Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: pancreatic ribonuclease
Description: ribonuclease, RNase A family, 1 (pancreatic)
Alias: RIB1, RNS1, HP-RNase, RIB-1, RNase 1, RNase A, RNase upI-1, ribonuclease 1, ribonuclease A, ribonuclease pancreatic
Publications147 found, 100 shown here
- Glycine 38 is crucial for the ribonucleolytic activity of human pancreatic ribonuclease on double-stranded RNADeepak Gaur
Immunochemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi 110 067, India
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:390-5. 2002Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HPR) and bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) exhibit significantly higher activity against double stranded RNA (dsRNA), compared to RNase A...
- Three-dimensional structure of a human pancreatic ribonuclease variant, a step forward in the design of cytotoxic ribonucleasesJ Pous
Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, CID CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, Barcelona, 08034, Spain
J Mol Biol 303:49-60. 2000We have determined the crystal structure of a human pancreatic ribonuclease or RNase 1 variant at 1.65 A resolution. Five residues in the N-terminal region were substituted by the corresponding amino acids of the bovine seminal RNase...
- Interaction of human pancreatic ribonuclease with human ribonuclease inhibitor. Generation of inhibitor-resistant cytotoxic variantsD Gaur
Immunochemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110067, India
J Biol Chem 276:24978-84. 2001..Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HPR) is structurally and functionally very similar to bovine RNase A and interacts with human RI with a ..
- Degradation of double-stranded RNA by human pancreatic ribonuclease: crucial role of noncatalytic basic amino acid residuesSalvatore Sorrentino
Department of Biological Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy
Biochemistry 42:10182-90. 2003..Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HP-RNase) is the most powerful enzyme to degrade dsRNA within the tetrapod RNase superfamily, being 500-..
- Glycosylation of human pancreatic ribonuclease: differences between normal and tumor statesRosa Peracaula
Departament de Biologia, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi s n 17071, Girona, Spain
Glycobiology 13:227-44. 2003Characterization of the N-glycans from human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) isolated from healthy pancreas and from pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor cells (Capan-1 and MDAPanc-3) revealed completely different glycosylation patterns...
- Three-dimensional structure of human RNase 1 delta N7 at 1.9 A resolutionJ Pous
Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, CID CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:498-505. 2001Human pancreatic ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1) is considered to be the human counterpart of bovine pancreatic RNase A...
- Human endothelial cells selectively express large amounts of pancreatic-type ribonuclease (RNase 1)Julien B P Landré
INSERM EPI 0113, Universite Bordeaux I, Avenue des Facultes, Talence, France
J Cell Biochem 86:540-52. 2002..The selective strong release of pancreatic-type RNase by endothelial cells suggests that it is endowed with non-digestive functions and involved in vascular homeostasis...
- The amino acid sequence of human pancreatic ribonucleaseJ J Beintema
Anal Biochem 136:48-64. 1984The primary structure of human (Homo sapiens) pancreatic ribonuclease has been determined by automatic sequencing of the native protein and by analysis of peptides obtained by cleavage with proteolytic enzymes, cyanogen bromide, and ..
- Killing of endothelial cells and release of arachidonic acid. Synergistic effects among hydrogen peroxide, membrane-damaging agents, cationic substances, and proteinases and their modulation by inhibitorsI Ginsburg
Department of Oral Biology, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
Inflammation 17:295-319. 1993..agents: the cationic substances, nuclear histone, defensins, lysozyme, poly-L-arginine, spermine, pancreatic ribonuclease, polymyxin B, chlorhexidine, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, as well as by the membrane-damaging agents ..
- Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzymeRosa A Vacca
Institute of Biomembranes and Bioenergetics, CNR, Via Amendola 165 A, I 70126 Bari, Italy
BMC Biochem 9:17. 2008..Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase), in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP.
- The phylogenetic position of "Acomyinae" (Rodentia, Mammalia) as sister group of a Murinae + Gerbillinae clade: evidence from the nuclear ribonuclease geneJ Y Dubois
Rijks Universiteit Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands
Mol Phylogenet Evol 13:181-92. 1999The phylogenetic relationships of Acomys and Uranomys within Muridae were investigated using nuclear pancreatic ribonuclease A gene sequences...
- Recognition of ribonuclease A by 3'-5'-pyrophosphate-linked dinucleotide inhibitors: a molecular dynamics/continuum electrostatics analysisSavvas Polydoridis
Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
Biophys J 92:1659-72. 2007The proteins of the pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) family catalyze the cleavage of the RNA polymer chain...
- The molecular characterization of a novel GH38 α-mannosidase from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus revealed its ability in de-mannosylating glycoproteinsBeatrice Cobucci-Ponzano
Institute of Protein Biochemistry Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
Biochimie 92:1895-907. 2010..More interestingly, Ssα-man removes mannose residues from the glycosidic moiety of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease B, suggesting that it could process mannosylated proteins also in vivo...
- Activation pathways of 5-fluorouracil in rat organs and in PC12 cellsL Mascia
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Via S Maria 55, I 56126 Pisa, Italy
Biochem Pharmacol 62:213-8. 2001..of ribose 5-phosphate to 5-FU as catalysed by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase; 2) the ribose 1-phosphate (Rib1-P)-mediated addition of ribose by uridine phosphorylase, followed by the action of uridine kinase; and 3) the 2'-..
- Onconase and amphinase, the antitumor ribonucleases from Rana pipiens oocytesW Ardelt
Alfacell Corporation, 300 Atrium Drive, Somerset, NJ 08873, USA
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 9:215-25. 2008Rana pipiens oocytes contain two homologues of pancreatic ribonuclease A that are cytostatic and cytotoxic to human cancer cells...
- Multiple solvent crystal structures of ribonuclease A: an assessment of the methodMichelle Dechene
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
Proteins 76:861-81. 2009..The crystal structures of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNAse A) soaked in the following organic solvents are presented: 50% dioxane, 50% dimethylformamide, ..
- Purification and characterization of a ribonuclease from human liverS Sorrentino
Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine 90024 1737
J Biol Chem 263:16125-31. 1988..composition and the amino-terminal sequence of the enzyme indicate that the protein is related to human pancreatic ribonuclease and to angiogenin, and that it may be identical with an eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and to a ..
- Evolution of nucleic acids coding for ribonucleases: the mRNA sequence of mouse pancreatic ribonucleaseC Schuller
Biochemisch Laboratorium, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands
Mol Biol Evol 7:29-44. 1990..Comparison with the rat pancreatic ribonuclease sequence showed a high rate of nucleotide substitution...
- Natural merodiploidy of the lux-rib operon of Photobacterium leiognathi from coastal waters of Honshu, JapanJennifer C Ast
Department of Ecological and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 830 North University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
J Bacteriol 189:6148-58. 2007..13.1 defined two complete, physically separate, and apparently functional operons, designated lux-rib1 and lux-rib2. P. leiognathi strains lelon.2.1 and lnuch.21...
- Modeling formalin fixation and histological processing with ribonuclease A: effects of ethanol dehydration on reversal of formaldehyde cross-linksCarol B Fowler
Department of Biophysics, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Lab Invest 88:785-91. 2008..Our initial studies of single proteins, such as bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), in 10% buffered formalin solution revealed that upon removal of excess formaldehyde, ..
- Metabolic engineering and classic selection of the yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) for construction of strains with enhanced riboflavin productionKostyantyn V Dmytruk
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology, Institute of Cell Biology, NAS of Ukraine, Drahomanov Street 14 16, Lviv 79005, Ukraine
Metab Eng 13:82-8. 2011..factor SEF1 and IMH3 (coding for IMP dehydrogenase) orthologs from Debaryomyces hansenii, and the homologous genes RIB1 and RIB7, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthetase, the first and the last enzymes of riboflavin ..
- Tandemization endows bovine pancreatic ribonuclease with cytotoxic activityFranziska Leich
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Kurt Mothes Str 3, 06120 Halle, Germany
J Mol Biol 358:1305-13. 2006Due to their ability to degrade RNA, selected members of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) superfamily are potent cytotoxins...
- Bactericidal activity engineered on human pancreatic ribonuclease and onconaseGerard Torrent
Laboratori d Enginyeria de Proteïnes, Departament de Biologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi s n 17071 Girona, Spain
Mol Pharm 6:531-42. 2009..In the present paper, however, we have used two nonbactericidal ribonucleases, onconase and the human pancreatic ribonuclease, as scaffolds onto which to engineer bactericidal activity...
- Evasion of ribonuclease inhibitor as a determinant of ribonuclease cytotoxicityThomas J Rutkoski
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706 1544, USA
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 9:185-9. 2008Onconase (ONC) is an amphibian member of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) superfamily that exhibits innate antitumoral activity. ONC has been granted both orphan-drug and fast-track status by the U.S...
- Adaptive evolution of digestive RNASE1 genes in leaf-eating monkeys revisited: new insights from ten additional colobinesLi Yu
Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio resource and Key Laboratory for Microbial Resources of the Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
Mol Biol Evol 27:121-31. 2010....
- Trifluoroethanol-induced conformational transitions of proteins: insights gained from the differences between alpha-lactalbumin and ribonuclease AK Gast
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
Protein Sci 8:625-34. 1999..changes of two proteins widely used in folding experiments, bovine alpha-lactalbumin, and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, have been investigated...
- Antitumor activity of ribonuclease multimers created by site-specific covalent tetheringThomas J Rutkoski
Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Bioconjug Chem 21:1691-702. 2010..A monomeric RI-evasive variant of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) inhibits the growth of human prostate and lung tumors in mice...
- The crystal structure of eosinophil cationic protein in complex with 2',5'-ADP at 2.0 A resolution reveals the details of the ribonucleolytic active siteC Gopi Mohan
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, U K
Biochemistry 41:12100-6. 2002..ECP belongs to the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily of proteins, and the crystal structure of ECP in the unliganded form (determined previously) ..
- Crystal structures of ribonuclease A complexes with 5'-diphosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate and 5'-diphosphoadenosine 2'-phosphate at 1.7 A resolutionD D Leonidas
School of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, U K
Biochemistry 36:5578-88. 1997High-resolution (1.7 A) crystal structures have been determined for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) complexed with 5'-diphosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (ppA-3'-p) and 5'-diphosphoadenosine 2'-phosphate (ppA-2'-p), as well as for ..
- Electric charge divergence in proteins: insights into the evolution of their three-dimensional propertiesYukuto Sato
Division of Molecular Marine Biology, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai 1 15 1, Nakano Ku, Tokyo 164 8639, Japan
Gene 441:3-11. 2009..To obtain further insights, ALD and PGI were compared to the proteins pancreatic ribonuclease (EC 126.96.36.199) and triose-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1...
- Production of human pancreatic ribonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coliM Ribo
Unitat de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Departament de Biologia, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain
Protein Expr Purif 7:253-61. 1996Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HP-RNase) has considerable promise as a therapeutic agent. Structure-function analyses of HP-RNase have been impeded by the difficulty of obtaining the enzyme from its host...
- Toward an antitumor form of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease: the crystal structure of three noncovalent dimeric mutantsAntonello Merlino
Department of Chemistry, University of Naples, Complesso Universitario Monte S Angelo, Via Cinthia, I 80126 Naples, Italy
Biopolymers 91:1029-37. 2009..The introduction of Leu28, Cys31, and Cys32 and, in addition, of Pro19 in the sequence of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) has produced two dimeric variants LCC and PLCC, which do exhibit a cytotoxic activity, though ..
- Tuning the pK(a) of fluorescein to optimize binding assaysLuke D Lavis
Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Anal Chem 79:6775-82. 2007..The fluorescence of fluorescein-labeled model protein, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A), decreases upon binding to its cognate inhibitor protein (RI)...
- The structural determinants that lead to the formation of particular oligomeric structures in the pancreatic-type ribonuclease familyA Benito
Laboratori d Enginyeria de Proteïnes, Departament de Biologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi s n, E 17071, Girona, Spain
Curr Protein Pept Sci 9:370-93. 2008..The prototype of this family is bovine pancreatic ribonuclease or ribonuclease A...
- Two-metal-ion mechanism for hammerhead-ribozyme catalysisFabrice Leclerc
Laboratoire de Maturation des ARN et Enzymologie Moleculaire, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
J Phys Chem B 110:3395-409. 2006..Thus, the overall reaction corresponds to that catalyzed by bovine pancreatic ribonuclease. However, an essential distinguishing aspect is that metal ions are not involved in RNase catalysis but ..
- A new mutant of bovine seminal ribonuclease with a reversed swapping propensityCarmine Ercole
Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli, Italy
Biochemistry 46:2227-32. 2007..mutants by replacing selected residues with the corresponding ones of its monomeric counterpart, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A)...
- Oligomerization and aggregation of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A: characteristic events observed by FTIR spectroscopyYong Bin Yan
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, and State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Biophys J 90:2525-33. 2006..We studied the specific events of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A thermal aggregation by a combination of second derivative infrared analysis and two-dimensional ..
- Conformational changes below the Tm: molecular dynamics studies of the thermal pretransition of ribonuclease AEric D Merkley
Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 5061, USA
Biochemistry 47:880-92. 2008..variation, we have performed all-atom, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) up to its melting temperature (Tm approximately 337 K)...
- Cytotoxicity of bovine seminal ribonuclease: monomer versus dimerJ Eugene Lee
Departments of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Biochemistry 44:15760-7. 2005Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A). Unlike RNase A, BS-RNase has notable toxicity for human tumor cells...
- Crystal structure of porcine ribonuclease inhibitor, a protein with leucine-rich repeatsB Kobe
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235 9050
Nature 366:751-6. 1993Ribonuclease inhibitor is a cytoplasmic protein that tightly binds and inhibits ribonucleases of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily...
- Embryo transfer rederivation of C.B-17/Icr-Prkdc(scid) mice experimentally infected with mouse parvovirus 1David G Besselsen
Department of University Animal Care, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Comp Med 58:353-9. 2008..All of these mice were negative by MFI for parvovirus nonstructural protein antigen (rNS1) and by qPCR, with the exception of 1 recipient female mouse that displayed weak rNS1 seroreactivity and low levels ..
- 'Crystal lattice engineering,' an approach to engineer protein crystal contacts by creating intermolecular symmetry: crystallization and structure determination of a mutant human RNase 1 with a hydrophobic interface of leucinesHidenori Yamada
Department of Medical and Bioengineering Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Japan
Protein Sci 16:1389-97. 2007..interface (comprising four leucine residues) was introduced into a helical region (helix 2) of the human pancreatic ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1) that was predicted to form a suitable crystallization interface...
- Engineering ribonuclease A: production, purification and characterization of wild-type enzyme and mutants at Gln11S B delCardayre
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison 53706 1569, USA
Protein Eng 8:261-73. 1995Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has been the object of much landmark work in biological chemistry...
- The structural basis of the difference in sensitivity for PNGase F in the de-N-glycosylation of the native bovine pancreatic ribonucleases B and BSVeronique Blanchard
Bijvoet Center, Department of Bio Organic Chemistry, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, NL 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Biochemistry 47:3435-46. 2008..A typical example is native bovine pancreatic ribonuclease B (RNase B) with oligomannose-type N-glycans at Asn-34...
- Dissimilarity in the oxidative folding of onconase and ribonuclease A, two structural homologuesRobert F Gahl
Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 1301, USA
Protein Eng Des Sel 21:223-31. 2008..A family, was examined and shows markedly different behavior compared to its structural homologue bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) under similar conditions...
- Structural features for the mechanism of antitumor action of a dimeric human pancreatic ribonuclease variantAntonello Merlino
Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126, Italy
Protein Sci 18:50-7. 2009....
- Inhibitor design for ribonuclease A: the binding of two 5'-phosphate uridine analoguesVicky G Tsirkone
Institute of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece
Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 65:671-7. 2009In the quest for the rational design of selective and potent inhibitors for members of the pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) family of biomedical interest, the binding of uridine 5'-phosphate (U5P) and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) to ..
- A simple micro-method for determining precise oligosaccharidic specificity of mannose-binding lectinsHenri Debray
Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle UMR CNRS USTL n degrees 8576 Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq cedex, France
Glycobiology 19:1417-26. 2009..of a mixture of N-[(14)C]-acetylated glycoasparagines, prepared by exhaustive pronase digestion of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease B and N-[(14)C]-acetylation with [(14)C]-acetic anhydride and containing all the possible oligomannoside-..
- Cellular uptake of ribonuclease A relies on anionic glycansTzu Yuan Chao
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States
Biochemistry 49:10666-73. 2010Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) can enter human cells, even though it lacks a cognate cell-surface receptor protein. Here, we report on the biochemical basis for its cellular uptake...
- Folding, quality control, and secretion of pancreatic ribonuclease in live cellsRoger Geiger
Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
J Biol Chem 286:5813-22. 2011..The presence of N-glycans had little effect on the folding and secretion process...
- Production of recombinant nonstructural 1 protein in Escherichia coli for early detection of Japanese encephalitis virus infectionNagesh K Tripathi
Bioprocess Scale Up Facility, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India
Microb Biotechnol 5:599-606. 2012..The recombinant nonstructural 1 (rNS1) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus is a potential diagnostic as well as vaccine candidate...
- X-ray crystallographic studies of RNase A variants engineered at the most destabilizing positions of the main hydrophobic core: further insight into protein stabilityKatarzyna Kurpiewska
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30 060, Poland
Proteins 77:658-69. 2009..the structural origin of decreased pressure and temperature stability, the crystal structure of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A variants V47A, V54A, V57A, I81A, I106A, and V108A was solved at 1.4-2...
- Molecular dynamics simulation of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A-CpA and transition state-like complexesElena Formoso
Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea and Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P K 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi, Spain
J Phys Chem B 114:7371-82. 2010..In this study, we apply molecular dynamics simulations of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, an archetype ribonuclease, to study the conformational dynamics, structural relaxation, and ..
- Refolding of ribonuclease A monitored by real-time photo-CIDNP NMR spectroscopyIain J Day
Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13QZ, UK
J Biomol NMR 44:77-86. 2009..Real-time photo-CIDNP measurements yield residue-specific kinetic data pertaining to the folding reaction, interpreted in terms of current knowledge of the folding of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A.
- (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of rat angiogeninChung Kyung Lee
Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute, 162 Yeongudanji Ro, Ochang, Cheongwon, Chungbuk, 363 883, Korea
Biomol NMR Assign 7:89-92. 2013Angiogenin is an unusual member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily that induces formation of new blood vessels and is a promising anti-cancer target...
- Identification of c-myc coding region determinant RNA sequences and structures cleaved by an RNase1-like endoribonucleaseAlaeddin Tafech
Chemistry Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, Canada BC V2N 4Z9
Biochim Biophys Acta 1769:49-60. 2007..These properties further distinguish the enzyme from previously described mammalian endonuclease that cleaves c-myc mRNA in vitro...
- Structural basis for catalysis by onconaseJ Eugene Lee
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 1544, USA
J Mol Biol 375:165-77. 2008Onconase (ONC) is a homolog of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) from the frog Rana pipiens. ONC displays antitumoral activity and is in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of cancer...
- New anti-CD30 human pancreatic ribonuclease-based immunotoxin reveals strong and specific cytotoxicity in vivoSandra Braschoss
Institut fur Pathologie, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin FU Berlin, Germany
Leuk Lymphoma 48:1179-86. 2007..an immunotoxin composed of a single chain variable fragment of a CD30 antibody fused to the human pancreatic ribonuclease, showing CD30-specific binding and ribonucleolytic activity resistant to the inhibitor RNasin...
- Identification and quantification of N-linked oligosaccharides released from glycoproteins: an inter-laboratory studySmita Thobhani
Analytical Science, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW, UK
Glycobiology 19:201-11. 2009..human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (H alpha1), bovine alpha1-acid glycoprotein (B alpha1), bovine pancreatic ribonuclease B (RNaseB), and human serum immunoglobulin G (hIgG)...
- Role of unique basic residues of human pancreatic ribonuclease in its catalysis and structural stabilityPunyatirtha Dey
Immunochemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110067, India
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 360:809-14. 2007Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HPR) and bovine RNase A belong to the RNase A superfamily and possess similar key structural and catalytic residues...
- Characterization of a sub-family of Arabidopsis genes with the SPX domain reveals their diverse functions in plant tolerance to phosphorus starvationKe Duan
State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Plant J 54:965-75. 2008..Over-expression of AtSPX1 increased the transcript levels of ACP5, RNS1 and PAP2 under both phosphate-sufficient and phosphate-deficient conditions, suggesting a potential transcriptional ..
- Increasing the potency of a cytotoxin with an arginine graftStephen M Fuchs
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706 1544, USA
Protein Eng Des Sel 20:505-9. 2007Variants and homologs of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) can exhibit cytotoxic activity. This toxicity relies on cellular internalization of the enzyme. Residues Glu49 and Asp53 form an anionic patch on the surface of RNase A...
- Isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase T1 hypersensitive (rns) mutants and genetic analysis of the RNS1/DSL1 geneTomoki Ishikawa
Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
J Gen Appl Microbiol 51:73-82. 2005..We identified the genes mutated in three of the rns mutants, rns1, rns2, and rns3, as DSL1, UMP1, and SEC17, respectively...
- Three-dimensional solution structure of human angiogenin determined by 1H,15N-NMR spectroscopy--characterization of histidine protonation states and pKa valuesO Lequin
Département de Chimie Synthèse Organique, URA 1308 du CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
Eur J Biochem 250:712-26. 1997Human angiogenin is a member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily that induces blood vessel formation. Its three-dimensional solution structure has been determined to high resolution by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy...
- PEG chains increase aspermatogenic and antitumor activity of RNase A and BS-RNase enzymesJosef Matousek
Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Libechov 27721, Czech Republic
J Control Release 82:29-37. 2002RNase A (bovine pancreatic ribonuclease) and BS-RNase (bovine seminal ribonuclease) are monomeric and dimeric enzymes, respectively, with aspermatogenic and antitumor activities...
- Ribonuclease inhibitor protein of human erythrocytes: characterization, loss of activity in response to oxidative stress, and association with Heinz bodiesM Moenner
INSERM Unité 427, Développement Humain, Croissance et Différenciation, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Paris, France
Blood Cells Mol Dis 24:149-64. 1998..Each inhibitor forms an equimolar complex with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and is inactivated by treatment with the sulfhydryl reagent p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate...
- The mouse angiogenin gene family: structures of an angiogenin-related protein gene and two pseudogenesW E Brown
Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Genomics 29:200-6. 1995Angiogenin, a homologue of pancreatic ribonuclease, is a potent inducer of blood vessel formation...
- Lymphocyte recognition of human parvovirus B19 non-structural (NS1) protein: associations with occurrence of acute and chronic arthropathy?L A Mitchell
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, BC Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, Canada
J Med Microbiol 50:627-35. 2001Immune recognition of recombinant parvovirus B19 non-structural (rNS1) protein was studied by immunoblot and lymphoproliferative assays in blood from the following B19 seropositive groups: B19 infected (n = 14), B19 exposed but non-..
- High-level expression of three members of the murine angiogenin family in Escherichia coli and purification of the recombinant proteinsD E Holloway
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
Protein Expr Purif 22:307-17. 2001Angiogenin (Ang) is a small basic protein which belongs to the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily. It potently induces the formation of new blood vessels and has emerged as a promising anticancer target...
- Human ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4): coding sequence, chromosomal localization and identification of two distinct transcripts in human somatic tissuesH F Rosenberg
Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 23:4290-5. 1995..encoding human ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4) of the mammalian ribonuclease gene family, whose members include pancreatic ribonuclease, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil cationic protein and angiogenin...
- Effect of bovine seminal ribonuclease and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A on bovine oocyte maturationT Slavik
Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
J Exp Zool 287:394-9. 2000..The MxM form and RNase A at 5 microg/ml inhibited the maturation rate by 71 and 48%, respectively, but a less significant effect was ..
- Two distinct secretory ribonucleases from human cerebrum: purification, characterization and relationships to other ribonucleasesT Yasuda
Department of Legal Medicine, Fukui Medical School, Japan
Biochem J 296:617-25. 1993..Two RNAases corresponding to HB-1 and HB-2 were identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid...
- Luteimonas aquatica sp. nov., isolated from fresh water from Southern TaiwanJui Hsing Chou
Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:2051-5. 2008A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated RIB1-20(T), isolated from fresh water was investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming...
- Antibody-onconase conjugates: cytotoxicity and intracellular routingS M Rybak
Bionanomics, LLC, 411 Walnut Street, Green Cove Springs, FL 32043, USA
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 9:226-30. 2008Onconase, a member of the pancreatic ribonuclease A superfamily, is currently in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable malignant mesothelioma...
- Secretion of mammalian ribonucleases from Escherichia coli using the signal sequence of murine spleen ribonucleaseC H Schein
Laboratory for Organic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology E T H, Zurich
Biochem J 283:137-44. 1992A nucleotide sequence identical with that of the recently identified murine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNAase) was isolated from a murine spleen cDNA library...
- Protein synthesis in mitochondria isolated from the trypanosomatid protozoan Crithidia fasciculataI Tittawella
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Umea, Sweden
FEBS Lett 423:351-6. 1998..By using pancreatic ribonuclease to inactivate contaminating cytosolic activity, I show that these mitochondria can conduct protein ..
- Ribonucleases from rat and bovine liver: purification, specificity and structural characterizationW Zhao
Biochemisch Laboratorium, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Netherlands
Biochim Biophys Acta 1384:55-65. 1998..5 with yeast RNA as substrate. RL1 is identical to rat pancreatic ribonuclease (ribonuclease 1)...
- The subsites structure of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A accounts for the abnormal kinetic behavior with cytidine 2',3'-cyclic phosphateM Moussaoui
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
J Biol Chem 273:25565-72. 1998The kinetics of the hydrolysis of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic phosphate (C>p) to 3'-CMP by ribonuclease A are multiphasic at high substrate concentrations...
- Structural changes to ribonuclease A and their effects on biological activityJ Soucek
Department of Cell Physiology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Prague, Czech Republic
Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 123:103-11. 1999..BS RNase) displays immunosuppressive and antitumor activities on mammalian cells, whereas bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) is not cytotoxic...
- Serologic prevalence of MPV1 in mouse strains in a commercial laboratory mouse colony determined by using VP1 antigenEmilija Filipovska-Naumovska
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 49:437-42. 2010..The infection had not been detected by using an rNS1 parvovirus ELISA antigen even though the virus was genetically similar to other MPV1 variants reported previously...
- Crystal structure of eosinophil cationic protein at 2.4 A resolutionE Boix
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK
Biochemistry 38:16794-801. 1999..It belongs to the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) family and exhibits ribonucleolytic activity which is about 100-fold lower than that of a ..
- The amino acid sequence of human ribonuclease 4, a highly conserved ribonuclease that cleaves specifically on the 3' side of uridineH M Zhou
Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine, Boston, MA 02115
Eur J Biochem 217:401-10. 1993..but differs substantially from both of these proteins; the protein sequence has 43% identity with human pancreatic ribonuclease and 39% identity with human angiogenin, as compared to 35% identity between human angiogenin and ..
- Nucleotide sequence encoding human pancreatic ribonucleaseM Seno
Department of Bioengineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Japan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1218:466-8. 1994A cDNA coding for human pancreatic ribonuclease was isolated from a pancreas cDNA library and sequenced...
- The porcine ANG, RNASE1 and RNASE6 genes: molecular cloning, polymorphism detection and the association with haematological parametersXue Bai
Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Central China Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, Hubei, People s Republic of China
Mol Biol Rep 36:2405-11. 2009Angiogenin (ANG) [also known as ribonuclease, RNase A family, 5 (RNASE5)], ribonuclease, RNase A family, 1 (pancreatic) (RNASE1) and ribonuclease, RNase A family, k6 (RNASE6) are three members of the RNase A superfamily...
- Propensity for C-terminal domain swapping correlates with increased regional flexibility in the C-terminus of RNase AKatherine H Miller
Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
Protein Sci 20:1735-44. 2011..Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a well-studied protein known to domain swap under extreme conditions, such as ..
- RNase A oligomerization through 3D domain swapping is favoured by a residue located far from the swapping domainsFrancesca Vottariello
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e della Riproduzione, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, I 37134 Verona, Italy
Biochimie 93:1846-57. 2011Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A forms 3D domain-swapped oligomers by lyophilization from 40% acetic acid solutions or if subjected to various thermally-induced denaturation procedures...
- Interactions crucial for three-dimensional domain swapping in the HP-RNase variant PM8Pere Tubert
Laboratori d Enginyeria de Proteïnes, Departament de Biologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, Maria Aurèlia Campmany, 69 E 17071 Girona, Spain
Biophys J 101:459-67. 2011..investigated the role on the dimerization process of different residues of a domain-swapped dimer human pancreatic ribonuclease variant...
- Novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of axonal degeneration in frontotemporal dementiaNiklas Mattsson
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgren s University Hospital Mölndal, S 431 80 Molndal, Sweden
Mol Med Report 1:757-61. 2008..19 Da) as well as its mono- and diphosphorylated forms (7738.16 Da and 7818.13 Da, respectively) and pancreatic ribonuclease (14566.33 Da)...
- Functional role of glutamine 28 and arginine 39 in double stranded RNA cleavage by human pancreatic ribonucleaseMd Tabish Rehman
Immunochemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
PLoS ONE 6:e17159. 2011Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HPR), a member of RNase A superfamily, has a high activity on double stranded (ds) RNA. By virtue of this activity HPR appears to be involved in the host-defense against pathogenic viruses...
- Isolation of the murine ribonuclease gene Rib-1: structure and tissue specific expression in pancreas and parotid glandL C Samuelson
Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 0618
Nucleic Acids Res 19:6935-41. 1991The mouse pancreatic ribonuclease gene Rib-1 was isolated from a library of mouse genomic DNA and sequenced. This small gene contains a nontranslated exon of 52 base pairs, an intron of 791 base pairs, and a coding exon of 741 base pairs...
- A putative mouse oocyte maturation inhibitory protein from urine of pregnant women: N-terminal sequence homology with human nonsecretory ribonucleaseR Sakakibara
Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 39:146-9. 1991..These results indicate that the protein purified as a putative mouse oocyte maturation inhibitory protein from the urine of pregnant women may be a product of an peculiar processing of a nonsecretory ribonuclease precursor...
- Human angiogenin, an organogenic proteinJ F Riordan
Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
Br J Cancer 57:587-90. 1988..Chemical characterization of the protein reveals a remarkable homology to the pancreatic ribonuclease family and has led to the identification of a unique ribonucleolytic activity for angiogenin...
- Concatenated two-dimensional correlation analysis: a new possibility for generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and its application to the examination of process reversibilityLiping Zhang
State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Material, Jilin University, No 2699, Qianjin Street, Changchun, 130012 P R China Jilin Business and Technology College, No 4728, Xi an Road, Changchun, 130061, P R China
Appl Spectrosc 64:343-50. 2010..transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the thermally induced unfolding-refolding transition of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) in aqueous solution; and a set of FT-IR spectra of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of ..
- Human eosinophil cationic protein. Molecular cloning of a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activityH F Rosenberg
Division of Infectious Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
J Exp Med 170:163-76. 1989..encoded amino acid sequence of ECP shows 66% identity to that of EDN and 31% identity to that of human pancreatic ribonuclease, including conservation of the essential structural cysteine and cataytic lysine and histidine residues...
- Comparative X-ray crystallographic evidence for a beta-bend conformation as the active structure for peptide T in T4 receptor recognitionJ Chen
Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York 10003
J Protein Chem 8:87-100. 1989..A sequence similarity has been found between two segments of endothiapepsin (acid proteinase, 2APE), bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, and peptide T, a segment of the gp120 protein of human immune deficiency virus (HIV), which has been ..
- Eosinophil cationic protein cDNA. Comparison with other toxic cationic proteins and ribonucleasesR L Barker
Department of Immunology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN 55905
J Immunol 143:952-5. 1989..The ECP nucleotide sequence shows similarity to EDN, rat pancreatic ribonuclease, and human angiogenin; all are members of the ribonuclease gene superfamily...
- Protein-DNA interactions in the 5'-flanking region of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease geneA Carsana
Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Italy
Biochim Biophys Acta 1171:147-52. 1992In the 5'-flanking region of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease gene a sequence has been identified which specifically binds one or more factors present in nuclear protein extracts prepared from bovine pancreas...
- Amino acid sequence of the nonsecretory ribonuclease of human urineJ J Beintema
Biochemisch Laboratorium, Rijksuniversiteit, Groningen, The Netherlands
Biochemistry 27:4530-8. 1988..to belong to the same ribonuclease superfamily as the mammalian secretory ribonucleases, turtle pancreatic ribonuclease, and human angiogenin...
- Ribonuclease inhibitor regulates neovascularization by human angiogeninKimberly A Dickson
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 1544, USA
Biochemistry 48:3804-6. 2009Human angiogenin (ANG) is a homologue of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) that induces neovascularization. ANG is the only human angiogenic factor that possesses ribonucleolytic activity...
- Elucidation of the ribonuclease A aggregation process mediated by 3D domain swapping: a computational approach reveals possible new multimeric structuresGiorgio Cozza
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Biopolymers 89:26-39. 2008By lyophilization from 40% acetic acid solutions, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A forms several three-dimensional (3D) domain-swapped oligomers: dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, and traces of high-order oligomers, ..
- FLAVOPROTEINS IN FATTY ACID METABOLISMColin Thorpe; Fiscal Year: 2003..and cooperates with protein disulfide isomerase in the generation of the correct disulfide pairings in pancreatic ribonuclease. The mechanism of the reductive half- reaction will be probed with a variety of reduced protein ..
- RIBONUCLEASES IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPYRONALD RAINES; Fiscal Year: 2007The overall goal of the proposed research is to reveal how variants and homologs of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) promote tumor cell death...
- CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF RIBONUCLEASE ARONALD RAINES; Fiscal Year: 2004..a new type of ribonuclease inhibitor; (5) function in vivo-determine the true physiological role of pancreatic ribonuclease and the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein (which binds to pancreatic ribonuclease with high ..
- RIBONUCLEASES IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPYRonald T Raines; Fiscal Year: 2010Onconase (ONC), which is an amphibian homologue of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A), is now undergoing a human clinical trial for the treatment of cancer...
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..
- Functional genomic approaches to duplicate gene evolutionJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..A clear understanding of these relationships helps clarify the exact molecular basis of human diseases, a necessary step in the treatment and prevention of these diseases. ..
- Functional genomic approaches to duplicate gene evolutionJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..A clear understanding of these relationships helps clarify the exact molecular basis of human diseases, a necessary step in the treatment and prevention of these diseases. ..
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..
- RNases for understanding the origin of new gene functionJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2006..Eight members of the superfamily are known in humans, and they are pancreatic RNase (or RNase 1), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN or RNase 2), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP or RNase 3), RNase 4, ..
- RNases for understanding the origin of new gene functionJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007..Eight members of the superfamily are known in humans, and they are pancreatic RNase (or RNase 1), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN or RNase 2), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP or RNase 3), RNase 4, ..
- RNases for understanding the origin of new gene functionJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2003..Eight members of the superfamily are known in humans, and they are pancreatic RNase (or RNase 1), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN or RNase 2), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP or RNase 3), RNase 4, ..
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..
- SPECTROSCOPIC/KINETIC STUDIES OF FOLDING PATHWAYSHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 2007..g., the undesirable association of sickle-cell hemogloblin, or the induction of an oncogene product, whose properties involve a conformational change when only one amino acid residue in the sequence is changed. ..
- MOTION AND PROXIMITY RELATIONS IN POLYPEPTIDESHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 1980..Also EPR studies will be carried out on spin-labeled ribonuclease to determine the pathway(s) of folding of this protein from the unfolded form (both with and without the disulfide bonds intact)...
- INTERNAL BONDING IN PROTEINSHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 1980..These techniques are being applied to specific problems, involving the structures of polypeptides and proteins in solution, which are described in this proposal...
- MOTION AND PROXIMITY RELATIONS IN POLYPEPTIDESHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 1990..Each system is selected to answer a specific conformational question, e.g. the mechanism of folding of ribonuclease, and the structures of onc gene products and growth factors (related to cancer)...
- Protein ChemistryRONALD RAINES; Fiscal Year: 2007..of chemical and biochemical tools to reveal new structure-function relationships in one particular protein, ribonuclease A. During the course of that work, we discovered that two peptides, one with a C-terminal phosophinothioester ..
- SPECTROSCOPIC/KINETIC STUDIES OF FOLDING PATHWAYSHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 2003..four-disulfide bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, and its homologs, three-disulfide bovine angiogenin and frog onconase...
- SPECTROSCOPIC/KINETIC STUDIES OF FOLDING PATHWAYSHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 2004..four-disulfide bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, and its homolog, three- disulfide bovine angiogenin...
- SPECTROSCOPIC/KINETIC STUDIES OF FOLDING PATHWAYSHAROLD SCHERAGA; Fiscal Year: 1999..spectroscopy, and nonradiative excitation energy transfer to determine the pathways of folding of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. Ribonuclease A contains four disulfide bonds...