Gene Symbol: PANX3
Description: pannexin 3
Alias: PX3, pannexin-3, gap junction protein pannexin 3
Species: human
Products:     PANX3

Top Publications

  1. Penuela S, Bhalla R, Gong X, Cowan K, Celetti S, Cowan B, et al. Pannexin 1 and pannexin 3 are glycoproteins that exhibit many distinct characteristics from the connexin family of gap junction proteins. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3772-83 pubmed
    ..Localization of exogenously expressed pannexin 1 (Panx1) and pannexin 3 (Panx3), together with pharmacological studies, revealed a cell surface distribution profile and life cycle ..
  2. Cowan K, Langlois S, Penuela S, Cowan B, Laird D. Pannexin1 and Pannexin3 exhibit distinct localization patterns in human skin appendages and are regulated during keratinocyte differentiation and carcinogenesis. Cell Commun Adhes. 2012;19:45-53 pubmed publisher
    Having shown that Panx1 and Panx3 are expressed in the epidermis, we investigated their distribution in human skin adnexal structures and skin cancer...
  3. Iwamoto T, Nakamura T, Doyle A, Ishikawa M, de Vega S, Fukumoto S, et al. Pannexin 3 regulates intracellular ATP/cAMP levels and promotes chondrocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18948-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Pannexin 3 (Panx3) is a new member of the gap junction pannexin family, but its expression profiles and physiological function are not yet clear...
  4. Baranova A, Ivanov D, Petrash N, Pestova A, Skoblov M, Kelmanson I, et al. The mammalian pannexin family is homologous to the invertebrate innexin gap junction proteins. Genomics. 2004;83:706-16 pubmed
    We have cloned the genes PANX1, PANX2 and PANX3, encoding putative gap junction proteins homologous to invertebrate innexins, which constitute a new family of mammalian proteins called pannexins...
  5. Abitbol J, O Donnell B, Wakefield C, Jewlal E, Kelly J, Barr K, et al. Double deletion of Panx1 and Panx3 affects skin and bone but not hearing. J Mol Med (Berl). 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..To date, the use of single knock-out mouse models of both Panx1 and Panx3 have demonstrated their roles in skin development, bone formation, and auditory phenotypes...
  6. Bodur A, Ince I, Kahraman C, Abidin I, Aydin Abidin S, Alver A. Chronically reduced BDNF levels increase oxidative stress in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue following high sucrose and high fat diets fed mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased by STD and HFD in subcutaneous adipose tissue of BDNF (+/-). SOD2 and GSH-Px3 expressions were only decreased by HSD in epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of BDNF (+/-) mice (p <â€..
  7. Nuzzo G, Gomes B, Gallo C, Amodeo P, Sansone C, Pessoa O, et al. Potent Cytotoxic Analogs of Amphidinolides from the Atlantic Octocoral Stragulum bicolor. Mar Drugs. 2019;17: pubmed publisher
    ..The new molecules, named amphidinolide PX1-PX3 and stragulin A (1⁻4), show an unprecedented carbon skeleton whose complete stereochemistry has ..
  8. Billaud M, Lohman A, Straub A, Looft Wilson R, Johnstone S, Araj C, et al. Pannexin1 regulates α1-adrenergic receptor- mediated vasoconstriction. Circ Res. 2011;109:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..labeling coupled to scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of Panx1 but not Panx2 or Panx3 in thoracodorsal resistance arteries...
  9. Zhang P, Ishikawa M, Rhodes C, Doyle A, Ikeuchi T, Nakamura K, et al. Pannexin-3 Deficiency Delays Skin Wound Healing in Mice due to Defects in Channel Functionality. J Invest Dermatol. 2019;139:909-918 pubmed publisher
    Pannexin-3 (Panx3) is a gap junction protein that is required for regulating cell cycle exit and the differentiation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes during skeletal development...

More Information


  1. Yan J, Li J, Hu J, Zhang L, Wei C, Sultana N, et al. Smad4 deficiency impairs chondrocyte hypertrophy via the Runx2 transcription factor in mouse skeletal development. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:9162-9175 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, expression levels of the chondrocyte hypertrophy-related markers Col10a1 and Panx3 were significantly decreased...
  2. Penuela S, Bhalla R, Nag K, Laird D. Glycosylation regulates pannexin intermixing and cellular localization. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4313-23 pubmed publisher
    The pannexin family of mammalian proteins, composed of Panx1, Panx2, and Panx3, has been postulated to be a new class of single-membrane channels with functional similarities to connexin gap junction proteins...
  3. Dufresne J, Cyr D. Regulation of the pannexin-1 promoter in the rat epididymis. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:143 pubmed publisher
    ..PANX1 and PANX3 are expressed in the male rat reproductive tract and their levels are regulated by androgens in the epididymis...
  4. Le Vasseur M, Lelowski J, Bechberger J, Sin W, Naus C. Pannexin 2 protein expression is not restricted to the CNS. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:392 pubmed publisher
    ..Three distinct Panx paralogs (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3) have been identified in vertebrates but previous reports on Panx expression and functionality focused primarily ..
  5. Sanchez Pupo R, Johnston D, Penuela S. N-Glycosylation Regulates Pannexin 2 Localization but Is Not Required for Interacting with Pannexin 1. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that N-glycosylation acts as a regulator of the localization and intermixing of Panx1 and Panx3, but its effects on Panx2 are currently unknown...
  6. Boassa D, Nguyen P, Hu J, Ellisman M, Sosinsky G. Pannexin2 oligomers localize in the membranes of endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:468 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have ..
  7. Caskenette D, Penuela S, Lee V, Barr K, Beier F, Laird D, et al. Global deletion of Panx3 produces multiple phenotypic effects in mouse humeri and femora. J Anat. 2016;228:746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the three pannexin family members, Pannexin3 (Panx3) is the least studied but is highly expressed in skeletal tissues and is thought to play a role in the regulation ..
  8. Dorotheou D, Farsadaki V, Bochaton Piallat M, Giannopoulou C, Halazonetis T, Kiliaridis S. Increased Cell Proliferation and Gene Expression of Genes Related to Bone Remodeling, Cell Adhesion and Collagen Metabolism in the Periodontal Ligament of Unopposed Molars in Growing Rats. Front Physiol. 2017;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine untreated rats served as controls. Expression of six genes, Adamts18, Ostn, P4ha3, Panx3, Pth1r, and Tnmd, was upregulated in unopposed molars relative to molars with antagonists...
  9. Kim D, Lim H, Lee K, Hwang I. Identification of a novel cellulose-binding domain within the endo-?-1,4-xylanase KRICT PX-3 from Paenibacillus terrae HPL-003. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2016;93-94:166-173 pubmed publisher
    The model 3-D structure of xylanase KRICT PX3 (JF320814) identified by DNA sequence analysis revealed a catalytic domain and CBM4-9 which functions as a xylan binding domain (XBD)...
  10. Iwamoto T, Nakamura T, Ishikawa M, Yoshizaki K, Sugimoto A, Ida Yonemochi H, et al. Pannexin 3 regulates proliferation and differentiation of odontoblasts via its hemichannel activities. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177557 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we identified pannexin 3 (Panx3) as a member of the pannexin gap junction protein family from tooth germs...
  11. Oh S, Shin J, Baek J, Lee J, Bae J, Ankamerddy H, et al. Pannexin 3 is required for normal progression of skeletal development in vertebrates. FASEB J. 2015;29:4473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we generated and analyzed Panx3 knockout mice and examined the skeletal phenotypes of panx3 morphant zebrafish...
  12. Lin X, Jiang S, Jiang Z, Zheng C, Gou Z. Effects of equol on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. Poult Sci. 2016;95:1380-6 pubmed publisher superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, as well as the relative expressions of Nrf2, Bcl-2, SOD-1, GSH-Px3, Claudin-1 Treatment with 300 ?M H2O2 caused serious damage to cells, with fewer normal intestinal epithelial cells,..
  13. Ishikawa M, Williams G, Ikeuchi T, Sakai K, Fukumoto S, Yamada Y. Pannexin 3 and connexin 43 modulate skeletal development through their distinct functions and expression patterns. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1018-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Pannexin 3 (Panx3) and connexin 43 (Cx43; also known as GJA1) are two major gap junction proteins expressed in osteoblasts...
  14. Ge S, Xia X, Ding C, Zhen B, Zhou Q, Feng J, et al. A proteomic landscape of diffuse-type gastric cancer. Nat Commun. 2018;9:1012 pubmed publisher
    ..PX1 and PX2 exhibit dysregulation in the cell cycle and PX2 features an additional EMT process; PX3 is enriched in immune response proteins, has the worst survival, and is insensitive to chemotherapy...
  15. Zhao H. Expression and function of pannexins in the inner ear and hearing. BMC Cell Biol. 2016;17 Suppl 1:16 pubmed publisher
    ..extensively, including the spiral limbus, the organ of Corti, and the cochlear lateral wall, whereas Panx2 and Panx3 restrict to the basal cells of the stria vascularis in the lateral wall and the cochlear bony structure, ..
  16. Halliwill K, Quigley D, Kang H, Del Rosario R, Ginzinger D, Balmain A. Panx3 links body mass index and tumorigenesis in a genetically heterogeneous mouse model of carcinogen-induced cancer. Genome Med. 2016;8:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Exploring these loci in greater detail revealed a novel relationship between the Pannexin 3 gene (Panx3) and both BMI and tumorigenesis...
  17. Moon P, Penuela S, Barr K, Khan S, Pin C, Welch I, et al. Deletion of Panx3 Prevents the Development of Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2015;93:845-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Cartilage degeneration hallmarks OA pathogenesis, and pannexin 3 (Panx3), a member of a novel family of channel proteins, is upregulated during this process...
  18. Ishikawa M, Yamada Y. The Role of Pannexin 3 in Bone Biology. J Dent Res. 2017;96:372-379 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike Cxs, the functions of Panxs are not fully understood. In skeletal formation, Panx3 and Cx43 are the most abundantly expressed gap junction proteins from each family...
  19. Hainz N, Beckmann A, Schubert M, Haase A, Martin U, Tschernig T, et al. Human stem cells express pannexins. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11:54 pubmed publisher
    ..Panx1, Panx2, and Panx3 mRNAs were expressed in all undifferentiated stem cell lines investigated...
  20. Bhalla Gehi R, Penuela S, Churko J, Shao Q, Laird D. Pannexin1 and pannexin3 delivery, cell surface dynamics, and cytoskeletal interactions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we utilized Cx43-positive BICR-M1R(k) cells to stably express Panx1, Panx3, or Panx1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to assess their trafficking, cell surface dynamics, and interplay with ..
  21. Romano R, Gardner J, Shalin S, Ram R, Govindarajan R, Montgomery C, et al. High Relative Expression of Pannexin 3 (PANX3) in an Axillary Sweat Gland Carcinoma With Osteosarcomatous Transformation. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016;38:846-851 pubmed
    ..Notably, the molecular assay demonstrated consistently high relative expression of pannexin 3 (PANX3), a gene involved in normal osteoblast differentiation which, when highly expressed, strongly predicts ..
  22. Bruzzone R, Hormuzdi S, Barbe M, Herb A, Monyer H. Pannexins, a family of gap junction proteins expressed in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13644-9 pubmed
  23. Song F, Sun H, Huang L, Fu D, Huang C. The Role of Pannexin3-Modified Human Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Repairing Rat Cranial Critical-Sized Bone Defects. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;44:2174-2188 pubmed publisher
    ..Pannexin3 (Panx3) plays crucial roles during bone development and differentiation...
  24. Tanaka T, Hoshijima M, Sunaga J, Nishida T, Hashimoto M, Odagaki N, et al. Analysis of Ca2+ response of osteocyte network by three-dimensional time-lapse imaging in living bone. J Bone Miner Metab. 2018;36:519-528 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the c-Fos, Cx43, Panx3, Col1a1, and OCN mRNA levels significantly increased on day 15 in comparison with day 7...
  25. Abitbol J, Kelly J, Barr K, Schormans A, Laird D, Allman B. Differential effects of pannexins on noise-induced hearing loss. Biochem J. 2016;473:4665-4680 pubmed
    ..The pannexin (Panx) channel proteins, Panx1 and Panx3, are regionally expressed in many cell types along the auditory pathway, and mice lacking Panx1 in specific cells ..
  26. Fu D, Song F, Sun H, Pei D, Wang Y, Lei J, et al. Expression of Pannexin3 in human odontoblast-like cells and its hemichannel function in mediating ATP release. Arch Oral Biol. 2015;60:1510-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of pannexin3 (Panx3) in human odontoblast-like cells (hOBs) and its hemichannel function in mediating ATP release...
  27. Penuela S, Harland L, Simek J, Laird D. Pannexin channels and their links to human disease. Biochem J. 2014;461:371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the pannexin family consists of only three members (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3), one or more of these pannexins are expressed in virtually every mammalian organ, implicating their potential ..
  28. Guerrero J, Oliveira H, Aid R, Bareille R, Siadous R, Letourneur D, et al. Influence of the three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells within a macroporous polysaccharides scaffold on Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..interactions play a fundamental role for cell differentiation, we investigated the expression of Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 in human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (HBMSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment provided by ..
  29. Horton S, Luna Lopez C, Blevins E, Howarth H, Weisberg J, Shestopalov V, et al. Pannexin 1 Modulates Axonal Growth in Mouse Peripheral Nerves. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:365 pubmed publisher
    The pannexin family of channels consists of three members-pannexin-1 (Panx1), pannexin-2 (Panx2), and pannexin-3 (Panx3) that enable the exchange of metabolites and signaling molecules between intracellular and extracellular compartments...
  30. Song F, Sun H, Wang Y, Yang H, Huang L, Fu D, et al. Pannexin3 inhibits TNF-?-induced inflammatory response by suppressing NF-?B signalling pathway in human dental pulp cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:444-455 pubmed publisher
    Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) play a crucial role in dental pulp inflammation. Pannexin 3 (Panx3), a member of Panxs (Pannexins), has been recently found to be involved in inflammation...
  31. Langlois S, Cowan K. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Differentiation and Proliferation by Pannexins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;925:57-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is only recently that our work has unveiled a role for Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 as novel regulators of skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation and differentiation...
  32. Gawlik M, Wagner M, Pfuhlmann B, Stöber G. The role of Pannexin gene variants in schizophrenia: systematic analysis of phenotypes. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016;266:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms at PANX1, five at PANX2 and three at PANX3 in 1173 German cases with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 and 480 controls...
  33. Langlois S, Xiang X, Young K, Cowan B, Penuela S, Cowan K. Pannexin 1 and pannexin 3 channels regulate skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation and differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:30717-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Panx1 and Panx3, but not Panx2, are present in human and rodent skeletal muscle, and their various species are differentially ..