PAEP

Summary

Gene Symbol: PAEP
Description: progestagen associated endometrial protein
Alias: GdA, GdF, GdS, PAEG, PEP, PP14, ZIF-1, glycodelin, PEG, PP14 protein (placental protein 14), alpha uterine protein, glycodelin-A, glycodelin-F, glycodelin-S, placental protein 14, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2 globulin, progestagen-associated endometrial protein (placental protein 14, pregnancy-associated endometrial a, progesterone-associated endometrial protein, zona-binding inhibitory factor-1
Species: human
Products:     PAEP

Top Publications

  1. Scholz C, Rampf E, Toth B, Brunnhuber R, Weissenbacher T, Friese K, et al. Ovarian cancer-derived glycodelin impairs in vitro dendritic cell maturation. J Immunother. 2009;32:492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ovarian cancer-derived glycodelin (Gd), a glycoprotein that physiologically modulates local immunity in early pregnancy, induces a tolerogenic DC ..
  2. Hautala L, Koistinen R, Seppala M, Butzow R, Stenman U, Laakkonen P, et al. Glycodelin reduces breast cancer xenograft growth in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show for the first time that glycodelin, a differentiation-related protein, reduces breast cancer tumor growth in vivo...
  3. Seppala M, Koistinen H, Koistinen R, Chiu P, Yeung W. Glycosylation related actions of glycodelin: gamete, cumulus cell, immune cell and clinical associations. Hum Reprod Update. 2007;13:275-87 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin is an example of a glycoprotein whose complex-type glycans mediate biological actions in human reproduction and immune reactions...
  4. Scholl B, Bersinger N, Kuhn A, Mueller M. Correlation between symptoms of pain and peritoneal fluid inflammatory cytokine concentrations in endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009;25:701-6 pubmed publisher
    ..OPG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), midkine and glycodelin in the peritoneal fluid (PF) and the intensity of pain reported by patients undergoing laparoscopy in our clinic...
  5. Vigne J, Hornung D, Mueller M, Taylor R. Purification and characterization of an immunomodulatory endometrial protein, glycodelin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17101-5 pubmed
    Human glycodelin is synthesized by endometrial cells in the late secretory phase and early pregnancy under hormonal regulation...
  6. Uchida H, Maruyama T, Nagashima T, Asada H, Yoshimura Y. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce differentiation of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells through up-regulation of glycodelin. Endocrinology. 2005;146:5365-73 pubmed
    ..glandular cells to differentiate and thereby produce a number of unique bioactive substances, including glycodelin, that are critical for implantation at the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle...
  7. Toth B, Roth K, Kunert Keil C, Scholz C, Schulze S, Mylonas I, et al. Glycodelin protein and mRNA is downregulated in human first trimester abortion and partially upregulated in mole pregnancy. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:477-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycodelin (Gd) is a major reproductive glycoprotein and a mediator for immunomodulatory effects directed to cellular, humoral, and innate immunity...
  8. Mylonas I, Jeschke U, Kunert Keil C, Shabani N, Dian D, Bauerfeind I, et al. Glycodelin A is expressed differentially in normal human endometrial tissue throughout the menstrual cycle as assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1488-97 pubmed
    To [1] evaluate glycodelin A immunolabeling in normal endometrium with specific monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal peptide (pAb) antibodies, [2] to assess glycodelin messenger RNA (mRNA) by in situ hybridization, and [3] to conduct ..
  9. Mishan Eisenberg G, Borovsky Z, Weber M, Gazit R, Tykocinski M, Rachmilewitz J. Differential regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine responses by placental protein 14. J Immunol. 2004;173:5524-30 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the T cell inhibitor placental protein 14 (PP14; glycodelin) preferentially inhibits Th1 cytokine responses and chemokine expression when present ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Scholz C, Heublein S, Lenhard M, Friese K, Mayr D, Jeschke U. Glycodelin A is a prognostic marker to predict poor outcome in advanced stage ovarian cancer patients. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:551 pubmed publisher
    ..carbohydrate structures, which are unusual for mammals, characterize Glycodelin isolated from amniotic fluid (Glycodelin A, GdA)...
  2. Halttunen M, Kämäräinen M, Koistinen H. Glycodelin: a reproduction-related lipocalin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:149-56 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin, a human lipocalin, is a major endometrial protein with at least two differentially glycosylated isoforms...
  3. Seppala M, Taylor R, Koistinen H, Koistinen R, Milgrom E. Glycodelin: a major lipocalin protein of the reproductive axis with diverse actions in cell recognition and differentiation. Endocr Rev. 2002;23:401-30 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin is a glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily. Depending on glycosylation, glycodelin appears in various isoforms...
  4. Kunert Keil C, Steinmüller F, Jeschke U, Gredes T, Gedrange T. Immunolocalization of glycodelin in human adenocarcinoma of the lung, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and lung metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:798-802 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycodelin (Gd), which is localized in cells of bronchial epithelium, type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in rats and humans, plays an important role in the pulmonary immune response in asthmatic inflammation...
  5. Richter C, Baetje M, Bischof A, Makovitzky J, Richter D, Gerber B, et al. Expression of the glycodelin A gene and the detection of its protein in tissues and serum of ovarian carcinoma patients. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2023-5 pubmed
    Glycodelin A (GdA), also known as placental protein 14 (PP14), has been detected in endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinoma cells. It is suspected to be a marker of human ovarian cancer tissues...
  6. Lang E, Venkatraman G. Glycodelin gene expression in human peripheral white blood cells. Ir J Med Sci. 2007;176:101-4 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin plays an important role in normal and abnormal reproductive growth. The in vitro properties of glycodelin have been studied in K562 cells. The role of glycodelin in vivo in the peripheral circulation has not been determined...
  7. Koistinen H, Koistinen R, Dell A, Morris H, Easton R, Patankar M, et al. Glycodelin from seminal plasma is a differentially glycosylated form of contraceptive glycodelin-A. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2:759-65 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin-A is a human amniotic fluid-derived glycoprotein with contraceptive and immunosuppressive activities...
  8. Koistinen H, Seppala M, Nagy B, Tapper J, Knuutila S, Koistinen R. Glycodelin reduces carcinoma-associated gene expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1955-60 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin is a major secretory glycoprotein of differentiated endometrial epithelium, rarely expressed in proliferative endometrium or endometrial cancer...
  9. Tse J, Chiu P, Lee K, Seppala M, Koistinen H, Koistinen R, et al. The synthesis and fate of glycodelin in human ovary during folliculogenesis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:142-8 pubmed
    The ontogeny of glycodelin in human ovarian follicles during folliculogenesis was studied. Glycodelin immunoreactivity began to be detected in the granulosa cells and thecal cells of late secondary follicles...
  10. Mukhopadhyay D, SundarRaj S, Alok A, Karande A. Glycodelin A, not glycodelin S, is apoptotically active. Relevance of sialic acid modification. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8577-84 pubmed
    ..The isoform of the protein present in female reproductive tissue, glycodelin A (GdA), and the male counterpart, glycodelin S (GdS), have identical amino acid sequences, but strikingly ..
  11. Morris H, Dell A, Easton R, Panico M, Koistinen H, Koistinen R, et al. Gender-specific glycosylation of human glycodelin affects its contraceptive activity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32159-67 pubmed
    We have recently demonstrated that a human amniotic fluid-derived glycoprotein, glycodelin-A (GdA; previously known as PP14 or PAEP), potently inhibits gamete binding in an established sperm-egg binding system and expresses ..
  12. Yaniv E, Borovsky Z, Mishan Eisenberg G, Rachmilewitz J. Placental protein 14 regulates selective B cell responses. Cell Immunol. 2003;222:156-63 pubmed
    b>Placental protein 14 (PP14) is a glycoprotein of the lipocalin family that acts as a negative regulator in T cell receptor-mediated activation. In this study, we investigated PP14s potential role in regulating B cell activation...
  13. Uchida H, Maruyama T, Ohta K, Ono M, Arase T, Kagami M, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced glycodelin enhances the initial step of implantation. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2615-22 pubmed
    ..the morphological and functional differentiation of human endometrial gland cells through up-regulation of glycodelin, a secretory phase dominant protein...
  14. Scholz C, Toth B, Brunnhuber R, Rampf E, Weissenbacher T, Santoso L, et al. Glycodelin A induces a tolerogenic phenotype in monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;60:501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Endometrial tissue secretes high quantities of glycodelin A (GdA) during the so-called fertile window (i.e. the time of implantation of the blastocyst)...
  15. Rachmilewitz J, Borovsky Z, Mishan Eisenberg G, Yaniv E, Riely G, Tykocinski M. Focal localization of placental protein 14 toward sites of TCR engagement. J Immunol. 2002;168:2745-50 pubmed
    ..Using fluorescence microscopy, we have demonstrated that placental protein 14 (PP14), a direct T cell inhibitor, focuses toward APC-T cell contact sites in conjunction with conjugate ..
  16. Ish Shalom E, Gargir A, Andre S, Borovsky Z, Ochanuna Z, Gabius H, et al. alpha2,6-Sialylation promotes binding of placental protein 14 via its Ca2+-dependent lectin activity: insights into differential effects on CD45RO and CD45RA T cells. Glycobiology. 2006;16:173-83 pubmed
    b>Placental protein 14 (PP14; glycodelin) is a pregnancy-associated immunoregulatory protein that is known to inhibit T cells via T-cell receptor desensitization...
  17. Chiu P, Chung M, Koistinen R, Koistinen H, Seppala M, Ho P, et al. Cumulus oophorus-associated glycodelin-C displaces sperm-bound glycodelin-A and -F and stimulates spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5378-88 pubmed
    ..In the oviduct, spermatozoa are exposed to glycodelin-A and -F that inhibit spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding...
  18. Dell A, Morris H, Easton R, Panico M, Patankar M, Oehniger S, et al. Structural analysis of the oligosaccharides derived from glycodelin, a human glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24116-26 pubmed
    Glycodelin, also known as placental protein 14 (PP14) or progesterone-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), is a human glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities...
  19. Rachmilewitz J, Borovsky Z, Riely G, Miller R, Tykocinski M. Negative regulation of T cell activation by placental protein 14 is mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD45. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14059-65 pubmed
    ..This study links CD45 to the inhibitory activity of placental protein 14 (PP14), a major soluble protein of pregnancy that is now known to be a direct modulator of T cells and to ..
  20. Ren S, Liu S, Howell P, Zhang G, Pannell L, Samant R, et al. Functional characterization of the progestagen-associated endometrial protein gene in human melanoma. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This gene, progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), has never before been implicated in the oncogenic processes of melanoma, with its true function in oncogenesis ..
  21. Uchida H, Maruyama T, Ono M, Ohta K, Kajitani T, Masuda H, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors stimulate cell migration in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells through up-regulation of glycodelin. Endocrinology. 2007;148:896-902 pubmed
    ..estrogen, can induce cytodifferentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma Ishikawa cells through up-regulation of glycodelin, a progesterone-induced endometrial glycoprotein...
  22. Hautala L, Greco D, Koistinen R, Heikkinen T, Heikkila P, Aittomaki K, et al. Glycodelin expression associates with differential tumour phenotype and outcome in sporadic and familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;128:85-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycodelin (encoded by PAEP gene) is a secreted lipocalin protein mainly expressed in reproductive tissues, but also in several tumour types. In the breast, glycodelin is expressed both in normal epithelial and cancerous tissue...
  23. Wen L, Javed T, Yimlamai D, Mukherjee A, Xiao X, Husain S. Transient High Pressure in Pancreatic Ducts Promotes Inflammation and Alters Tight Junctions via Calcineurin Signaling in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2018;155:1250-1263.e5 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (PEP) is thought to be provoked by pancreatic ductal hypertension, via unknown mechanisms...
  24. Templ B, Koch E, Bolmgren K, Ungersböck M, Paul A, Scheifinger H, et al. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data. Int J Biometeorol. 2018;62:1109-1113 pubmed publisher
    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring...
  25. Shao Y, Wang H, Liu C, Cao Q, Fu R, Wang H, et al. Transforming growth factor 15 increased in severe aplastic anemia patients. Hematology. 2017;22:548-553 pubmed publisher
    ..Transforming growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) plays an important role in erythropoiesis and iron regulation...
  26. Rainio M, Lindstrom O, Udd M, Louhimo J, Kylanpaa L. Diclofenac Does Not Reduce the Risk of Post-endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis in Low-Risk Units. J Gastrointest Surg. 2017;21:1270-1277 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the effect of diclofenac in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in a high-volume, low-PEP-risk ERCP unit...
  27. Loi S, Dow B, Moore K, Hill K, Russell M, Cyarto E, et al. The adverse mental health of carers: Does the patient diagnosis play a role?. Maturitas. 2015;82:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Carers and Care-recipient Trial were included in this cross-sectional study, using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)...
  28. Bentin Ley U, Lindhard A, Ravn V, Islin H, Sørensen S. Glycodelin in endometrial flushing fluid and endometrial biopsies from infertile and fertile women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;156:60-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate in the natural cycle just before IVF, whether glycodelin levels in endometrial flushing fluid obtained days LH+1 and LH+7 can be used in predicting pregnancy in the following IVF cycle, and whether there are differences in ..
  29. Ahn J, Lee J, Kim T. Retinal thinning correlates with clinical severity in multiple system atrophy. J Neurol. 2016;263:2039-47 pubmed publisher
    ..perifoveal thickness, and clinical parameters, the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS) and Global Disability Score (GDS), was also done. MSA patients showed significantly decreased peripapillary RNFL thickness in the inferior (P = 0...
  30. Vaisse C, Atger M, Potier B, Milgrom E. Human placental protein 14 gene: sequence and characterization of a short duplication. DNA Cell Biol. 1990;9:401-13 pubmed
    ..but not during the proliferative phase, allowed us to isolate and characterize cDNAs encoding human placental protein 14 (PP14). The cDNA was used to isolate the PP14 gene from a human genomic library...
  31. Farinatti P, Monteiro W, Oliveira R, Crisafulli A. Cardiorespiratory responses and myocardial function within incremental exercise in healthy unmedicated older vs. young men and women. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018;30:341-349 pubmed publisher
    ..heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), O2 pulse (O2p), preejection period (PEP), and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were assessed during cycle incremental exercise...
  32. Buxi D, Dugar R, Redouté J, Yuce M. Comparison of the impedance cardiogram with continuous wave radar using body-contact antennas. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2017;2017:693-696 pubmed publisher
    ..The median and mean absolute errors in pre-ejection period (PEP) in milliseconds between the ICG's B-point and chosen feature in the radar signal range from -6-119.7 ms and 7.8-62...
  33. Su Y, Peng B, Li H, Cheng Z, Zhang T, Zhu J, et al. Pyruvate cycle increases aminoglycoside efficacy and provides respiratory energy in bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E1578-E1587 pubmed publisher
    ..When exploring the metabolic flux of glutamate, it was found that the enzymes that link the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-pyruvate-AcCoA pathway to the TCA cycle were key players in this increased efficacy...
  34. Inada A, Oshima T, Baba Y. Enhancing the water dispersibility of paclitaxel by complexation with hydrophobic peptides. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015;135:408-15 pubmed publisher
    The complex between paclitaxel (Ptx) and a peptide mixture (Pep) was prepared to enhance of the water-dispersibility of Ptx...
  35. Zhao Y, Wang C, Li F, Liu Z, Zhao G. Targeted optimization of central carbon metabolism for engineering succinate production in Escherichia coli. BMC Biotechnol. 2016;16:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Precursor phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is consumed for transport and phosphorylation of glucose, and large amounts of byproducts are produced, which are ..
  36. Liu R, Wu W, Chen L, Chen H, Zhang S. Transcriptional expression profiles of the main proteinases and their regulators in coronary artery ectasia patients' mononuclear cells. Acta Cardiol. 2016;71:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis showed that MMP1 significantly correlated with IL1A and with IFN?, and MMP9 correlated with IFN? and with GDF 15...
  37. Li J, Qian W, Xu Y, Chen G, Wang G, Nie S, et al. Activation of RAW 264.7 cells by a polysaccharide isolated from Antarctic bacterium Pseudoaltermonas sp. S-5. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;130:97-103 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of extracellular polysaccharide (PEP) from Antarctic bacterium Pseudoaltermonas sp. S-5 on RAW 264.7 cells together with the underlying signaling pathways...
  38. Rebeiz K, Shamseddine A, Hachem R, Brown K, Mukherji D, Faraj W, et al. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with aneurysms of the gastroduodenal artery: a case report. Clin Imaging. 2016;40:228-31 pubmed publisher
    Gastroduodenal artery (GDA) aneurysm is a very rare condition. It is divided into false aneurysms (pseudoaneurysms) associated with pancreatitis and true aneurysms secondary to celiac trunk stenosis...
  39. Liang Q, Sun H, Wu X, Ou X, Gao G, Jin Y, et al. Development of New mRNA Markers for the Identification of Menstrual Blood. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018;48:55-62 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to screen 3 mRNA markers (i.e., PAEP, LAPR3, and HOXA10) with diverse expression in different body fluids and to develop a method for the identification of menstrual blood using these mRNA markers. Body fluid (i...
  40. Poldervaart J, Röttger E, Dekker M, Zuithoff N, Verheggen P, de Vrey E, et al. No Added Value of Novel Biomarkers in the Diagnostic Assessment of Patients Suspected of Acute Coronary Syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0132000 pubmed publisher
    ..myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and copeptin improved early assessment of chest pain patients...
  41. Chen J, Li H, Chen J. Human epidermal growth factor coupled to different structural classes of cell penetrating peptides: A comparative study. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;105:336-345 pubmed publisher
    ..Obvious cytotoxicity was not detected for EGF-TAT, EGF-Pep-1 and EGF-AA3H. However, EGF-MAP was cytotoxic at both moderate and high concentrations...
  42. Tentzeris I, Farhan S, Freynhofer M, Rohla M, Jarai R, Vogel B, et al. Usefulness of Elevated Levels of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 to Classify Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Having Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Who Would Benefit from High-Dose Statin Therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:747-752 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) plasma concentration at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) might help identify those patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), ..
  43. Gohar A, Goncalves I, Vrijenhoek J, Haitjema S, van Koeverden I, Nilsson J, et al. Circulating GDF-15 levels predict future secondary manifestations of cardiovascular disease explicitly in women but not men with atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol. 2017;241:430-436 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), is an established risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases...
  44. Arciuolo R, Jablonski R, Zucker J, Rosen J. Effectiveness of Measles Vaccination and Immune Globulin Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in an Outbreak Setting-New York City, 2013. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65:1843-1847 pubmed publisher
    ..mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) or immune globulin (IG) are routinely used for measles post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current literature on the effectiveness of measles PEP is limited and variable...
  45. Wu D, Feng L, Gao Q, Li J, Rajendran K, Wong J, et al. Association between Fish Intake and Depressive Symptoms among Community-living Older Chinese Adults in Singapore: A Cross-sectional Study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20:404-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A score of 5 or greater on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was the cutoff for being designated as having depressive symptoms...
  46. Çek D, Sanchez A, Timpano K. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress. Behav Ther. 2016;47:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP)...
  47. Dominguez Rodriguez A, Abreu Gonzalez P, Avanzas P, Consuegra Sanchez L. Effect of Serum Growth Differentiation Factor-15 and the Syntax Score on 2-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:1569-1574 pubmed publisher
    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is produced by cardiomyocytes and atherosclerotic lesions under stress conditions, but little is known about its relation with severity and complexity of coronary lesions...
  48. Wu Y, Xie G, Xu Y, Ma L, Tong C, Fan D, et al. PEP-1-MsrA ameliorates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. J Transl Med. 2015;13:316 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate whether MsrA with PEP-1, a cell penetrating peptide, fused to its N-terminus can protect against oxidative stress in macrophages and can ..
  49. Maass T, Marquardt J, Lee J, Krupp M, Scholz Kreisel P, Mogler C, et al. Increased liver carcinogenesis and enrichment of stem cell properties in livers of Dickkopf 2 (Dkk2) deleted mice. Oncotarget. 2016;7:28903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Pdgf-b, Gdf-15 and Hnf4a...
  50. Cao Y, Wang L, Duan L, Li J, Ma J, Xie S, et al. Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Ustilago maydis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13394 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and accurate detection of U. maydis is essential for the disease management. In this study, primer set Pep-2 was selected for LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) from 12 sets of primers targeting three U...
  51. Joyet P, Derkaoui M, Bouraoui H, Deutscher J. PTS-Mediated Regulation of the Transcription Activator MtlR from Different Species: Surprising Differences despite Strong Sequence Conservation. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;25:94-105 pubmed publisher
    The hexitol D-mannitol is transported by many bacteria via a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS)...
  52. Parrón I, Planas C, Godoy P, Manzanares Laya S, Martinez A, Sala M, et al. Effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination as post-exposure prophylaxis. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017;13:423-427 pubmed publisher
    ..However, outbreaks are reported each year and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine or immunoglobulin (IG) is recommended to avoid cases...
  53. Venditti V, Schwieters C, Grishaev A, Clore G. Dynamic equilibrium between closed and partially closed states of the bacterial Enzyme I unveiled by solution NMR and X-ray scattering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:11565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the C-terminal dimerization domain (EIC), thereby permitting in-line phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) bound to EIC to His189...
  54. Akashi S, Downard K. Effect of charge on the conformation of highly basic peptides including the tail regions of histone proteins by ion mobility mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408:6637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated collision cross sections for the lowest energy solution state models predicted by the PEP-FOLD algorithm using a modified MOBCAL trajectory method were found to best correlate with the values measured by ..
  55. Heisel M, Flett G, Duberstein P, Lyness J. Does the geriatric depression scale (GDS) distinguish between older adults with high versus low levels of suicidal ideation?. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13:876-83 pubmed
    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a common screening measure for late-life depression, but it does not directly assess thoughts of death or suicide...
  56. Tzikas S, Palapies L, Bakogiannis C, Zeller T, Sinning C, Baldus S, et al. GDF-15 predicts cardiovascular events in acute chest pain patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182314 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed at evaluating the predictive value of GDF-15 in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of AMI...
  57. Huang S, Wang X, Shen J, Wu R, Zhao H, Wang Y, et al. Surface functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals with polymeric ionic liquids during phase transfer. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;157:1426-1433 pubmed publisher
    ..cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by method of acid hydrolysis, while the polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) [PEP-MIM]DBS was synthesized by epichlorohydrin, o-phthalic anhydride as well as N-methylimidazole then anion exchanged ..
  58. Hugo J, Stall R, Rebe K, Egan J, Jobson G, De Swardt G, et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis among South African Men who have Sex with Men. AIDS Behav. 2016;20:350-356 pubmed
    ..Biomedical prevention of HIV offers a variety of combination prevention tools, including Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP studies amongst MSM have been conducted in Amsterdam, Brazil and San Francisco, but never before in Africa...
  59. Vasícková J, Neumannova K, Svozil Z. The Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training on Fin-Swimmers' Performance. J Sports Sci Med. 2017;16:521-526 pubmed
    ..6 kg; height 1.53 m). Both group performed regular swimming training, during which the EG used Threshold PEP (positive expiratory pressure) and IMT (inspiratory muscle trainer) for RMT for one month...
  60. Nguyen V, Greenwald Z, Trottier H, Cadieux M, Goyette A, Beauchemin M, et al. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections before and after Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV: a cohort study. AIDS. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP).
  61. Lueken U, Evens R, Balzer Geldsetzer M, Baudrexel S, Dodel R, Gräber Sultan S, et al. Psychometric properties of the apathy evaluation scale in patients with Parkinson's disease. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017;26: pubmed publisher
    ..apathy could be differentiated from cognitive decline, it was related to depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS-15). The overall classification accuracy based on the UPDRS I item 4 was comparable for AES and GDS scores...
  62. Yang C, Zhao Y, Li W, Zhu S, Yang H, Zhang Y, et al. Rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administration is effective for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pancreatology. 2017;17:681-688 pubmed publisher
    ..rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) peri-ERCP is effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rectal NSAIDs on PEP...
  63. Mert M, Rose S, La Grange D, Bamba T, Hasunuma T, Kondo A, et al. Quantitative metabolomics of a xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylose isomerase on glucose and xylose. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;44:1459-1470 pubmed publisher
    ..observed with cultivation on xylose resulted in the incomplete activation of the Crabtree effect, whereas the high PEP levels is indicative of carbon starvation...
  64. Trimboli R, Codari M, Khouri Chalouhi K, Ioan I, Lo Bue G, Ottini A, et al. Correlation between voxel-wise enhancement parameters on DCE-MRI and pathological prognostic factors in invasive breast cancers. Radiol Med. 2018;123:91-97 pubmed publisher
    ..were extracted: (1) time to peak enhancement; (2) signal intensity at peak (SIP); (3) peak enhancement percentage (PEP); (4) post-initial enhancement percentage (PIEP)...
  65. Frauchiger D, Heeb S, May R, Wöltje M, Benneker L, Gantenbein B. Differentiation of MSC and annulus fibrosus cells on genetically engineered silk fleece-membrane-composites enriched for GDF-6 or TGF-?3. J Orthop Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..GE-silk with growth and differentiation factor 6 (GDF-6-silk) or transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF-?3, TGF-?3-silk) and untreated silk (cSilk) were investigated by DNA ..
  66. Lam K, Chiu P, Lee C, Pang R, Leung C, Koistinen H, et al. Glycodelin-A protein interacts with Siglec-6 protein to suppress trophoblast invasiveness by down-regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Jun signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter invades the decidualized endometrium. Glycodelin-A (GdA) is abundantly synthesized by the decidua but not the trophoblast...
  67. Cui D, Broom A, Mcleod M, Meiering E, Holyoak T. Asymmetric Anchoring Is Required for Efficient ?-Loop Opening and Closing in Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase. Biochemistry. 2017;56:2106-2115 pubmed publisher
    ..for the H477R mutant by an order of magnitude in the direction of OAA synthesis, while in the direction of PEP synthesis, it decreased by a factor of only 2...
  68. Huhtala M, Seppala M, Närvänen A, Palomaki P, Julkunen M, Bohn H. Amino acid sequence homology between human placental protein 14 and beta-lactoglobulins from various species. Endocrinology. 1987;120:2620-2 pubmed
    The primary structure of 22 N-terminal amino acid residues of placental protein 14 was determined by automated Edman degradation with a gas-phase sequencer...
  69. Chiesi F, Primi C, Pigliautile M, Ercolani S, Della Staffa M, Longo A, et al. The local reliability of the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale: An item response theory (IRT) study. J Psychosom Res. 2017;96:84-88 pubmed publisher
    The 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a self-report screening instrument widely used...
  70. Landgraf R, Smolka U, Altmann S, Eschen Lippold L, Senning M, Sonnewald S, et al. The ABC transporter ABCG1 is required for suberin formation in potato tuber periderm. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified ABCG1, encoding an ABC transporter, as a gene responsive to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern Pep-13. Further analyses revealed that ABCG1 is expressed in roots and tuber periderm, as well as in wounded leaves...
  71. Ozcan S, Korkmaz M, Balbaloglu O, Percin F, Yilmaz N, Erdoğan Y, et al. Polymorphisms in the Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF 5) Gene in Knee Osteoarthritis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2017;27:602-605 pubmed publisher
    ..798, 95% CI=1.010-2.941, p=0.021). This study demonstrated that there is a correlation of +104T/C polymorphism in the 5'-UTR of GDF5 with knee OAin a Turkish population. ..
  72. Horne C, Paterson W, Sutcliffe R. Localization of alpha-uterine protein in human endometrium. J Reprod Fertil. 1982;65:447-50 pubmed
    ..The pattern of staining strongly suggests that AUP is secreted into the uterine lumen. The location and concentration of AUP in the uterus may explain the relative concentrations of AUP in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. ..
  73. Drosdzol Cop A, Skrzypulec Plinta V. Selected cytokines and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid in girls with endometriosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:1245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to determine the role of serum and peritoneal interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and glycodelin A levels as diagnostic markers of endometriosis in adolescent girls...
  74. Sauvageot N, Ladjouzi R, Benachour A, Rincé A, Deutscher J, Hartke A. Aerobic glycerol dissimilation via the Enterococcus faecalis DhaK pathway depends on NADH oxidase and a phosphotransfer reaction from PEP to DhaK via EIIADha. Microbiology. 2012;158:2661-6 pubmed
    ..protein EF1359 is part of a phosphorylation cascade which phosphorylates dihydroxyacetone in a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent reaction via EI, HPr, EF1359 and DhaLK...
  75. Singh R, Singh K, Cherian S, Saminathan M, Kapoor S, Manjunatha Reddy G, et al. Rabies - epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review. Vet Q. 2017;37:212-251 pubmed publisher
    ..die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually...
  76. Klocke C, Allen J, Sobolewski M, Mayer Proschel M, Blum J, Lauterstein D, et al. Neuropathological Consequences of Gestational Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particles in the Mouse. Toxicol Sci. 2017;156:492-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnant mice were exposed 6?h/day from gestational days (GDs) 0.5-16...
  77. Shaver J, Sullivan P, SIEGLER A, de Voux A, Phaswana Mafuya N, Bekker L, et al. Comparing Provider and Client Preferences for HIV Prevention Services in South Africa among Men Who Have Sex with Men. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017;:2325957417736611 pubmed publisher
    ..regarding provider consistency and the provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis/post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) and lubricant as prevention methods...
  78. Ramachandran S, Rong R, Parthasarathy S. Oxidants and antioxidants affect the expression of glycodelin. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:818-23 pubmed
    b>Glycodelin is a glycoprotein that has immunosuppressive activity. We have shown that K562 cells, hematopoitic progenitor cells, are capable of synthesizing glycodelin peptide (Gp) and, perhaps, contribute to Gp in tissues...
  79. Wijaya L, Tham C, Chan Y, Wong A, Li L, Wang L, et al. An accelerated rabies vaccine schedule based on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant augments rabies virus specific antibody and T cell response in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2017;35:1175-1183 pubmed publisher
    Rabies is a fatal disease where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is crucial in preventing infection. However, deaths even after appropriate PEP, have been reported...
  80. Zafarvahedian E, Roohi A, Sepand M, Ostad S, Ghahremani M. Effect of metformin and celecoxib on cytotoxicity and release of GDF-15 from human mesenchymal stem cells in high glucose condition. Cell Biochem Funct. 2017;35:407-413 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotoxicity and secretion of GDF-15 were further tested in MSCs treated with metformin and celecoxib in various glucose concentrations...
  81. Makovitzky J, Radtke A, Shabani N, Friese K, Gerber B, Mylonas I. Invasive hydatidiform mole: immunohistochemical labelling of inhibin/activin subunits, Ki67, p53 and glycodelin A in a rare case. Acta Histochem. 2009;111:360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..was performed with monoclonal antibodies against inhibin-alpha, -betaA and -betaB, Ki67, p53 and glycodelin A in a rare case of accidentally diagnosed invasive trophoblastic mole...
  82. Ramich T, Eickholz P, Wicker S. Work-related infections in dentistry: risk perception and preventive measures. Clin Oral Investig. 2017;21:2473-2479 pubmed publisher
    ..2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of ..
  83. Daniels J, Binch A, Le Maitre C. Inhibiting IL-1 signaling pathways to inhibit catabolic processes in disc degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:74-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate intracellular signaling pathways activated by IL-1?, and GDF-5 in the degenerate IVD to identify potential new therapeutic targets...
  84. Falk M, Huhn R, Behmenburg F, Ritz Timme S, Mayer F. Biomechanical stress in myocardial infarctions: can endothelin-1 and growth differentiation factor 15 serve as immunohistochemical markers?. Int J Legal Med. 2018;132:509-518 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested if two of those markers, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), can be used as immunohistochemical markers for myocardial ischaemia/infarctions...
  85. Liu S, Tao X, Yu P, Jin C, Yu H, Chen M, et al. The Adverse Effect of the 2-1-1 Regimen for Rabies PEP in Preschool Children. Biomed Environ Sci. 2017;30:373-375 pubmed publisher
    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has proved to be the most important measure for rabies prevention and control. There is little information regarding adverse reactions to the Essen and 2-1-1 regimens in preschool children (aged 0-6)...