Gene Symbol: PARP4
Description: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family member 4
Alias: ADPRTL1, ARTD4, PARP-4, PARPL, PH5P, VAULT3, VPARP, VWA5C, p193, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 4, 193 kDa vault protein, ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)-like 1, ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 4, H5 proline-rich, I-alpha-I-related, PARP-related, PARP-related/IalphaI-related H5/proline-rich, poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1, vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, vault protein, 193-kDa, von Willebrand factor A domain containing 5C
Species: human
Products:     PARP4

Top Publications

  1. Thiemermann C, Bowes J, Myint F, Vane J. Inhibition of the activity of poly(ADP ribose) synthetase reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart and skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:679-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, activation of PARS contributes to the cell death caused by ischemia-reperfusion, and PARS inhibitors may constitute a novel therapy for ischemia-reperfusion injury. ..
  2. Ma Y, Huang T, Zhong X, Zhang H, Cong X, Xu H, et al. Proteogenomic characterization and comprehensive integrative genomic analysis of human colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Mol Cancer. 2018;17:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Two sites (DMRTB1R202H and PARP4V458I) were revealed to frequent mutate only in the liver metastatic cohort and displayed dysregulated ..
  3. Liu S, Liu Z, Li L, Liu P, Liu H. Keeping the heart empty and beating: an alternative technique to preserve hypertrophied hearts during valvular surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;10:71 pubmed publisher
    ..was carried out to determine the expression of Troponin I (cTnI), Troponin T (cTnT), SM-MHC, Casapase-3 and PARP4. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cardiomyocytes...
  4. Das R, Kundu S, Laskar S, Choudhury Y, Ghosh S. Assessment of DNA repair susceptibility genes identified by whole exome sequencing in head and neck cancer. DNA Repair (Amst). 2018;66-67:50-63 pubmed publisher
    ..05) with the risk (OR?>?5), while intronic variants in PARP4, RECQL5, EXO1 and PER1 genes and exonic variant in TDP2 gene showed protection (OR?<?1) for HNC...
  5. Na Z, Pan S, Uttamchandani M, Yao S. Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of BRCA1 Discovered Using Small Molecule Microarrays. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1518:139-156 pubmed
  6. Yu L, Yang M, Liu J, Alfred M, Li X, Zhang X, et al. Recombinant Reg3α protein protects against experimental acute pancreatitis in mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;422:150-159 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that rReg3α acts as a protective polypeptide against AP in mice by enhancing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expressions and suppressing PARP level. ..
  7. Shaw D, Robb K, Vetter B, Tong M, Molle V, Hunt N, et al. Disruption of key NADH-binding pocket residues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA affects DD-CoA binding ability. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4714 pubmed publisher
    ..Residues P193 and W222 comprise a series of hydrophobic residues surrounding the cofactor binding site and mutation of both ..
  8. Soldani C, Scovassi A. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage during apoptosis: an update. Apoptosis. 2002;7:321-8 pubmed
    ..The fate and the possible role of these fragments during apoptosis will be discussed. ..
  9. Bouchard V, Rouleau M, Poirier G. PARP-1, a determinant of cell survival in response to DNA damage. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:446-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we will discuss how inhibition of PARP-1 may enhance the efficiency of cancer therapy. ..

More Information


  1. Still I, Vince P, Cowell J. Identification of a novel gene (ADPRTL1) encoding a potential Poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase protein. Genomics. 1999;62:533-6 pubmed
    ..We now report the full-length sequence, expression profile, and chromosomal localization of a novel gene, ADPRTL1, encoding an ADP-ribosyltransferase-like protein...
  2. van Zon A, Mossink M, Schoester M, Scheffer G, Scheper R, Sonneveld P, et al. Multiple human vault RNAs. Expression and association with the vault complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37715-21 pubmed
    ..The complex consists of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins (VPARP and TEP1), and several small untranslated RNA molecules...
  3. Mata I, Johnson C, Leverenz J, Weintraub D, Trojanowski J, Van Deerlin V, et al. Large-scale exploratory genetic analysis of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2017;56:211.e1-211.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..These included GBA rs2230288 (E326K; PFDR = 2.7 × 10-4) for JoLO, PARP4 rs9318600 (PFDR = 0.006), and rs9581094 (PFDR = 0...
  4. Mazzon E, Dugo L, Li J, Di Paola R, Genovese T, Caputi A, et al. GPI 6150, a PARP inhibitor, reduces the colon injury caused by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:327-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, GPI 6150 reduces the degree of colitis caused by dinitrobenzensulfonic acid. We propose that GPI 6150 may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  5. Ventoso I, Navarro J, Muñoz M, Carrasco L. Involvement of HIV-1 protease in virus-induced cell killing. Antiviral Res. 2005;66:47-55 pubmed
    ..These findings may contribute towards a better understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis, and emphasise the potential of the virus protease as a key therapeutic target in AIDS treatment. ..
  6. Kickhoefer V, Siva A, Kedersha N, Inman E, Ruland C, Streuli M, et al. The 193-kD vault protein, VPARP, is a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:917-28 pubmed
    ..The catalytic domain of p193 was expressed and purified from bacterial extracts...
  7. Figueroa J, Malats N, Real F, Silverman D, Kogevinas M, Chanock S, et al. Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway and bladder cancer risk. Hum Genet. 2007;121:233-42 pubmed
    ..risk, we analyzed 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 BER genes (OGG1, MUTYH, APEX1, PARP1, PARP3, PARP4, XRCC1, POLB, POLD1, PCNA, LIG1, and LIG3)...
  8. Jean L, Risler J, Nagase T, Coulouarn C, Nomura N, Salier J. The nuclear protein PH5P of the inter-alpha-inhibitor superfamily: a missing link between poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and the inter-alpha-inhibitor family and a novel actor of DNA repair?. FEBS Lett. 1999;446:6-8 pubmed
    ..This protein now designated PH5P points to as yet unsuspected links between poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and the inter-alpha-inhibitor family and is ..
  9. Siva A, Raval Fernandes S, Stephen A, LaFemina M, Scheper R, Kickhoefer V, et al. Up-regulation of vaults may be necessary but not sufficient for multidrug resistance. Int J Cancer. 2001;92:195-202 pubmed
    ..w. vault proteins p193 (VPARP) and p240 (TEP1) and an untranslated small RNA (vRNA)...
  10. Sapkota Y, Vivo I, Steinthorsdottir V, Fassbender A, Bowdler L, Buring J, et al. Analysis of potential protein-modifying variants in 9000 endometriosis patients and 150000 controls of European ancestry. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11380 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence for association with coding variants in single-variant (rs1801232-CUBN) and gene-level (CIITA and PARP4) meta-analyses, but these did not survive replication...
  11. Ikeda Y, Kiyotani K, Yew P, Kato T, Tamura K, Yap K, et al. Germline PARP4 mutations in patients with primary thyroid and breast cancers. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016;23:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0 × 10(-3). Among them, rare variants in the PARP4 gene were detected at significant high frequency (odds ratio = 5.2; P = 1.0 × 10(-5))...
  12. van Zon A, Mossink M, Schoester M, Scheffer G, Scheper R, Sonneveld P, et al. Structural domains of vault proteins: a role for the coiled coil domain in vault assembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:535-41 pubmed
    Vaults consist of multiple copies of three proteins (MVP, VPARP, and TEP1) and several untranslated RNAs. The function of vaults is unknown but the typical and evolutionary conserved structure indicates a role in intracellular transport...
  13. Szaflarski W, Sujka Kordowska P, Pula B, Jaszczyńska Nowinka K, Andrzejewska M, Zawierucha P, et al. Expression profiles of vault components MVP, TEP1 and vPARP and their correlation to other multidrug resistance proteins in ovarian cancer. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:513-20 pubmed publisher
    Vaults are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins (MVP, TEP1, vPARP) and vault?associated RNAs (vRNAs)...
  14. Lu G, Zhang Q, Huang Y, Song J, Tomaino R, Ehrenberger T, et al. Phosphorylation of ETS1 by Src family kinases prevents its recognition by the COP1 tumor suppressor. Cancer Cell. 2014;26:222-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand the list of potential COP1 substrates to include proteins whose COP1-binding sites are subject to regulatory phosphorylation and provide insights into transformation by Src family kinases. ..
  15. Nie Z, Phenix B, Lum J, Alam A, Lynch D, Beckett B, et al. HIV-1 protease processes procaspase 8 to cause mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase cleavage and nuclear fragmentation. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:1172-84 pubmed
    ..The effect of HIV-1 protease is not seen in T cell extracts which have undetectable levels of procaspase 8, indicating a specificity and requirement for procaspase 8. ..
  16. Liu T, Lin S, Chau Y. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation attenuates beta-lapachone-induced necrotic cell death in human osteosarcoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:116-25 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that PARP plays an important role in the signaling pathway for beta-lapachone-induced necrosis in U2-OS cells. ..
  17. Wojtowicz K, Januchowski R, Nowicki M, Zabel M. vPARP Adjusts MVP Expression in Drug-resistant Cell Lines in Conjunction with MDR Proteins. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:3015-3023 pubmed
    ..In LoVo/Dx, W1TR and A2780TR cells were vault poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (vPARP) was knockdown, a decrease in cell viability was shown...
  18. Soares M, Bonaldo M, Jelene P, Su L, Lawton L, Efstratiadis A. Construction and characterization of a normalized cDNA library. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9228-32 pubmed
  19. Liu Y, Snow B, Kickhoefer V, Erdmann N, Zhou W, Wakeham A, et al. Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is associated with mammalian telomerase and is dispensable for telomerase function and vault structure in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5314-23 pubmed
    Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) was originally identified as a minor protein component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, which may be involved in molecular assembly or subcellular transport...