PAI-1

Summary

Gene Symbol: PAI-1
Description: serpin family E member 1
Alias: PAI, PAI-1, PAI1, PLANH1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1, serpin E1, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1
Species: human
Products:     PAI-1

Top Publications

  1. Sögütlü Sari E, Yazici A, Eser B, Erol M, Kilic A, Ermis S, et al. The prevalence of 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in central serous chorioretinopathy and its association with plasma PAI-1 levels. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014;33:270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..understood disease and the choroidal circulation abnormality induced by the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) seems to be associated with the pathogenesis...
  2. Padilla Gutiérrez J, Palafox Sánchez C, Valle Y, Orozco Barocio G, Oregon Romero E, Vazquez Del Mercado M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms (-844 G>A and HindIII C>G) in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with clinical variables. Clin Exp Med. 2011;11:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated mechanisms responsible for modulation of the immune response by the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Furthermore, the endogenous PAI-1 has shown to promote a Th2 immune response...
  3. Muth M, Theophile K, Hussein K, Jacobi C, Kreipe H, Bock O. "Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of microRNA-449a/b impairs control over targeted SERPINE1 (PAI-1) mRNA - a mechanism involved in SERPINE1 (PAI-1) overexpression". J Transl Med. 2010;8:33 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence for targeting the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein (SERPINE1; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI-1) by miRNA-449a/b leading to SERPINE1 mRNA and protein up- and down-regulation, respectively...
  4. Meltzer M, Lisman T, de Groot P, Meijers J, le Cessie S, Doggen C, et al. Venous thrombosis risk associated with plasma hypofibrinolysis is explained by elevated plasma levels of TAFI and PAI-1. Blood. 2010;116:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were the main determinants of CLT, followed by plasminogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (..
  5. Ploplis V. Effects of altered plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression on cardiovascular disease. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12:1782-9 pubmed
    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional protein with the ability to not only regulate fibrinolysis through inhibition of plasminogen activation, but also cell signaling events which have direct downstream effects ..
  6. Kim H, Cho C, Cho Y, Cho S, Yoon K, Kim K. Significant associations of PAI-1 genetic polymorphisms with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:160 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have demonstrated that decreased fibrinolytic activity due to elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels correlates with ONFH pathogenesis...
  7. Tee Y, Wang P, Tsai H, Lin L, Lin H, Yang S, et al. Genetic polymorphism of urokinase-type plasminogen activator is interacting with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to raise risk of cervical neoplasia. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genes, including urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms in patients with the cervical neoplasia...
  8. Singh N, Gupta A, Behera D, Dash D. Elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) as contributing factor in pathogenesis of hypercoagulable state in antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:2331-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to explore the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)...
  9. Mathew M, Tay E, Cusi K. Elevated plasma free fatty acids increase cardiovascular risk by inducing plasma biomarkers of endothelial activation, myeloperoxidase and PAI-1 in healthy subjects. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that even transient (48-hour) and modest increases in plasma FFA may initiate early vascular abnormalities that promote atherosclerosis and CVD. ..

More Information

Publications75

  1. He W, Tan R, Dai C, Li Y, Wang D, Hao S, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a transcriptional target of the canonical pathway of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24665-75 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases...
  2. Lima L, Carvalho M, Fonseca Neto C, Garcia J, Sousa M. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma levels association in patients with coronary artery disease. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011;97:462-389 pubmed
    Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  3. Shih Y, Takada Y, Lo S. Silencing of DLC1 upregulates PAI-1 expression and reduces migration in normal prostate cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This migration defect is mainly due to upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Silencing of PAI-1 rescues the shDLC1-reduced migration phenotype...
  4. Gilabert Estelles J, Ramon L, Braza Boïls A, Gilabert J, Chirivella M, Espana F, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4 G/5 G polymorphism and endometrial cancer. Influence of PAI-1 polymorphism on tissue PAI-1 antigen and mRNA expression and tumor severity. Thromb Res. 2012;130:242-7 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may have significance for PAI-1 expression. High levels of PAI-1 in endometrial cancer patients are associated with a poor prognosis...
  5. Fang Y, Zhang L, Zeng Z, Lian Y, Jia Y, Zhu H, et al. Promoter polymorphisms of SERPINE1 are associated with the antidepressant response to depression in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:217-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of the tissue plasminogen activator/brain-derived neurotrophic factor axis, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and depression...
  6. Madách K, Aladzsity I, Szilagyi A, Fust G, Gal J, Pénzes I, et al. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study. Crit Care. 2010;14:R79 pubmed publisher
    ..The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis...
  7. Li L, Nie W, Zhou H, Yuan W, Li W, Huang W. Association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54883 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have evaluated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis in different populations. However, the available results are conflicting...
  8. Said J, Tsui R, Borg A, Higgins J, Moses E, Walker S, et al. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic nulliparous women. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:881-6 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis...
  9. Ahmed W, Malik M, Saeed I, Khan A, Sadeque A, Kaleem U, et al. Role of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor polymorphism in myocardial infarction. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) (Alu-repeat insertion (I)/deletion (D)) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) (4G/5G insertion/deletion) polymorphisms with MI in the Pakistani population...
  10. Agirbasli M, Eren M, Yasar S, Delil K, Goktay F, Oner E, et al. Functionally stable plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in a family with cardiovascular disease and vitiligo. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2014;38:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated PAI-1 antigen (Ag) and activity levels in a 34 year old male with extensive vascular disease, alopecia areata and ..
  11. Fang H, PLACENCIO V, DeClerck Y. Protumorigenic activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 through an antiapoptotic function. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:1470-84 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a protease inhibitor but is paradoxically associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. However, the mechanisms of its effects on tumor cells have not been explored...
  12. Huang J, Sabater Lleal M, Asselbergs F, Tregouet D, Shin S, Ding J, et al. Genome-wide association study for circulating levels of PAI-1 provides novel insights into its regulation. Blood. 2012;120:4873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..study to identify novel associations between genetic variants and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and examined functional implications of variants and genes that were discovered...
  13. Hultman K, Tjarnlund Wolf A, Odeberg J, Eriksson P, Jern C. Allele-specific transcription of the PAI-1 gene in human astrocytes. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:998-1008 pubmed publisher
    The 4G allele of the PAI-1 -675(4G/5G) insertion/deletion promoter polymorphism has been associated with elevated plasma levels of PAI-1 and an increased risk of myocardial infarction...
  14. Ashavaid T, Todur S, Kondkar A, Nair K, Shalia K, Dalal J, et al. Platelet polymorphisms: frequency distribution and association with coronary artery disease in an Indian population. Platelets. 2011;22:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..chain (BclI), ?-chain (A?312), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) [I/D] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) [4G/5G] in 473 healthy controls and 446 patients with stable and unstable angina...
  15. Bayram B, Sayin E, Erkasap N, Onlü H, Ozkurt M, Sahin F, et al. Lack of association between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and osteoarthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:259-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has established that 4G/5G polymorphism genotypes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene do not play a role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Turkish population. ..
  16. Magdoud K, Herbepin V, Touraine R, Almawi W, Mahjoub T. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G and -844G/A variants in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;70:246-52 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis, and the common promoter region variants -675G/A (4G/5G) and -844G/A are associated with increased thrombotic risk...
  17. Bouchard L, Vohl M, Lebel S, Hould F, Marceau P, Bergeron J, et al. Contribution of genetic and metabolic syndrome to omental adipose tissue PAI-1 gene mRNA and plasma levels in obesity. Obes Surg. 2010;20:492-9 pubmed publisher
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has already been associated with atherosclerosis; myocardial infarction; and cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia...
  18. Gramling M, Church F. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is an aggregate response factor with pleiotropic effects on cell signaling in vascular disease and the tumor microenvironment. Thromb Res. 2010;125:377-81 pubmed publisher
    In hemostasis, the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) functions to stabilize clots via inhibition of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with subsequent inhibition of fibrinolysis...
  19. D Elia A, Fabbro D, Driul L, Barillari G, Marchesoni D, Damante G. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..genes encoding proteins involved in coagulation, we focus on polymorphisms of the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene. The most relevant association studies between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and P-EC are reviewed...
  20. De la Cruz Mosso U, Muñoz Valle J, Salgado Goytia L, García Carreón A, Illades Aguiar B, Castañeda Saucedo E, et al. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:41 pubmed publisher
    Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of ..
  21. Patel N, Tahara S, Malik P, Kalra V. Involvement of miR-30c and miR-301a in immediate induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by placental growth factor in human pulmonary endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2011;434:473-82 pubmed publisher
    b>PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) is a key physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis...
  22. Gunes H, Cosan D, Ata N, Birdane A, Ustuner M, Dikmen M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with hypertensive patients in the Turkish population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010;14:303-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism and the 5G5G genotype appear to be associated with an elevated risk of developing hypertension in a representative sample of Turkish population. ..
  23. Weng C, Tsai C, Chen Y, Hsieh Y, Lin C, Liu Y, et al. Evaluation of the association of urokinase plasminogen activator system gene polymorphisms with susceptibility and pathological development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:3394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic polymorphisms of uPA system genes, including uPA, uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotyping ..
  24. Agirbasli M, Eren M, Eren F, Murphy S, Serdar Z, Seckin D, et al. Enhanced functional stability of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with livedoid vasculopathy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2011;32:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..activator (t-PA) infusion suggesting that inhibition of the fibrinolysis through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity may determine the disease course in patients with LV...
  25. Ju H, Lim B, Kim M, Noh S, Kim W, Ihm C, et al. SERPINE1 intron polymorphisms affecting gene expression are associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer susceptibility. Cancer. 2010;116:4248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..An association between SERPINE1 and DGC susceptibility was observed with 4 correlated polymorphisms in intron 7 rather than the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter, although all polymorphisms affected gene expression. ..
  26. Prasad P, Tiwari A, Kumar K, Ammini A, Gupta A, Gupta R, et al. Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..RAGE), glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic ..
  27. Dijkstra A, Postma D, Bruinenberg M, van Diemen C, Boezen H, Koppelman G, et al. SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with asthma severity and inhaled corticosteroid response. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:1036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that SERPINE1 is not an asthma susceptibility gene, but rather affects the severity, progression and long-term ICS response in asthma. ..
  28. Witzel I, Milde Langosch K, Wirtz R, Roth C, Ihnen M, Mahner S, et al. Comparison of microarray-based RNA expression with ELISA-based protein determination of HER2, uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue of patients with breast cancer and relation to outcome. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..like human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) would represent an elegant simplification...
  29. Bernot D, Stalin J, Stocker P, Bonardo B, Scroyen I, Alessi M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is an intracellular inhibitor of furin proprotein convertase. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the serine protease inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) forms an SDS-stable complex with the PC furin, which leads to the inhibition of the intra-..
  30. Su C, Yeh K, Yeh C, Wang P, Ho E, Chou M, et al. Genetic polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2011;104:755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the association of uPA system genes, including uPA, uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene polymorphisms, with risk of endometrial cancer...
  31. Bonyadi M, Shaghaghi Z, Haghi M, Dastgiri S. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism in Iranian Azeri Turkish patients with FMF disease and its association with amyloidosis. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis by inactivating tissue-type and urokinase-..
  32. Lanktree M, Johansen C, Anand S, Davis A, Miller R, Yusuf S, et al. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration. Blood. 2010;116:2160-3 pubmed publisher
    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk...
  33. Sakamoto K, Osaki M, Hozumi A, Goto H, Fukushima T, Baba H, et al. Simvastatin suppresses dexamethasone-induced secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human bone marrow adipocytes. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:82 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an adipokine, which are physiologically active substances secreted from visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes...
  34. Ferroni P, Roselli M, Portarena I, Formica V, Riondino S, La Farina F, et al. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in breast cancer - relationship with clinical outcome. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:1153-61 pubmed
    Signaling pathways triggered by increased thrombin or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression drastically alter the tumor microenvironment, contributing to an adverse outcome...
  35. Taubert H, Wurl P, Greither T, Kappler M, Bache M, Lautenschlager C, et al. Co-detection of members of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in tumour tissue and serum correlates with a poor prognosis for soft-tissue sarcoma patients. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined 82 STS patients for protein levels of uPA, PAI-1and uPAR in tumour tissue and serum by ELISA...
  36. Hultman K, Blomstrand F, Nilsson M, Wilhelmsson U, Malmgren K, Pekny M, et al. Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and protease nexin-1 in human astrocytes: Response to injury-related factors. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of the serine protease inhibitors (serpins) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and protease nexin-1 (PN-1) by astrocytes may counterbalance excessive serine protease activity associated with ..
  37. Garg N, Goyal N, Strawn T, Wu J, Mann K, Lawrence D, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and vitronectin expression level and stoichiometry regulate vascular smooth muscle cell migration through physiological collagen matrices. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:1847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Purified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is reported to both promote and inhibit VSMC migration on two-dimensional (D) surfaces...
  38. Patel N, Sundaram N, Yang M, Madigan C, Kalra V, Malik P. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), a novel inducer of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in sickle cell disease (SCD). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16713-22 pubmed publisher
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by a prothrombotic state. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is known to modulate fibrinolysis, lung injury/fibrosis, and angiogenesis...
  39. Bentley P, Peck G, Smeeth L, Whittaker J, Sharma P. Causal relationship of susceptibility genes to ischemic stroke: comparison to ischemic heart disease and biochemical determinants. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9136 pubmed publisher
    ..positive associations with ischemic stroke for factor V Leiden Gln506, ACE I/D, MTHFR C677T, prothrombin G20210A, PAI-1 5G allele and glycoprotein IIIa Leu33Pro polymorphisms (ORs: 1.11 - 1.60)...
  40. Weng C, Lin C, Chung T, Tsai C, Chen M, Yang S. Impact of uPA system gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of environmental factors to carcinogenesis and the development of clinicopathology of oral cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic polymorphisms of uPA, uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 253 patients ..
  41. Ginsburg D, Zeheb R, Yang A, Rafferty U, Andreasen P, Nielsen L, et al. cDNA cloning of human plasminogen activator-inhibitor from endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1986;78:1673-80 pubmed
    Full-length cDNA for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was isolated from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lambda gt11 cDNA library...
  42. Pampuch A, Kowal K, Bodzenta Lukaszyk A, Di Castelnuovo A, Chyczewski L, Donati M, et al. The -675 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter polymorphism in house dust mite-sensitive allergic asthma patients. Allergy. 2006;61:234-8 pubmed
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 plays an important role in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Recently, the -675 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism has been linked with asthma...
  43. Asselbergs F, Williams S, Hebert P, Coffey C, Hillege H, Navis G, et al. Epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels. Genomics. 2007;89:362-9 pubmed
    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thereby risk for arterial thrombosis...
  44. Binder B, Christ G, Gruber F, Grubic N, Hufnagl P, Krebs M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: physiological and pathophysiological roles. News Physiol Sci. 2002;17:56-61 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) inhibits plasminogen activators (u-PA and t-PA) by forming stable complexes endocytosed via a low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member-dependent mechanism...
  45. Kinik S, Ozbek N, Yuce M, Yazici A, Verdi H, Atac F. PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism, cytokine levels and their relations with metabolic parameters in obese children. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:352-6 pubmed publisher
    Obesity is associated with the changes of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) levels...
  46. Vairaktaris E, Serefoglou Z, Avgoustidis D, Yapijakis C, Critselis E, Vylliotis A, et al. Gene polymorphisms related to angiogenesis, inflammation and thrombosis that influence risk for oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G), MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A), MMP-9 (-1562C/T), TIMP-2 (-418C/G), VEGF (+936C/T), GPI-alpha (+807C/T), PAI-1 (4G/5G), ACE (intron 16D/I) and TAFI (+325C/T) upon overall, early and advanced stages of OSCC...
  47. Nykjaer A, Conese M, Christensen E, Olson D, Cremona O, Gliemann J, et al. Recycling of the urokinase receptor upon internalization of the uPA:serpin complexes. EMBO J. 1997;16:2610-20 pubmed
    ..Recycling was directly demonstrated in cell surface-biotinylated, uPA:PAI-1-exposed cells in which biotinylated uPAR was first internalized and subsequently recycled back to the surface ..
  48. Forsti A, Lei H, Tavelin B, Enquist K, Palmqvist R, Altieri A, et al. Polymorphisms in the genes of the urokinase plasminogen activation system in relation to colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1990-4 pubmed
    ..High tumor levels of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 have been correlated with poor cancer prognosis...
  49. Ferrari P, Schroeder V, Anderson S, Kocovic L, Vogt B, Schiesser D, et al. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 genotype with avascular osteonecrosis in steroid-treated renal allograft recipients. Transplantation. 2002;74:1147-52 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that a genetic variant of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) determines the risk of AVN in glucocorticoid-treated patients...
  50. Lopes C, Dina C, Durand E, Froguel P. PAI-1 polymorphisms modulate phenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome in obese and diabetic Caucasian population. Diabetologia. 2003;46:1284-90 pubmed
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a main regulator of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and modulates the thrombosis progression...
  51. Su S, Chen S, Zhao J, Huang J, Wang X, Chen R, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene: selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and association with coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:948-54 pubmed
    To explore the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene variations on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Han population...
  52. Isordia Salas I, Leaños Miranda A, Sainz I, Reyes Maldonado E, Borrayo Sánchez G. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in young patients. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2009;62:365-72 pubmed
    To investigate the role of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) aged < or =45 years and its influence on regulation of the plasma PAI-..
  53. Liu S, Xue Y, Yang G, He F, Zhao X. [Relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy in Chinese Han patients in Guangdong Province]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004;24:904-7 pubmed
    To understand the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Chinese Han patients in Guangdong Province...
  54. Andreasen P, Riccio A, Welinder K, Douglas R, Sartorio R, Nielsen L, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1: reactive center and amino-terminal heterogeneity determined by protein and cDNA sequencing. FEBS Lett. 1986;209:213-8 pubmed
    ..the urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator can convert their approximately 54 kDa type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) to an inactive form with a lower apparent molecular mass...
  55. Degryse B, Neels J, Czekay R, Aertgeerts K, Kamikubo Y, Loskutoff D. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is a motogenic receptor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22595-604 pubmed
    Although plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is known to stimulate cell migration, little is known about underlying mechanisms. We show that both active and inactive (e.g...
  56. Gerhardt A, Goecke T, Beckmann M, Wagner K, Tutschek B, Willers R, et al. The G20210A prothrombin-gene mutation and the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 5G/5G genotype are associated with early onset of severe preeclampsia. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:686-91 pubmed
    ..0; methylentetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype, OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4, 1.8; plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/4G genotype, OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7, 2.1; PAI-1 5G/5G genotype, OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5, 1.8]...
  57. Kobashi G, Ohta K, Yamada H, Hata A, Minakami H, Sakuragi N, et al. 4G/5G variant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and severe pregnancy-induced hypertension: subgroup analyses of variants of angiotensinogen and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Epidemiol. 2009;19:275-80 pubmed
    ..genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with ..
  58. Jood K, Ladenvall P, Tjarnlund Wolf A, Ladenvall C, Andersson M, Nilsson S, et al. Fibrinolytic gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2005;36:2077-81 pubmed
    The tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) -7351C>T and the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G>5G polymorphisms influence transcriptional activity...
  59. Wiwanitkit V. Correlation between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and pre-eclampsia: an appraisal. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006;273:322-4 pubmed
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system, so it is biologically plausible that elevated levels could suppress fibrinolysis and result in an increased risk of thrombosis...
  60. Zhou A, Huntington J, Pannu N, Carrell R, Read R. How vitronectin binds PAI-1 to modulate fibrinolysis and cell migration. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:541-4 pubmed
    The interaction of the plasma protein vitronectin with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is central to human health...
  61. Eroglu A, Ulu A, Cam R, Akar N. Plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with breast cancer. J BUON. 2006;11:481-4 pubmed
    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the development of tumor invasion and metastasis...
  62. Jankun J, Aleem A, Specht Z, Keck R, Lysiak Szydlowska W, Selman S, et al. PAI-1 induces cell detachment, downregulates nucleophosmin (B23) and fortilin (TCTP) in LnCAP prostate cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:11-20 pubmed
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is an anticancer agent that inhibits plasmin driven proteolysis, limiting angiogenesis and metastasis...
  63. Jessen K, Lindboe S, Petersen A, Eugen Olsen J, Benfield T. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:108 pubmed
    ..described SNPs of tumor necrosis-alpha, (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was done...
  64. Torres Carrillo N, Magdalena Torres Carrillo N, Vazquez Del Mercado M, Rangel Villalobos H, Parra Rojas I, Sánchez Enriquez S, et al. Distribution of --844 G/A and Hind III C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 levels in Mexican subjects: comparison of frequencies between populations. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2008;14:220-6 pubmed publisher
    Several polymorphisms have been described in the PAI-1 gene including the -844 G/A and Hind III C/G polymorphisms. These polymorphisms have been associated with different diseases such as preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases...
  65. Anvari A, Schuster E, Gottsauner Wolf M, Wojta J, Huber K. PAI-I 4G/5G polymorphism and sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Thromb Res. 2001;103:103-7 pubmed
    The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type I (PAI-I) gene is involved in coronary artery disease (CAD), with the highest risk in 4G/4G homozygotes...
  66. Glueck C, Freiberg R, Fontaine R, Tracy T, Wang P. Hypofibrinolysis, thrombophilia, osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;:19-33 pubmed
    ..If the association between coagulation disorders and osteonecrosis reflects cause and effect, as postulated, then anticoagulation with Enoxaparin should be a promising therapy for patients with osteonecrosis. ..