ..coli The resulting strain was used to produce the secreted recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) protein, a component of licensed as well as newly developed oral cholera vaccines...
  2. Peng W, Chen Y, Luo X, Shan N, Lan X, Olson D, et al. DNA methylation-associated repression of MEST/PEG1 expression contributes to the invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2016;46:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak MEST expression was found in cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) and the choriocarcinoma-derived CTB cell line JEG-3...
  3. Ullah R, Dar S, Ahmad T, de Renty C, Usman M, DePamphilis M, et al. CDK1 inhibition facilitates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts and expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Placenta. 2018;66:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..STBs are polyploid which are formed by fusion of diploid cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells. Abnormality in STBs formation can result in pregnancy-related disorders...
  4. Nuschke A, Farrell S, Levesque J, Chauhan B. Assessment of retinal ganglion cell damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy: Axon transport, injury and soma loss. Exp Eye Res. 2015;141:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate (RITC) and cholera toxin-B (CTB) fluorescent conjugates have proven to be effective reporters of AT...
  5. Shaw P, Sang A, Wang Y, Ho D, Douglas C, Dia L, et al. Topical administration of a Rock/Net inhibitor promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Exp Eye Res. 2017;158:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..IOP was measured starting 3 days before and up to 9 days after injury. On day 12, cholera toxin B (CTB) was injected intravitreally to trace optic nerve regeneration. On day 14, retinas and optic nerves were collected...
  6. Wang R, Wu J, Chen Z, Xia F, Sun Q, Liu L. Postconditioning with inhaled hydrogen promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Brain Res. 2016;1632:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..RGC density was counted using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and retrograde labeling with cholera toxin beta (CTB). Visual function was assessed using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP) and pupillary light reflex (PLR)...
  7. Zou Z, Xie G, Yang L. Papain-like cysteine protease encoding genes in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis): comparative genomics, phylogenetic, and transcriptional profiling analysis. Planta. 2017;246:999-1018 pubmed publisher
    ..e., RD21 (6), CEP (4), XCP (4), XBCP3 (2), THI (1), SAG12 (18), RD19 (4), ALP (2), and CTB (2)...
  8. Kumar S, Singh U, Goswami C, Singru P. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), a highly Ca2+ -selective TRP channel in the rat brain: relevance to neuroendocrine regulation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017;29: pubmed publisher
    ..Following iontophoresis of retrograde neuronal tracer, cholera toxin β (CtB) into the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and median preoptic nucleus, retrograde accumulation of CtB was ..
  9. Gohar A, Abdeltawab N, Fahmy A, Amin M. Development of safe, effective and immunogenic vaccine candidate for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli main pathotypes in a mouse model. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We also evaluated alum and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as potential adjuvant systems for our candidate vaccine...

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gao X, Wu C, Wang X, Xu H, Wu Y, Li Y, et al. The DosR antigen Rv1737c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers inflammation regulation in tuberculosis infection. Scand J Immunol. 2019;89:e12729 pubmed publisher
    ..Following Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) challenge, rRv1737c adjuvanted with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) induced diffuse lung inflammation and fibrosis compared to the control mice...
  2. Lowin T, Apitz M, Anders S, Straub R. Anti-inflammatory effects of N-acylethanolamines in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells are mediated by TRPV1 and TRPA1 in a COX-2 dependent manner. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:321 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by proteome profiling. Proliferation was quantified by CTB reagent. Adhesion was assessed by the xCELLigence system...
  3. Lorenzon Ojea A, Guzzo C, Kapidzic M, Fisher S, Bevilacqua E. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 2: A Novel Protein that Interferes in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Human Placental Cells. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:41 pubmed publisher
    ..001, 2% O2), suggesting a link with cellular stress. ER stress-induced cells-CTB and BeWo-also showed SDF2 downregulation in different time points, emphasizing this relationship...
  4. Cawyer C, Afroze S, Drever N, Allen S, Jones R, Zawieja D, et al. Attenuation of hyperglycemia-induced apoptotic signaling and anti-angiogenic milieu in cultured cytotrophoblast cells. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2016;35:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that hyperglycemia impairs cytotrophoblast cell (CTB) function. In this study, we assess apoptotic and anti-angiogenic signaling in excess glucose-induced CTBs...
  5. Maglione A, Taranto P, Hamermesz B, Souza J, Cafarchio E, Ogihara C, et al. Impact of swimming exercise on inflammation in medullary areas of sympathetic outflow control in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33:1649-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), AT-1 receptor (AT-1r), neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Ctb) in cNTS and RVLM was carried out by qPCR. We observed that COX-2 g.e...
  6. Wilson G, Inman D, Dengler Crish C, Denger Crish C, Smith M, Crish S. Early pro-inflammatory cytokine elevations in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Gpnmb (+) (control) mice using the anterograde tracer cholera toxin-B (CTB) to assay axonal transport deficits...
  7. Patry R, Stahl M, Perez Muñoz M, Nothaft H, Wenzel C, Sacher J, et al. Bacterial AB5 toxins inhibit the growth of gut bacteria by targeting ganglioside-like glycoconjugates. Nat Commun. 2019;10:1390 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the toxin B-subunits (CTB and LTB) inhibit C...
  8. Kamper M, Mittermayer F, Cabuk R, Gelles K, Ellinger I, Hermann M. Estrogen-enhanced apical and basolateral secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by polarized trophoblast-derived BeWo cells. Biochimie. 2017;138:116-123 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ, the multi-ligand receptor LRP2 was expressed exclusively in the cytotrophoblast (CTB), the STB precursor cell type. LDLR and LRP1 localized to trophoblasts as well as stromal cells in situ...
  9. Xiao Y, Kwon K, Hoffman B, Kamesh A, Jones N, Herzog R, et al. Low cost delivery of proteins bioencapsulated in plant cells to human non-immune or immune modulatory cells. Biomaterials. 2016;80:68-79 pubmed publisher
    Targeted oral delivery of GFP fused with a GM1 receptor binding protein (CTB) or human cell penetrating peptide (PTD) or dendritic cell peptide (DCpep) was investigated...
  10. Faunes M, Botelho J, Wild J. Innervation of the syrinx of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:2847-2860 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, ..
  11. Zhang M, Wang M, Gao R, Liu X, Chen X, Geng Y, et al. Altered β1,6-GlcNAc and bisecting GlcNAc-branched N-glycan on integrin β1 are associated with early spontaneous miscarriage in humans. Hum Reprod. 2015;30:2064-75 pubmed publisher
    ..1,6-GlcNAc N-glycan was mainly located outside of the STB and CTB layer in normal villi and was expressed only rarely in the ESM villi...
  12. Kim N, Mbongue J, Nicholas D, Esebanmen G, Unternaehrer J, Firek A, et al. Chimeric Vaccine Stimulation of Human Dendritic Cell Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase Occurs via the Non-Canonical NF-κB Pathway. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147509 pubmed publisher
    A chimeric protein vaccine composed of the cholera toxin B subunit fused to proinsulin (CTB-INS) was shown to suppress type 1 diabetes onset in NOD mice and upregulate biosynthesis of the tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-..
  13. Noe M, Messingham K, Brandt D, Andrews J, Fairley J. Pregnant women have increased incidence of IgE autoantibodies reactive with the skin and placental antigen BP180 (type XVII collagen). J Reprod Immunol. 2010;85:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Full-length BP180 was detected by western immunoblot in epidermal, keratinocyte, placental and cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell lysates...
  14. Chang C, Wakeland A, Parast M. Trophoblast lineage specification, differentiation and their regulation by oxygen tension. J Endocrinol. 2018;236:R43-R56 pubmed publisher
    ..STBs arise through CTB fusion, secrete hormones necessary for pregnancy maintenance and form a barrier across which nutrient and gas ..
  15. Rharbaoui F, Drabner B, Borsutzky S, Winckler U, Morr M, Ensoli B, et al. The Mycoplasma-derived lipopeptide MALP-2 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2857-65 pubmed
    ..first immunization, and the IgG titers were similar to those observed using 10 microg of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as adjuvant. The mucosal immune system was also effectively stimulated (p<0...
  16. Kim M, Kim B, Oh S, Reljic R, Jang Y, Yang M. Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces antibodies to all four dengue serotypes. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;92:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL ..
  17. Wang B, Wang P, Parobchak N, Treff N, Tao X, Wang J, et al. Integrated RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis reveals a feed-forward loop regulating H3K9ac and key labor drivers in human placenta. Placenta. 2019;76:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by gene sequencing (ChIP-seq) in primary term human cytotrophoblast (CTB) with use of antibodies to RelB, CBP, HDAC1 and H3K9ac...
  18. Liu W, Tan Z, Xue J, Luo W, Song H, Lv X, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of oral immunization with a non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis-based vaccine CUE-GEM induces local immunity against Helicobacter pylori infection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:6219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori-associated gastric diseases. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE (CUE) was displayed on the surface of non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis particles (GEM) to enhance ..
  19. Akhtar M, Qadri F, Bhuiyan T, Akter S, Rafique T, Khan A, et al. Kinetics of antibody-secreting cell and fecal IgA responses after oral cholera vaccination in different age groups in a cholera endemic country. Vaccine. 2017;35:321-328 pubmed publisher
    ..After the first vaccine dose, anti-CTB ALS IgA responses in adults and toddlers were high and comparable on day 5 and 7, while responses were low and ..
  20. Horii M, Li Y, Wakeland A, Pizzo D, Nelson K, Sabatini K, et al. Human pluripotent stem cells as a model of trophoblast differentiation in both normal development and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a CDX2(+)/p63(+) CTB subpopulation in the early postimplantation human placenta that is significantly reduced later in gestation...
  21. Wang Y, Li W, Jia H, Zhai F, Qu W, Cheng Y, et al. KLF7-transfected Schwann cell graft transplantation promotes sciatic nerve regeneration. Neuroscience. 2017;340:319-332 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, HRP-labeled motoneurons in the spinal cord, CTB-labeled sensory neurons in the DRG, motor endplate density and the weight ratios of target muscles were increased ..
  22. Lai B, Che M, Du B, Zeng X, Ma Y, Feng B, et al. Transplantation of tissue engineering neural network and formation of neuronal relay into the transected rat spinal cord. Biomaterials. 2016;109:40-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotin conjugates of cholera toxin B subunit (b-CTB, a transneuronal tracer) was injected into the crushed sciatic nerve to label spinal cord neurons...
  23. van Splunter M, van Hoffen E, Floris Vollenbroek E, Timmerman H, de Bos E, Meijer B, et al. Oral cholera vaccination promotes homing of IgA+ memory B cells to the large intestine and the respiratory tract. Mucosal Immunol. 2018;11:1254-1264 pubmed publisher
    ..After vaccination, antibody responses to cholera toxin B (CTB) and Dukoral® were detected in serum and nasal wash...
  24. Karkhah A, Saadi M, Nouri H. In silico analyses of heat shock protein 60 and calreticulin to designing a novel vaccine shifting immune response toward T helper 2 in atherosclerosis. Comput Biol Chem. 2017;67:244-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cholera toxin B (CTB) was employed as an adjuvant...
  25. Li S, Shi Y, Kirouac G. The hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray are the sources of dopamine fibers in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in the rat. Front Neuroanat. 2014;8:136 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was done to re-examine this question. Small iontophoretic injections of cholera toxin B (CTb) were made in the PVT to retrogradely label tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons...
  26. Cai R, Xue Y, Huang J, Wang J, Wang J, Zhao S, et al. NS1619 regulates the expression of caveolin-1 protein in a time-dependent manner via ROS/PI3K/PKB/FoxO1 signaling pathway in brain tumor microvascular endothelial cells. J Neurol Sci. 2016;369:109-118 pubmed publisher
    ..Internalization of Cholera toxin subunit (CTB) labeled fluorescently was monitored by flow cytometry...
  27. Wu J, Wang R, Yang D, Tang W, Chen Z, Sun Q, et al. Hydrogen postconditioning promotes survival of rat retinal ganglion cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:2462-2468 pubmed publisher
    ..RGC density was counted using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, retrograde labelling with cholera toxin beta (CTB) and TUNEL staining, respectively...
  28. Carvalho L, Virginio V, Panzoldo N, Figueiredo V, Santos S, Modolo R, et al. Elevated CETP activity during acute phase of myocardial infarction is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome. Atherosclerosis. 2014;237:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed by ultrasound and coronary thrombus burden (CTB) was evaluated by angiography...
  29. Meza B, Ascencio F, Sierra Beltrán A, Torres J, Angulo C. A novel design of a multi-antigenic, multistage and multi-epitope vaccine against Helicobacter pylori: An in silico approach. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;49:309-317 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, emphasis was placed on the design of a new unique vaccine named CTB-multiHp...
  30. Kuipers K, van Selm S, van Opzeeland F, Langereis J, Verhagen L, Diavatopoulos D, et al. Genetic background impacts vaccine-induced reduction of pneumococcal colonization. Vaccine. 2017;35:5235-5241 pubmed publisher
    ..e. pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), adjuvanted with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Even in the absence of vaccination, differences in colonization density were observed between mouse strains...
  31. Chen P, Lin Q, Zhang L. [The distribution of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus and its functional contribution to depressive behaviors]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2015;67:90-6 pubmed
    ..Intracerebroventricular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) labeled with horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP) was used to specifically mark distal CSF-contacting nucleus...
  32. Gu J, Hao J, Fang X, Sha X. Factors influencing the transfection efficiency and cellular uptake mechanisms of Pluronic P123-modified polypropyleneimine/pDNA polyplexes in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016;140:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Colocalization experiments with TRITC-transferrin (CME indicator), Alexa Fluor 555-CTB (CvME indicator), monoclonal anti-α-tubulin (microtubule indicator), and LysoTracker Green (Endosome/lysosome ..
  33. Hermes S, Andresen M, Aicher S. Localization of TRPV1 and P2X3 in unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in the rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016;72:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Vagal afferents were labeled with isolectin B4 (IB4) or cholera toxin B (CTb) to detect unmyelinated and myelinated afferents, respectively...
  34. Fiúza F, Silva K, Pessoa R, Pontes A, Cavalcanti R, Pires R, et al. Age-related changes in neurochemical components and retinal projections of rat intergeniculate leaflet. Age (Dordr). 2016;38:4 pubmed publisher
    ..23 months) Wistar rats were submitted to an intraocular injection of neural tracer, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb), 5 days before a tissue fixation process by paraformaldehyde perfusion...
  35. Lei H, Peng X, Jiao H, Zhao D, Ouyang J. Broadly protective immunity against divergent influenza viruses by oral co-administration of Lactococcus lactis expressing nucleoprotein adjuvanted with cholera toxin B subunit in mice. Microb Cell Fact. 2015;14:111 pubmed publisher
    ..To enhance the immunogenicity of L. lactis vectored vaccine, cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit, one of mucosal adjuvants, is a safe adjuvant for oral route, when combined with L...
  36. Conrad M, Freitag N, Diessler M, Hernandez R, Barrientos G, Rose M, et al. Differential Spatiotemporal Patterns of Galectin Expression are a Hallmark of Endotheliochorial Placentation. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2016;75:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In canine early pregnancy, we observed that gal-1 and gal-9 were expressed strongly in cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells compared to gal-3, and no galectin expression was observed in syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells...
  37. Kleesattel D, Crish S, Inman D. Decreased Energy Capacity and Increased Autophagic Activity in Optic Nerve Axons With Defective Anterograde Transport. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:8215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..DBA/2J and DBA/2J(wt-gpnmb) control mice 11 to 14 months of age were injected with cholera toxin-B (CTB) to assay anterograde axonal transport...
  38. Hervig M, Jensen N, Rasmussen N, Rydbirk R, Olesen M, Hay Schmidt A, et al. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure. Behav Brain Res. 2017;326:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum...
  39. DaSilva Arnold S, James J, Al Khan A, Zamudio S, Illsley N. Differentiation of first trimester cytotrophoblast to extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Placenta. 2015;36:1412-8 pubmed publisher
    The transformation of cytotrophoblast (CTB) to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) is an essential process for placental implantation...
  40. Kashima K, Yuki Y, Mejima M, Kurokawa S, Suzuki Y, Minakawa S, et al. Good manufacturing practices production of a purification-free oral cholera vaccine expressed in transgenic rice plants. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:667-79 pubmed publisher
    The first Good Manufacturing Practices production of a purification-free rice-based oral cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) from transgenic plants in a closed cultivation system yielded a product meeting regulatory requirements...
  41. Xing M, Wang X, Chi Y, Zhou D. Gene therapy for colorectal cancer using adenovirus-mediated full-length antibody, cetuximab. Oncotarget. 2016;7:28262-72 pubmed publisher
    ..achieved by cloning the full-length cetuximab antibody into two serotypes of adenoviral vectors, termed as AdC68-CTB and Hu5-CTB...
  42. DaSilva Arnold S, Zamudio S, Al Khan A, Alvarez Perez J, Mannion C, Koenig C, et al. Human trophoblast epithelial-mesenchymal transition in abnormally invasive placenta. Biol Reprod. 2018;99:409-421 pubmed publisher
    Differentiation of first trimester human placental cytotrophoblast (CTB) from an anchorage-dependent epithelial phenotype into the mesenchymal-like invasive extravillous trophoblast (EVT) is crucial in the development of the maternal-..
  43. Dontu G, Ince T. Of mice and women: a comparative tissue biology perspective of breast stem cells and differentiation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2015;20:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of comparative tissue biology (CTB) expertise is necessary to tackle some of the conceptual challenges in human breast stem cell research...
  44. Shen L, Diao Z, Sun H, Yan G, Wang Z, Li R, et al. Up-regulation of CD81 inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion and mediates maternal endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:1940-1945 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpressing CD81 in CTBs significantly decreased CTB invasion, and culturing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence of a high dose of ..
  45. Kolahi K, Valent A, Thornburg K. Cytotrophoblast, Not Syncytiotrophoblast, Dominates Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Human Term Placenta. Sci Rep. 2017;7:42941 pubmed publisher
    ..presumed to be the primary driver of placental metabolism, and the underlying progenitor cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) an insignificant contributor to placental metabolic activity...
  46. Thomas G, Unger K, Krznaric M, Galpine A, Bethel J, Tomlinson C, et al. The chernobyl tissue bank - a repository for biomaterial and data used in integrative and systems biology modeling the human response to radiation. Genes (Basel). 2012;3:278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998...
  47. Wang X, Luo C, Li W, Wu P, Pang X, Xu Z, et al. A practical therapeutic protocol for cervical tuberculosis. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2013;39:93-9 pubmed publisher
    Cervical tuberculosis (CTB) is a relatively rare entity, even in endemic countries. Currently, management ranges from conservative to radical surgical approaches...
  48. Hamorsky K, Matoba N. Facile Method for the Production of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in E. coli. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1404:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we report an Escherichia coli-based expression and purification method of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The CTB gene (E...
  49. Su J, Zhu L, Sherman A, Wang X, Lin S, Kamesh A, et al. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B. Biomaterials. 2015;70:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated ..
  50. Gupta S, Ghosh P, Sudarshan K, Gupta R, Pujari P, Kadam R. Multifunctional pure and Eu(3+) doped β-Ag2MoO4: photoluminescence, energy transfer dynamics and defect induced properties. Dalton Trans. 2015;44:19097-110 pubmed publisher
    ..excitation spectrum depicting f-f transitions (particularly 395 nm and 465 nm peaks) is much more intense than the CTB showing that Eu(3+) ions can be effectively excited by near UV-light...
  51. Nezafat N, Karimi Z, Eslami M, Mohkam M, Zandian S, Ghasemi Y. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches. Comput Biol Chem. 2016;62:82-95 pubmed publisher
    ..factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera...
  52. Dhayabaran V, Prakash T, Renganathan R, Friehs E, Bahnemann D. Novel Bioactive Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Histidine and 1,3-Indandione: Synthesis, Structural Elucidation, Biological Investigation and Docking Analysis. J Fluoresc. 2017;27:135-150 pubmed publisher
    ..of the ligand and complexes on the NIH/3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell lines were examined using CellTiter-Blue® (CTB) Cell viability assay, which unveiled that all the complexes exhibit more potent activities against NIH/3 T3 cells...
  53. Ogawa T, Kashima K, Yuki Y, Mejima M, Kurokawa S, Kuroda M, et al. Seed Metabolome Analysis of a Transgenic Rice Line Expressing Cholera Toxin B-subunit. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5196 pubmed publisher
    ..is one of the best candidate crops for their production and delivery. By expressing a modified cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit, we previously developed MucoRice-CTB, a rice-based vaccine against cholera, which is caused by infection ..
  54. Beltrán López J, Romero Maldonado A, Monreal Escalante E, Bañuelos Hernández B, Paz Maldonado L, Rosales Mendoza S. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts express an orally immunogenic protein targeting the p210 epitope implicated in atherosclerosis immunotherapies. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..this study a chimeric protein consisting of the B subunit of the cholera toxin and the p210 epitope from ApoB100 (CTB:p210) has been expressed in C...
  55. Cheng S, Lin Z, Liu X, Zheng W, Lu G, Tu Z, et al. The epitope analysis of an antibody specifically against Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa by phage library study. J Microbiol Methods. 2015;117:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A recombinant protein, containing one cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) and two MP repeats (CTB-(MP)2), was subsequently constructed and investigated for its immunological ..
  56. Zou Z, Huang Q, Xie G, Yang L. Genome-wide comparative analysis of papain-like cysteine protease family genes in castor bean and physic nut. Sci Rep. 2018;8:331 pubmed publisher
    ..divided into nine subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis: RD21, CEP, XCP, XBCP3, THI, SAG12, RD19, ALP and CTB. Although most of them harbor orthologs in Arabidopsis, several members in subfamilies RD21, CEP, XBCP3 and SAG12 ..
  57. Huo Y, Wan X, Ling T, Wu J, Wang Z, Meng S, et al. Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice. Mol Immunol. 2015;68:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those ..
  58. Fernández Montoya J, Martin Y, Negredo P, Avendano C. Changes in the axon terminals of primary afferents from a single vibrissa in the rat trigeminal nuclei after active touch deprivation or exposure to an enriched environment. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223:47-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We made intraneural injections of a mixture of cholera-toxin B (CTB) and isolectin B4, tracers for myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, respectively, in three groups of young adult ..
  59. Wang H, Zhang Z, Yu S. Expression of PAPPA2 in human fetomaternal interface and involvement in trophoblast invasion and migration. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..syncytiatrophoblast (STB) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) showing strong expression and the cytotrophoblast (CTB) showing weak expression of PAPPA2. These results were confirmed by ISH...
  60. Stratmann T. Cholera Toxin Subunit B as Adjuvant--An Accelerator in Protective Immunity and a Break in Autoimmunity. Vaccines (Basel). 2015;3:579-96 pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) is the nontoxic portion of cholera toxin...
  61. Ji X, Ren Z, Xu N, Meng L, Yu Z, Feng N, et al. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus. Viruses. 2016;8:115 pubmed publisher
    ..and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants...
  62. Satter A, Asif D, Kundu S, Gaddam S, Bhowmik K. Calvarial Tuberculosis: A Case Report. Mymensingh Med J. 2017;26:202-204 pubmed
    Calvarial Tuberculosis (CTB) is very rare form of TB. A 35 year old lady presented with a painless bony swelling over the right frontal area with an enlarged pre-auricular lymphnode...
  63. Takeyama N, Yuki Y, Tokuhara D, Oroku K, Mejima M, Kurokawa S, et al. Oral rice-based vaccine induces passive and active immunity against enterotoxigenic E. coli-mediated diarrhea in pigs. Vaccine. 2015;33:5204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has a high level of amino acid identity to the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) B-subunit (LTB), we selected MucoRice-..
  64. Deng W, Farnham M, Goldys E, Mohammed S, Pilowsky P. Gene Interference with Morpholinos in a Gold Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Platform in Rat PC12 Cells. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015;11:2111-23 pubmed
    ..These nanocomplexes comprise cholera toxin B (CTB)-gold nanoparticle conjugates loaded with double-stranded morpholinos (MOs) (photo MO and antisense MO)...
  65. Han L, Kitova E, Klassen J. Detecting Protein-Glycolipid Interactions Using Glycomicelles and CaR-ESI-MS. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2016;27:1878-1886 pubmed
    ..The B subunit homopentamers of cholera toxin (CTB5) and Shiga toxin type 1 B (Stx1B5) and the gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and ..
  66. Gonzalez Porras M, Durfee P, Gregory A, Sieck G, Brinker C, Mantilla C. A novel approach for targeted delivery to motoneurons using cholera toxin-B modified protocells. J Neurosci Methods. 2016;273:160-174 pubmed publisher
    ..encapsulated within a lipid bilayer (protocells) and modified with the atoxic subunit B of the cholera toxin (CTB) that binds to gangliosides present on neuronal membranes...
  67. Horn P, Schlichting A, Baum C, Hammesfahr U, Thiele Bruhn S, Leinweber P, et al. Fast and sensitive in vivo studies under controlled environmental conditions to substitute long-term field trials with genetically modified plants. J Biotechnol. 2017;243:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyanophycin synthetase (cphA) was chosen as model for PMI and Choleratoxin B (CTB) as model for PMP...
  68. Changizi V, Alizadeh M, Mousavi A. A study of professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers using GTG-banding and solid stain. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2015;29:200 pubmed
    ..There were significant increased incidence of chromatid gap (ctg) and chromatid break (ctb) with mean±SD frequencies of 3±0.84 and 3.1±1...
  69. Oszlács O, Jancsó G, Kis G, Dux M, Sántha P. Perineural capsaicin induces the uptake and transganglionic transport of choleratoxin B subunit by nociceptive C-fiber primary afferent neurons. Neuroscience. 2015;311:243-52 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of spinal primary afferent terminals labeled transganglionically with the choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) or its conjugates changes profoundly after perineural treatment with capsaicin...
  70. Dong H, Huang Y, Yao S, Liang B, Long Y, Xie Y, et al. The recombinant fusion protein of cholera toxin B and neutrophil-activating protein expressed on Bacillus subtilis spore surface suppresses allergic inflammation in mice. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:5819-5829 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori (HP-NAP) has been identified as a modulator with anti-Th2 inflammation activity, and cholera toxin B (CTB) is a mucosal adjuvant that can also induce antigen tolerance...
  71. Khalil R, Contreras Ramirez V, Levitt J. Postnatal refinement of interareal feedforward projections in ferret visual cortex. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223:2303-2322 pubmed publisher
    ..We injected the tracer CTb into V1 of juvenile ferrets, and visualized the pattern of labeled axon terminals in extrastriate cortex...
  72. Genbacev O, Larocque N, Ona K, Prakobphol A, Garrido Gomez T, Kapidzic M, et al. Integrin ?4-positive human trophoblast progenitors: functional characterization and transcriptional regulation. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:1300-14 pubmed publisher
    ..At a functional level, we assayed their invasive capacity (n = 3) and tropism for the CTB layer of the smooth chorion (n = 3). At a molecular level, we studied the roles of HMGA2 and GATA4...
  73. Gonzalez Porras M, Durfee P, Giambini S, Sieck G, Brinker C, Mantilla C. Uptake and intracellular fate of cholera toxin subunit b-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (aka protocells) in motoneurons. Nanomedicine. 2018;14:661-672 pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B (CTB) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (CTB-protocells) are a promising, customizable approach for targeting therapeutic cargo to motoneurons...
  74. Habets M, van Selm S, van Opzeeland F, Simonetti E, Hermans P, de Jonge M, et al. Role of antibodies and IL17-mediated immunity in protection against pneumococcal otitis media. Vaccine. 2016;34:5968-5974 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumococcal OM, we here show that intranasal vaccination of mice with PspA together with the mucosal adjuvant CTB results in a decrease in pneumococcal load in the middle ears...
  75. Esebanmen G, Langridge W. Mechanism of chimeric vaccine stimulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase biosynthesis in human dendritic cells is independent of TGF-? signaling. Cell Immunol. 2017;319:43-52 pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines...
  76. Li L, Rubin L, Gong X. MEF2 transcription factors in human placenta and involvement in cytotrophoblast invasion and differentiation. Physiol Genomics. 2018;50:10-19 pubmed publisher
    ..During in vitro differentiation of primary CTBs, MEF2A expression is associated with CTB differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast...
  77. Dhingra S, Morita M, Yoda T, Vestergaard M, Hamada T, Takagi M. Dynamic Morphological Changes Induced By GM1 and Protein Interactions on the Surface of Cell-Sized Liposomes. Materials (Basel). 2013;6:2522-2533 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid rafts are believed to play a crucial role in various cellular processes. It is well established that Ctb (Cholera toxin B subunit) recognizes and binds to GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside) on the cell surface with ..
  78. Fernández Pérez E, Sepulveda F, Peoples R, Aguayo L. Role of membrane GM1 on early neuronal membrane actions of Aβ during onset of Alzheimer's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:3105-3116 pubmed publisher
    ..8±2 vs. GM1=6.2±1min, p<0.05). Additionally, using Cholera Toxin Subunit-B (CTB) to block the interaction of Aβ with GM1 attenuated membrane perforation significantly...
  79. Lykidis A, Murti K, Jackowski S. Cloning and characterization of a second human CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14022-9 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that a second, distinct CCT enzyme is expressed in human tissues and provides another mechanism by which cells regulate phosphatidylcholine production. ..
  80. Haider S, Kunihs V, Fiala C, Pollheimer J, Knöfler M. Expression pattern and phosphorylation status of Smad2/3 in different subtypes of human first trimester trophoblast. Placenta. 2017;57:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..and their regulators (Smad4 and Smad7) were investigated in first trimester placenta and purified cytotrophoblast (CTB) subtypes using immunofluorescence, western blotting and qPCR...
  81. Huang C, Peng X, Yang B, Zhao Y, Weng S, Fu T. Investigation of Interaction between Dislocation Loop and Coherent Twin Boundary in BCC Ta Film during Nanoindentation. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    In this work, the interaction between dislocation loop (DL) and coherent twin boundary (CTB) in a body-centered cubic (BCC) tantalum (Ta) film during nanoindentation was investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
  82. Marchant N, Rabei R, Kaganovsky K, Caprioli D, Bossert J, Bonci A, et al. A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos...
  83. Maurer A, Johnson S, Hernandez A, Reasor J, Cossio D, Fertal K, et al. Age-related Changes in Lateral Entorhinal and CA3 Neuron Allocation Predict Poor Performance on Object Discrimination. Front Syst Neurosci. 2017;11:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Afferent neurons to CA3 in LEC, as identified with the retrograde tracer choleratoxin B (CTB), also showed a higher percentage of cells that were positive for Arc mRNA in aged poor performing rats...
  84. Tourani M, Karkhah A, Najafi A. Development of an epitope-based vaccine inhibiting immune cells rolling and migration against atherosclerosis using in silico approaches. Comput Biol Chem. 2017;70:156-163 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cholera toxin B (CTB) was employed as an adjuvant...
  85. Royal J, Matoba N. Therapeutic Potential of Cholera Toxin B Subunit for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases of the Mucosa. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a mucosal immunomodulatory protein that induces robust mucosal and systemic antibody responses...
  86. Cornell R, Ridgway N. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase: Function, regulation, and structure of an amphitropic enzyme required for membrane biogenesis. Prog Lipid Res. 2015;59:147-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently the genetic origins of two human developmental and lipogenesis disorders have been traced to mutations in the gene for CCTα. ..
  87. Yokota S, Oka T, Asano H, Yasui Y. Orexinergic fibers are in contact with Kölliker-Fuse nucleus neurons projecting to the respiration-related nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the rat. Brain Res. 2016;1648:512-523 pubmed publisher
    ..After injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the KFN, CTb-labeled neurons that are also immunoreactive for orexin (ORX) were found prominently in the ..
  88. Nichols N, Craig T, Tanner M. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018;256:43-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1G93A rats...
  89. Ma X, He Z, Li L, Yang D, Liu G. Expression profiles analysis of long non-coding RNAs identified novel lncRNA biomarkers with predictive value in outcome of cutaneous melanoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:77761-77770 pubmed publisher
    ..A linear combination of six lncRNAs (LINC01260, HCP5, PIGBOS1, RP11-247L20.4, CTA-292E10.6 and CTB-113P19...
  90. Kwon K, Sherman A, Chang W, Kamesh A, Biswas M, Herzog R, et al. Expression and assembly of largest foreign protein in chloroplasts: Oral delivery of human FVIII made in lettuce chloroplasts robustly suppresses inhibitor formation in hemophilia A mice. Plant Biotechnol J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..in tobacco chloroplasts, significant challenges in clinical advancement include expression of the full-length CTB-FVIII sequence to cover the entire patient population, regardless of individual CD4+ T cell epitope ..
  91. McCormack E, Llorca O, Carrascosa J, Valpuesta J, Willison K. Point mutations in a hinge linking the small and large domains of beta-actin result in trapped folding intermediates bound to cytosolic chaperonin CCT. J Struct Biol. 2001;135:198-204 pubmed
  92. Llorca O, Martin Benito J, Gomez Puertas P, Ritco Vonsovici M, Willison K, Carrascosa J, et al. Analysis of the interaction between the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT and its substrates actin and tubulin. J Struct Biol. 2001;135:205-18 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest coevolution of CCT with actin and tubulin in order to counteract the folding problems associated with the generation in these two cytoskeletal protein families of new domains involved in their polymerization. ..