PAPSS2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PAPSS2
Description: 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2
Alias: ATPSK2, BCYM4, SK2, bifunctional 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2, 3-prime-phosphoadenosine 5-prime-phosphosulfate synthase 2, ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase 2, ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase, PAPS synthase 2, PAPS synthetase 2, SK 2, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase, adenylyl-sulfate kinase, bifunctional 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthethase 2, sulfate adenylyltransferase
Species: human
Products:     PAPSS2

Top Publications

  1. Kurima K, Warman M, Krishnan S, Domowicz M, Krueger R, Deyrup A, et al. A member of a family of sulfate-activating enzymes causes murine brachymorphism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8681-5 pubmed
    ..A family member, SK2, colocalizes with the locus for the autosomal recessive murine phenotype brachymorphism...
  2. Ahmad M, Faiyaz ul Haque M, Ahmad W, Abbas H, Haque S, Krakow D, et al. Distinct, autosomal recessive form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia segregating in an inbred Pakistani kindred. Am J Med Genet. 1998;78:468-73 pubmed
    ..This distinctive phenotype is distinct from other autosomal recessive forms of SEMD because of the mild degree of metaphyseal involvement, the type of brachydactyly, and the absence of loose joints or other clinical findings. ..
  3. Faiyaz ul Haque M, King L, Krakow D, Cantor R, Rusiniak M, Swank R, et al. Mutations in orthologous genes in human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and the brachymorphic mouse. Nat Genet. 1998;20:157-62 pubmed
    ..We identified two orthologous genes, ATPSK2 and Atpsk2, encoding novel ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase orthologues in the respective regions of the human and mouse ..
  4. Besset S, Vincourt J, Amalric F, Girard J. Nuclear localization of PAPS synthetase 1: a sulfate activation pathway in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. FASEB J. 2000;14:345-54 pubmed
    ..A second PAPS synthetase gene, designated PAPSS2, has recently been described, mutations of which are responsible for abnormal skeletal development in human ..
  5. Xu Z, Freimuth R, Eckloff B, Wieben E, Weinshilboum R. Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase 2 (PAPSS2) pharmacogenetics: gene resequencing, genetic polymorphisms and functional characterization of variant allozymes. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:11-21 pubmed
    ..PAPS is synthesized from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic sulfate (SO2-4) by two isoforms, PAPSS1 and PAPSS2. Rare mutations that inactivate PAPSS2 are associated with human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and murine ..
  6. Cao Y, Liang L, Cheng B, Dong Y, Wei J, Tian X, et al. Pretreatment with NaCl Promotes the Seed Germination of White Clover by Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones, Metabolic Regulation, and Dehydrin-Encoded Genes Expression under Water Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, NaCl-upregulated dehydrin-encoded genes SK2 expression could be another important mechanism of drought tolerance during seeds germination of white clover ..
  7. Deng Y, Han X, Tang S, Xiao W, Tan Z, Zhou C, et al. Magnolol and honokiol regulate the calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;755:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..further, upregulated the CaM, BKα1 and BKβ3 mRNA levels but downregulated the IP3 receptors 1, PKC, SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4 and BKβ4 mRNA expressions...
  8. Authement M, Langlois L, Shepard R, Browne C, Lucki I, Kassis H, et al. A role for corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in the lateral habenula and its modulation by early-life stress. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..of maternal care exhibited increased intrinsic excitability, reduced GABAergic transmission, decreased abundance of SK2 channel protein, and increased activity of PKA, without any substantial changes in Crh or Crhr1 ..
  9. Iosub R, Avitabile D, Grant L, Tsaneva Atanasova K, Kennedy H. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells. Biophys J. 2015;108:1003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate...

More Information

Publications129 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chen C, Ko T, Chang T, Chern S, Chen S, Lai S, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III or short-rib thoracic dysplasia 3 with or without polydactyly (SRTD3) associated with compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 in a fetus. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;57:123-127 pubmed publisher
    ..CEP120, DYNC2H1, DYNC2LI1, EVC, EVC2, FGFR2, FGFR3, HOXD10, IFT122, IFT140, IFT172, IFT52, IFT80, KIAA0586, NEK1, PAPSS2, SLC26A2, SOX9, TCTEX1D2, TCTN3, TTC21B, WDR19, WDR34, WDR35 and WDR60...
  2. Cheng B, Li Z, Liang L, Cao Y, Zeng W, Zhang X, et al. The γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Alleviates Salt Stress Damage during Seeds Germination of White Clover Associated with Na⁺/K⁺ Transportation, Dehydrins Accumulation, and Stress-Related Genes Expression in White Clover. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..exogenous GABA significantly induced the accumulation of dehydrins and expression of genes encoding dehydrins (SK2, Y2K, Y2SK, and dehydrin b) in seedlings under salt stress...
  3. Tani K, Tabuchi K, Hara A. Hair Cell Loss Induced by Sphingosine and a Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor in the Rat Cochlea. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:35-46 pubmed
    ..Both Sk1 and Sk2 were expressed in the normal cochlea. CDDP activated Sk...
  4. Rieswijk L, Brauers K, Coonen M, van Breda S, Jennen D, Kleinjans J. Evaluating microRNA profiles reveals discriminative responses following genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure in primary mouse hepatocytes. Mutagenesis. 2015;30:771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, compound-specific microRNA-mRNA interactions [mmu-miR-301b-3p-Papss2 (for AFB1), as well as mmu-miR-29b-3p-Col4a2 and mmu-miR-24-3p-Flna (for BaP)] were found to contribute to a ..
  5. Yu L, Wang S, Zhou X, Wang Z, Huang B, Liao K, et al. Chronic Intermittent Low-Level Stimulation of Tragus Reduces Cardiac Autonomic Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia Inducibility in a Post-Infarction Canine Model. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2016;2:330-339 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (NGF) protein was down-regulated, whereas the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type2 (SK2) protein was up-regulated in the LSG by chronic LL-TS...
  6. Chen X, Wang Y, Zhu H, Hao H, Zhao X, Qin T, et al. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression of fresh and frozen-thawed bull sperm. Theriogenology. 2015;83:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of five of these genes-RPL31, PRKCE, PAPSS2, PLP1, and R1G7-was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
  7. Nuytemans K, Ortel T, Gomez L, Hofmann N, Alves N, Dueker N, et al. Variants in chondroitin sulfate metabolism genes in thrombotic storm. Thromb Res. 2018;161:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..missense and nonsense variants in genes involved in CS metabolism (CHPF, CHPF2, CHST3, CHST12, CHST15, SLC26A2, PAPSS2, STAB2) were identified in over one-third of the TS patients...
  8. Kushwah N, Jain V, Dheer A, Kumar R, Prasad D, Khan N. Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment: Elucidating the Role of Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels. Neuroscience. 2018;388:418-429 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, SK2 channel expression showed gradual increase from 3 days till 14 days...
  9. Howarth F, Qureshi M, Jayaprakash P, Parekh K, Oz M, Dobrzynski H, et al. The Pattern of mRNA Expression Is Changed in Sinoatrial Node from Goto-Kakizaki Type 2 Diabetic Rat Heart. J Diabetes Res. 2018;2018:8454078 pubmed publisher
    ..1), Kcnk1 (TWIK1), Kcnk5 (K2P5.1), Kcnk6 (TWIK2), and Kcnn2 (SK2) whilst others were upregulated in GK-SAN: Ryr2 (RYR2) and Nppb (BNP)...
  10. Nojima H, Freeman C, Schuster R, Japtok L, Kleuser B, Edwards M, et al. Hepatocyte exosomes mediate liver repair and regeneration via sphingosine-1-phosphate. J Hepatol. 2016;64:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatocyte exosomes directly fuse with target hepatocytes and transfer neutral ceramidase and sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) causing increased synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) within target hepatocytes...
  11. Ewin S, Morgan J, Niere F, McMullen N, Barth S, Almonte A, et al. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Selectively Increases Synaptic Excitability in the Ventral Domain of the Rat Hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2019;398:144-157 pubmed publisher
    ..synaptoneurosomal fractions revealed that the expression of two proteins that regulate synaptic strength, GluA2 and SK2, were dysregulated in the vHC, but not the dHC, following CIE...
  12. Berthe W, Sevrain C, Chantôme A, Bouchet A, Gueguinou M, Fourbon Y, et al. New Disaccharide-Based Ether Lipids as SK3 Ion Channel Inhibitors. ChemMedChem. 2016;11:1531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 2, which decreases the activity of SK3 channel (but not SK2 channel), is a new drug candidate to reduce cancer cell migration and to prevent bone metastasis.
  13. Pitman M, Powell J, Coolen C, Moretti P, Zebol J, Pham D, et al. A selective ATP-competitive sphingosine kinase inhibitor demonstrates anti-cancer properties. Oncotarget. 2015;6:7065-83 pubmed
    ..MP-A08 is a highly selective ATP competitive SK inhibitor that targets both SK1 and SK2. MP-A08 blocks pro-proliferative signalling pathways, induces mitochondrial-associated apoptosis in a SK-dependent ..
  14. Saeki T, Kimura T, Hashidume K, Murayama T, Yamamura H, Ohya S, et al. Conversion of Ca2+ oscillation into propagative electrical signals by Ca2+-activated ion channels and connexin as a reconstituted Ca2+ clock model for the pacemaker activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019;510:242-247 pubmed publisher
    ..e. small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK2) or Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (TMEM16A), and connexin43 being heterologously co-expressed...
  15. Park E, Lee T, Oh Y, Lee J, Shrestha J, Hong S, et al. Synthesis of dansyl labeled sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor. Chem Phys Lipids. 2018;215:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..3 nM and 130-fold selectivity for SK1 over SK2. Since the development of PF-543, animal studies demonstrated its valuable role in multiple sclerosis, myocardial ..
  16. Zhang M, Meng X, Zhang J, Cui M, Logothetis D. Molecular overlap in the regulation of SK channels by small molecules and phosphoinositides. Sci Adv. 2015;1:e1500008 pubmed
    ..PIP2) directly interacts with the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ 2-a (SK2-a) channel/calmodulin complex, serving as a critical element in the regulation of channel activity...
  17. Mancini G, Panzica M, Fino D, Cappello S, Yakimov M, Luciano A. Feasibility of treating emulsified oily and salty wastewaters through coagulation and bio-regenerated GAC filtration. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:817-824 pubmed publisher
    ..1-0.3 kg/m3 of treated effluent. Moreover, biological regeneration through Alcalinovorax borkumensis SK2 was proved to be a cost-effective procedure since the reuse of spent GAC through such regeneration process for ..
  18. Nam Y, Orfali R, Liu T, Yu K, Cui M, Wulff H, et al. Structural insights into the potency of SK channel positive modulators. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17178 pubmed publisher
    ..their binding site calculated from the crystal structures, and the potency of these compounds in potentiating the SK2 channel current determined by electrophysiological recordings...
  19. Gomis Pèrez C, Alaimo A, Fernandez Orth J, Alberdi A, Aivar Mateo P, Bernardo Seisdedos G, et al. An unconventional calmodulin-anchoring site within the AB module of Kv7.2 channels. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..B that assists in CaM binding whose sequence is reminiscent of the TW helix within the CaM C-lobe anchoring site of SK2 K(+) channels (also known as KCNN2)...
  20. Lizarraga S, Morrow E. Uncovering a Role for SK2 in Angelman Syndrome. Cell Rep. 2015;12:359-60 pubmed publisher
    Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in UBE3A. Sun et al. (2015) report SK2 as a UBE3A substrate and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that might underlie impaired neuronal function in ..
  21. Skibsbye L, Poulet C, Diness J, Bentzen B, Yuan L, Kappert U, et al. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;103:156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed higher transcript levels of SK2 and SK3 than that of the SK1 subtype in human atrial tissue...
  22. Qin J, Kilkus J, Dawson G. The cross roles of sphingosine kinase 1/2 and ceramide glucosyltransferase in cell growth and death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;500:597-602 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine-1-phosphate is synthesized by two sphingosine kinases, cytosolic SK1 and nuclear SK2 but SK2 expression was much higher than SK1in mouse skin fibroblasts...
  23. Pyne N, McNaughton M, Boomkamp S, Macritchie N, Evangelisti C, Martelli A, et al. Role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, sphingosine kinases and sphingosine in cancer and inflammation. Adv Biol Regul. 2016;60:151-159 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinase (there are two isoforms, SK1 and SK2) catalyses the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid that can be released from cells to activate a family of G protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P1-5...
  24. Qi X, Diness J, Brundel B, Zhou X, Naud P, Wu C, et al. Role of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in atrial electrophysiology and fibrillation in the dog. Circulation. 2014;129:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SK2 expression was more abundant at both mRNA and protein levels for PV versus LA in control dogs, in both control and ..
  25. Johnson S, Kuhn S, Franz C, Ingham N, Furness D, Knipper M, et al. Presynaptic maturation in auditory hair cells requires a critical period of sensory-independent spiking activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a mouse model in which the potassium channel SK2 is normally overexpressed, but can be modulated in vivo using doxycycline...
  26. Hassanshahian M, Bayat Z, Cappello S, Smedile F, Yakimov M. Comparison the effects of bioaugmentation versus biostimulation on marine microbial community by PCR-DGGE: A mesocosm scale. J Environ Sci (China). 2016;43:136-146 pubmed publisher
    ..nutrients (Biostimulating Mesocosm, BM), (2) inorganic nutrients and an inoculum of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (Single Bioaugmentation Mesocosm, SBM), (3) inorganic nutrients and inoculums of A...
  27. Reher T, Wang Z, Hsueh C, Chang P, Pan Z, Kumar M, et al. Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current in Normal Rabbit Cardiac Purkinje Cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypotheses that subtype 2 SK (SK2) channel proteins and apamin-sensitive SK currents are abundantly present in PCs...
  28. Neubauer H, Tea M, Zebol J, Gliddon B, Stefanidis C, Moretti P, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates the subcellular localization of sphingosine kinase 2 to elicit tumor-suppressive functions in glioblastoma. Oncogene. 2019;38:1151-1165 pubmed publisher
    While the two mammalian sphingosine kinases, SK1 and SK2, both catalyze the generation of pro-survival sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), their roles vary dependent on their different subcellular localization...
  29. Deng P, Carlin D, Oh Y, Myrick L, Warren S, Cavalli V, et al. Voltage-Independent SK-Channel Dysfunction Causes Neuronal Hyperexcitability in the Hippocampus of Fmr1 Knock-Out Mice. J Neurosci. 2019;39:28-43 pubmed publisher
    ..defect was mediated, at least in part, by loss of FMRP interaction with the SK channels (specifically the SK2 isoform), without changes in channel expression...
  30. Greig F, Nather K, Ballantyne M, Kazi Z, Alganga H, Ewart M, et al. Requirement for sphingosine kinase 1 in mediating phase 1 of the hypotensive response to anandamide in the anaesthetised mouse. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;842:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in control C57BL/6 mice and in mice pretreated with selective inhibitors of SK1 (BML-258, also known as SK1-I) or SK2 ((R)-FTY720 methylether (ROMe), a dual SK1/2 inhibitor (SKi) or an S1P1 receptor antagonist (W146)...
  31. Haugaard M, Hesselkilde E, Pehrson S, Carstensen H, Flethøj M, Præstegaard K, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses. Heart Rhythm. 2015;12:825-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcellular distribution of SK isoform 2 (SK2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy...
  32. Pyne N, Adams D, Pyne S. Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Autoimmune/Inflammatory Disease and the Development of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitors. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017;38:581-591 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this Opinion is to present a case for targeting sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) in autoimmune/inflammatory disease...
  33. Lu L, Sirish P, Zhang Z, Woltz R, Li N, Timofeyev V, et al. Regulation of gene transcription by voltage-gated L-type calcium channel, Cav1.3. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..3 channel and a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (SK2), which we have documented to be highly expressed in human and mouse atrial myocytes...
  34. McNaughton M, Pitman M, Pitson S, Pyne N, Pyne S. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:16663-75 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate...
  35. Fan X, Yu Y, Lan H, Ou X, Yang L, Li T, et al. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) Increases Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Current in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation. Med Sci Monit. 2018;24:3011-3023 pubmed publisher
    ..to SR, the apamin-sensitive SK current (IKAS) was significantly increased, but the mRNA and protein levels of SK1, SK2, and SK3 were significantly decreased...
  36. Konieczna M, Olzog M, Naether D, Chrzanowski Ł, Heipieper H. Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Marine Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 Grown on Diesel, Biodiesel and Rapeseed Oil as Carbon Sources. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..Such fast adaptation may increase resilience of A. borkumensis and allow them to strive and maintain populations in more complex hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities. ..
  37. Fu X, Pan Y, Cao Q, Li B, Wang S, Du H, et al. Metformin restores electrophysiology of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the atrium of GK diabetic rats. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:63 pubmed publisher
    ..In the atrial myocytes from control, GK and metformin-treated GK rats, the expression of KCa2.2 (SK2 channel) was down-regulated and the expression of KCa2...
  38. Oliveira M, Skinner F, Arshadmansab M, Garcia I, Mello C, Knaus H, et al. Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats. Brain Res. 2010;1348:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1month and at more than 2months after ..
  39. Bui L, Hoffmann P, Turnidge J, Zilm P, Kidd S. Prolonged growth of a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain selects for a stable small-colony-variant cell type. Infect Immun. 2015;83:470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused our analysis on one strain, WCH-SK2. For bacterial survival in the host, the combination of low nutrients and the prolonged time frame forms a stress ..
  40. Tang Y, Yang W, Wang Y, Gong Y, Jiang L, Lin L. Estrogen regulates the expression of small-conductance Ca-activated K+ channels in colonic smooth muscle cells. Digestion. 2015;91:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In a further experiment, muscle strips were preincubated with apamin before exposure to E2. The levels of the SK2 and SK3 protein expression in the colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected...
  41. Laurenzana A, Cencetti F, Serratì S, Bruno G, Japtok L, Bianchini F, et al. Endothelial sphingosine kinase/SPNS2 axis is critical for vessel-like formation by human mesoangioblasts. J Mol Med (Berl). 2015;93:1145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the S1P biosynthetic pathway brought about by sphingosine kinases (SK) SK1 and SK2 as well as spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) transporter in H-MVEC is crucial for MAB migration measured by Boyden ..
  42. Cho L, Alexandrou A, Torella R, Knafels J, Hobbs J, Taylor T, et al. An Intracellular Allosteric Modulator Binding Pocket in SK2 Ion Channels Is Shared by Multiple Chemotypes. Structure. 2018;26:533-544.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize a binding pocket situated at the intracellular interface of SK2 and calmodulin, which we show to be shared by multiple small-molecule chemotypes...
  43. Mueller J, Idkowiak J, Gesteira T, Vallet C, Hardman R, van den Boom J, et al. Human DHEA sulfation requires direct interaction between PAPS synthase 2 and DHEA sulfotransferase SULT2A1. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:9724-9735 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), generated by human PAPS synthase isoforms PAPSS1 and PAPSS2, is required for all human sulfation pathways...
  44. Aidi Knani S, Pezard L, Mpari B, Ben Hamida J, Sabatier J, Mourre C, et al. Correspondences between the binding characteristics of a non-natural peptide, Lei-Dab7, and the distribution of SK subunits in the rat central nervous system. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;752:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated a modified Leiurotoxin 1 (Lei-Dab7) that inhibits SK2 channels with a high selectivity...
  45. Schrecengost R, Keller S, Schiewer M, Knudsen K, Smith C. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2015;13:1591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, that is, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development...
  46. Neubauer H, Pham D, Zebol J, Moretti P, Peterson A, Leclercq T, et al. An oncogenic role for sphingosine kinase 2. Oncotarget. 2016;7:64886-64899 pubmed publisher
    While both human sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyze the generation of the pleiotropic signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, these enzymes appear to be functionally distinct...
  47. Zhou X, Zhou L, Wang S, Yu L, Wang Z, Huang B, et al. The Use of Noninvasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation to Inhibit Sympathetically Induced Sinus Node Acceleration: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016;27:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end, SK2, c-fos, and NGF protein expression in RSG were examined in both groups...
  48. Yu X, Zhang F, Shi J. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane caused cognitive deficits by dysregulating SK2 channels and GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors in juvenile rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 2018;141:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to understand whether small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel type2 (SK2) and subunit composition of AMPA receptors are altered and contribute to sevoflurane-induced metaplasticity...
  49. Honrath B, Matschke L, Meyer T, Magerhans L, Perocchi F, Ganjam G, et al. SK2 channels regulate mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:761-773 pubmed publisher
    ..respiration and complex I activity upon pharmacological activation and overexpression of mitochondrial SK2 channels resulting in reduced mitochondrial ROS formation...
  50. Badarau E, Dilly S, Wouters J, Seutin V, Liégeois J. Chemical modifications of the N-methyl-laudanosine scaffold point to new directions for SK channels exploration. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24:5616-5620 pubmed publisher
    An asparagine or a histidine are present in a similar position in the outer pore region of SK2 and SK3 channels, respectively...
  51. Willis M, Trieb M, Leitner I, Wietzorrek G, Marksteiner J, Knaus H. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium type 2 channels (SK2, KCa2.2) in human brain. Brain Struct Funct. 2017;222:973-979 pubmed publisher
    b>SK2 (KCa2.2) channels are voltage-independent Ca2+-activated K+ channels that regulate neuronal excitability in brain regions important for memory formation...
  52. Hancock J, Weatherall K, Choisy S, James A, Hancox J, Marrion N. Selective activation of heteromeric SK channels contributes to action potential repolarization in mouse atrial myocytes. Heart Rhythm. 2015;12:1003-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Block by apamin displayed a sensitivity indicating that this current was carried by homomeric SK2 channels. Action potential duration was significantly prolonged by UCL1684, but not by apamin...
  53. Bui L, Kidd S. A full genomic characterization of the development of a stable Small Colony Variant cell-type by a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;36:345-355 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus strain (WCH-SK2) by growing the cells with limiting conditions for a prolonged timeframe...
  54. Yi F, Ling T, Lu T, Wang X, Li J, Claycomb W, et al. Down-regulation of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in diabetic mouse atria. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:7016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the expression of SK2 and SK3 isoforms was down-regulated by 85 and 92%, respectively, whereas that of SK1 was not changed...
  55. Yu H, Sun C, Argraves K. Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice. J Periodontal Res. 2016;51:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..actinomycetemcomitans. The mRNA levels of SK1, SK2 and intracellular sphingolipid levels were quantified...
  56. Uranbileg B, Ikeda H, Kurano M, Enooku K, Sato M, Saigusa D, et al. Increased mRNA Levels of Sphingosine Kinases and S1P Lyase and Reduced Levels of S1P Were Observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Association with Poorer Differentiation and Earlier Recurrence. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149462 pubmed publisher
    ..of SKs in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation and microvascular invasion, whereas a higher level of SK2 mRNA was a risk factor for intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence...
  57. Britten C, Garrett Mayer E, Chin S, Shirai K, Ogretmen B, Bentz T, et al. A Phase I Study of ABC294640, a First-in-Class Sphingosine Kinase-2 Inhibitor, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:4642-4650 pubmed publisher
    b>Purpose: Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) regulate tumor growth by generating the mitogenic and proinflammatory lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)...
  58. Yang D, Wang T, Ni Y, Song B, Ning F, Hu P, et al. Apamin-Sensitive K+ Current Upregulation in Volume-Overload Heart Failure is Associated with the Decreased Interaction of CK2 with SK2. J Membr Biol. 2015;248:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In HF rat left ventricle, SK3 was increased by 100 % (P < 0.05), and SK2 was not significantly changed. PP2A protein was increased by 94.7 % in HF rats (P < 0...
  59. Kim G, Luján R, Schwenk J, Kelley M, Aguado C, Watanabe M, et al. Membrane palmitoylated protein 2 is a synaptic scaffold protein required for synaptic SK2-containing channel function. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons express apamin-sensitive SK2-containing channels in the post-synaptic membrane, positioned close to NMDA-type (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptors...
  60. Chen F, Moran J, Zhang Y, Ates K, Yu D, Schrader L, et al. The transcription factor NeuroD2 coordinates synaptic innervation and cell intrinsic properties to control excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol. 2016;594:3729-44 pubmed publisher
    ..these parameters: gastrin-releasing peptide and the small conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel, SK2. Our results reveal an important function for NeuroD2 in balancing synaptic neurotransmission and intrinsic ..
  61. Jung E, Park B, Ahsan M, Kim J, Yun H, Choi K, et al. Production of ?-hydroxy palmitic acid using CYP153A35 and comparison of cytochrome P450 electron transfer system in vivo. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:10375-10384 pubmed
    ..Among them, CYP153As from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (CYP153A33), Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (CYP153A13), and Gordonia alkanivorans (CYP153A35) were selected, and their specific activities and product yields ..
  62. Zhang Z, Ledford H, Park S, Wang W, Rafizadeh S, Kim H, et al. Distinct subcellular mechanisms for the enhancement of the surface membrane expression of SK2 channel by its interacting proteins, α-actinin2 and filamin A. J Physiol. 2017;595:2271-2284 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that interacting proteins of SK2 channels are important for channel trafficking to the membrane...
  63. Bruno M, Rizzo I, Romero Guevara R, Bernacchioni C, Cencetti F, Donati C, et al. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling axis mediates fibroblast growth factor 2-induced proliferation and survival of murine auditory neuroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:814-824 pubmed publisher
    ..S1P is intracellularly produced by sphingosine kinase (SK) 1 and SK2 and exerts many of its action consequently to its ligation to S1P specific receptors (S1PR), S1P1-5...
  64. Matschke L, Rinné S, Snutch T, Oertel W, Dolga A, Decher N. Calcium-activated SK potassium channels are key modulators of the pacemaker frequency in locus coeruleus neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018;88:330-341 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we found a transcriptional expression of SK1, SK2 and SK3 channels, SK2 was the predominantly expressed subunit in mouse LC neurons...
  65. Li C, Renaud H, Klaassen C, Cui J. Age-Specific Regulation of Drug-Processing Genes in Mouse Liver by Ligands of Xenobiotic-Sensing Transcription Factors. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:1038-49 pubmed publisher
    ..neonatal age, but gradually increased to adult levels, whereas some DPGs (Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Gstm2, Gstm3, Papss2, and Oatp1a4) exhibited an adolescent-predominant expression pattern...
  66. Fang L, Wang X, Xi M, Liu T, Yin D. Assessing the ligand selectivity of sphingosine kinases using molecular dynamics and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculations. Mol Biosyst. 2016;12:1174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Sphingosine kinases (SKs) including SK1 and SK2 phosphorylate sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and control the critical balance...
  67. Yu C, Ko J, Ai T, Tsai W, Chen Z, Rubart M, et al. Arrhythmogenic calmodulin mutations impede activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:1716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..transiently transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express subtype 2 of SK protein channels (SK2 cells). Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording was used to determine apamin-sensitive current densities...
  68. Hamšíková Z, Silaghi C, Rudolf I, Venclíková K, Mahríková L, Slovak M, et al. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:3897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries...
  69. Wedemeyer C, Vattino L, Moglie M, Ballestero J, Maison S, Di Guilmi M, et al. A Gain-of-Function Mutation in the α9 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alters Medial Olivocochlear Efferent Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity. J Neurosci. 2018;38:3939-3954 pubmed publisher
    ..9α10 ionotropic cholinergic nicotinic receptor (nAChR), functionally coupled to calcium activated SK2 potassium channels...
  70. Richter M, Vidovic N, Honrath B, Mahavadi P, Dodel R, Dolga A, et al. Activation of SK2 channels preserves ER Ca²⁺ homeostasis and protects against ER stress-induced cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that SK2 channels are present in ER membranes of neuronal HT-22 cells, and that positive pharmacological modulation of SK2 ..
  71. Müller S, Guli X, Hey J, Einsle A, Pfanz D, Sudmann V, et al. Acute epileptiform activity induced by gabazine involves proteasomal rather than lysosomal degradation of KCa2.2 channels. Neurobiol Dis. 2018;112:79-84 pubmed publisher
    Voltage-independent, Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa2.2, previously named SK2) are typically activated during a train of action potentials, and hence, are powerful regulators of cellular excitability by ..
  72. Pyne S, Adams D, Pyne N. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingosine kinases in health and disease: Recent advances. Prog Lipid Res. 2016;62:93-106 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (isoforms SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of a bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)...
  73. Sun M, Liu H, Xu H, Wang H, Wang X. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:1982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BK?1 and BK?3...
  74. Handa A, Tham E, Wang Z, Horemuzova E, Grigelioniene G. Autosomal recessive brachyolmia: early radiological findings. Skeletal Radiol. 2016;45:1557-60 pubmed publisher
    ..BO types 1 and 4 are autosomal recessive conditions caused by PAPSS2 mutations, which may be merged together as an autosomal recessive BO (AR-BO)...
  75. Honrath B, Krabbendam I, Culmsee C, Dolga A. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the plasma membrane, mitochondria and the ER: Pharmacology and implications in neuronal diseases. Neurochem Int. 2017;109:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..the opening of these channels through binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin that is constitutively bound to the SK2 C-terminus...
  76. Liu Z, Hu Y, Gong Y, Zhang W, Liu C, Wang Q, et al. Hydrogen peroxide mediated mitochondrial UNG1-PRDX3 interaction and UNG1 degradation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteomics analysis showed that UNG1 bound to eight proteins in the mitochondria, including PAPSS2, CD70 antigen, and AGR2 under normal growth conditions, whereas UNG1 mainly bound to Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3) via a ..
  77. Meyer C, Pauwels M, Briset L, Godé C, Salis P, Bourceaux A, et al. Potential preadaptation to anthropogenic pollution: evidence from a common quantitative trait locus for zinc and cadmium tolerance in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous accessions of Arabidopsis halleri. New Phytol. 2016;212:934-943 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic architecture of tolerance was investigated in a nonmetallicolous population (SK2) by using first backcross progeny obtained from crosses between SK2 and Arabidopsis lyrata petraea, a ..
  78. Sun J, Zhu G, Liu Y, Standley S, Ji A, Tunuguntla R, et al. UBE3A Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning and Memory by Controlling SK2 Channel Endocytosis. Cell Rep. 2015;12:449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..While there is a wealth of information on SK2 gating, kinetics, and Ca(2+) sensitivity, little is known regarding the regulation of SK2 subcellular localization...
  79. Reid S, Tritsch S, Kota K, Chiang C, Dong L, Kenny T, et al. Sphingosine kinase 2 is a chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection...
  80. Yu C, Chia Ti T, Chen P, Wu C, Chiu F, Chiang F, et al. KCNN2 polymorphisms and cardiac tachyarrhythmias. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e4312 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to test the association between genetic polymorphism of the SK2 channel and the occurrence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in humans...
  81. Zhang X, Coulibaly Z, Chen W, Ledford H, Lee J, Sirish P, et al. Coupling of SK channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, and ryanodine receptors in cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep. 2018;8:4670 pubmed publisher
    ..Super-resolution imaging of SK2, Cav1...
  82. Chandrahas V, Glinton K, Liang Z, Donahue D, Ploplis V, Castellino F. Direct Host Plasminogen Binding to Bacterial Surface M-protein in Pattern D Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Is Required for Activation by Its Natural Coinherited SK2b Protein. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:18833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..domain sequences from different GAS strains suggest that SKs can be arranged into two clusters, SK1 and SK2, with a subdivision of SK2 into SK2a and SK2b...
  83. Wang K, Kelley M, Wu W, Adelman J, Maylie J. Apamin Boosting of Synaptic Potentials in CaV2.3 R-Type Ca2+ Channel Null Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139332 pubmed publisher
    b>SK2- and KV4.2-containing K+ channels modulate evoked synaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
  84. Adams D, Pyne S, Pyne N. Sphingosine Kinases: Emerging Structure-Function Insights. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016;41:395-409 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyse the conversion of sphingosine into sphingosine 1-phosphate and control fundamental cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and immune function...
  85. Bougault C, El Jamal A, Briolay A, Mebarek S, Boutet M, Garraud T, et al. Involvement of sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway in spondyloarthritis. Bone. 2017;103:150-158 pubmed publisher
    ..1±4.2?M, n=21) compared to healthy donors (1.6±0.9?M, n=12). In vitro, gene expression of SK1 and SK2 as well as their activity were increased during differentiation of primary murine chondrocytes and osteoblasts into ..
  86. Adada M, Canals D, Jeong N, Kelkar A, Hernandez Corbacho M, Pulkoski Gross M, et al. Intracellular sphingosine kinase 2-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphorylation and cancer cell invasion. FASEB J. 2015;29:4654-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, knocking down SK2 decreased ERM activation 2.5-fold...
  87. Wang S, Zhou X, Huang B, Wang Z, Zhou L, Chen M, et al. Spinal cord stimulation suppresses atrial fibrillation by inhibiting autonomic remodeling. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (NGF) were significantly up-regulated and small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 2 (SK2) was significantly down-regulated in the RAP group...
  88. Grasselli G, He Q, Wan V, Adelman J, Ohtsuki G, Hansel C. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2(-/-) mice) and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while ..
  89. Matturro B, Frascadore E, Cappello S, Genovese M, Rossetti S. In situ detection of alkB2 gene involved in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) hydrocarbon biodegradation. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016;110:378-382 pubmed publisher
    ..in order to monitor alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB system) of the marine bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) commonly reported as the predominant microorganism responsible for the biodegradation of n-alkanes which are the ..
  90. Chavez R, Coricor G, Perez J, Seo H, Serra R. SOX9 protein is stabilized by TGF-β and regulates PAPSS2 mRNA expression in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2017;25:332-340 pubmed publisher
    We previously identified 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2 (PAPSS2) as a transcriptional target of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in chondrocytes...
  91. Neubauer H, Pitson S. Validation of commercially available sphingosine kinase 2 antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. F1000Res. 2016;5:2825 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death...
  92. Oostdijk W, Idkowiak J, Mueller J, House P, Taylor A, O Reilly M, et al. PAPSS2 deficiency causes androgen excess via impaired DHEA sulfation--in vitro and in vivo studies in a family harboring two novel PAPSS2 mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:E672-80 pubmed publisher
    PAPSS2 (PAPS synthase 2) provides the universal sulfate donor PAPS (3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate) to all human sulfotransferases, including SULT2A1, responsible for sulfation of the crucial androgen precursor ..