Gene Symbol: PADI2
Description: peptidyl arginine deiminase 2
Alias: PAD-H19, PAD2, PDI2, protein-arginine deiminase type-2, peptidyl arginine deiminase, type II, protein-arginine deiminase type II
Species: human
Products:     PADI2

Top Publications

  1. Calabrese R, Zampieri M, Mechelli R, Annibali V, Guastafierro T, Ciccarone F, et al. Methylation-dependent PAD2 upregulation in multiple sclerosis peripheral blood. Mult Scler. 2012;18:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) are two members of PAD family which are over-expressed in the multiple sclerosis (MS) brain...
  2. Moscarello M, Mastronardi F, Wood D. The role of citrullinated proteins suggests a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:251-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that citrullinated MBP, resulting from elevated levels of PAD 2 represents an important biochemical pathway in the pathogenesis of MS. ..
  3. Ishigami A, Ohsawa T, Hiratsuka M, Taguchi H, Kobayashi S, Saito Y, et al. Abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase in hippocampal extracts from patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2005;80:120-8 pubmed
    ..In our previous report, PAD2 expressed mainly in the rat cerebrum became activated early in the neurodegenerative process...
  4. Kinloch A, Lundberg K, Wait R, Wegner N, Lim N, Zendman A, et al. Synovial fluid is a site of citrullination of autoantigens in inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:2287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas the expression of citrullinated proteins is a product of inflammation, the antibody response remains specific for RA. ..
  5. Hojo Nakashima I, Sato R, Nakashima K, Hagiwara T, Yamada M. Dynamic expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 in human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cells during macrophage differentiation. J Biochem. 2009;146:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The two types of enzymes are found in human peripheral blood cells; PAD4 mainly in granulocytes and monocytes and PAD2 in lymphocytes and macrophages. Little is known about the regulation of PAD expression in macrophages...
  6. Vossenaar E, Zendman A, van Venrooij W, Pruijn G. PAD, a growing family of citrullinating enzymes: genes, features and involvement in disease. Bioessays. 2003;25:1106-18 pubmed
    ..This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at ..
  7. Foulquier C, Sebbag M, Clavel C, Chapuy Regaud S, Al Badine R, Méchin M, et al. Peptidyl arginine deiminase type 2 (PAD-2) and PAD-4 but not PAD-1, PAD-3, and PAD-6 are expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovium in close association with tissue inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:3541-53 pubmed
    ..Inflammatory cells are a major source, but PAD-4 also comes from hyperplastic synoviocytes. Both isotypes are probably involved in the citrullination of fibrin. ..
  8. Jang B, Jin J, Jeon Y, Cho H, Ishigami A, Choi K, et al. Involvement of peptidylarginine deiminase-mediated post-translational citrullination in pathogenesis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..In brain, PAD2 is abundantly expressed and can be involved in citrullination in disease...
  9. Bhattacharya S, Crabb J, Bonilha V, Gu X, Takahara H, Crabb J. Proteomics implicates peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 and optic nerve citrullination in glaucoma pathogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2508-14 pubmed
    ..Peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2), an enzyme that converts protein arginine to citrulline, was found only in POAG optic nerve and was probed further ..

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bliim N, Leshchyns ka I, Keable R, Chen B, Curry Hyde A, Gray L, et al. Early transcriptome changes in response to chemical long-term potentiation induced via activation of synaptic NMDA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons. Genomics. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..structure organization (Bgn), intracellular signalling (Ppm1H, Ntsr2, Cldn10) and protein citrullination (PAD2) are downregulated in the stimulated neurons...
  2. Kunieda K, Kawaguchi M, Ieda N, Nakagawa H. Development of a highly sensitive fluorescence probe for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019;29:923-928 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we succeeded in establishing multiple assay systems for PAD subtypes activities, including PAD2 and PAD4, with 4MeBz-FluME thanks to its high sensitivity...
  3. Tsuji Hosokawa A, Kashimada K, Kato T, Ogawa Y, Nomura R, Takasawa K, et al. Peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (Padi2) is expressed in Sertoli cells in a specific manner and regulated by SOX9 during testicular development. Sci Rep. 2018;8:13263 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently found Padi2 was expressed exclusively in fetal Sertoli cells...
  4. Krtková J, Thomas E, Alas G, Schraner E, Behjatnia H, Hehl A, et al. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive GlRac signaling increased levels of the ER marker PDI2, induced ER swelling, reduced overall CWP1 production, and promoted the early maturation of ESVs...
  5. Mortensen J, Guo X, de los Reyes M, Dziegiel M, Karsdal M, Bay Jensen A, et al. The VICM biomarker is released from activated macrophages and inhibited by anti-GM-CSFRα-mAb treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019;37:73-80 pubmed
    ..01) inhibited by mavrilimumab. This suppression of VICM serum levels was supported by a decreased expression of PAD2 and MMP9 transcripts in patients treated with mavrilimumab...
  6. Kholia S, Jorfi S, Thompson P, Causey C, Nicholas A, Inal J, et al. A novel role for peptidylarginine deiminases in microvesicle release reveals therapeutic potential of PAD inhibition in sensitizing prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015;4:26192 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that inhibition of MV release sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PAD2 and PAD4, the isozymes expressed in patients with malignant tumours, can be inhibited with the pan-PAD-inhibitor ..
  7. Reidel B, Radicioni G, Clapp P, Ford A, Abdelwahab S, Rebuli M, et al. E-Cigarette Use Causes a Unique Innate Immune Response in the Lung Involving Increased Neutrophilic Activation and Altered Mucin Secretion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These data challenge the concept that e-cigarettes are a healthier alternative to cigarettes. ..
  8. Kim S, Park J, Kim M, Jang B, Jeon Y, Kim H, et al. Accumulation of citrullinated glial fibrillary acidic protein in a mouse model of bile duct ligation-induced hepatic fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0201744 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) is responsible for the citrullination of GFAP (cit-GFAP)...
  9. Kosgodage U, Uysal Onganer P, MacLatchy A, Kraev I, Chatterton N, Nicholas A, et al. Peptidylarginine Deiminases Post-Translationally Deiminate Prohibitin and Modulate Extracellular Vesicle Release and MicroRNAs in Glioblastoma Multiforme. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;20: pubmed publisher
    ..The GBM cell lines under study, LN18 and LN229, differed in PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 isozyme expression...
  10. Zhou Q, Song C, Liu X, Qin H, Miao L, Zhang X. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 overexpression resensitizes MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to adriamycin via GSK3β/p53 activation. Cancer Manag Res. 2019;11:625-636 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PAD2 and PAD4 were significantly decreased in ADR-resistant cells...
  11. Sharma P, Lioutas A, Fernandez Fuentes N, Quilez J, Carbonell Caballero J, Wright R, et al. Arginine Citrullination at the C-Terminal Domain Controls RNA Polymerase II Transcription. Mol Cell. 2019;73:84-96.e7 pubmed publisher the CTD, the deimination of arginine and its conversion to citrulline by peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2), an enzyme that has been associated with several diseases, including cancer...
  12. Witalison E, Thompson P, Hofseth L. Protein Arginine Deiminases and Associated Citrullination: Physiological Functions and Diseases Associated with Dysregulation. Curr Drug Targets. 2015;16:700-10 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we will describe the roles of the PADs in both normal human physiology and disease. The development of PAD inhibitors and their efficacy in a variety of autoimmune disorders and cancer will also be discussed. ..
  13. Wei H, Rowe M, Riethoven J, Grove R, Adamec J, Jikumaru Y, et al. Overaccumulation of γ-Glutamylcysteine in a Jasmonate-Hypersensitive Arabidopsis Mutant Causes Jasmonate-Dependent Growth Inhibition. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:1371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of GSH in jah2 was 71% of the wild type, while the phytoalexin-deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant, defective in GSH1 and having only 27% of wild-type GSH level, was not jasmonate hypersensitive...
  14. Samara K, Trachalaki A, Tsitoura E, Koutsopoulos A, Lagoudaki E, Lasithiotaki I, et al. Upregulation of citrullination pathway: From Autoimmune to Idiopathic Lung Fibrosis. Respir Res. 2017;18:218 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated PADI2 and PADI4 mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of 59 patients with IPF, 27 patients RA-ILD ..
  15. Lugli E, Correia R, Fischer R, Lundberg K, Bracke K, Montgomery A, et al. Expression of citrulline and homocitrulline residues in the lungs of non-smokers and smokers: implications for autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:9 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues from other organs for citrullinated proteins and the deiminating enzymes peptidylarginine deiminase type-2 (PAD2) and -4 (PAD4)...
  16. DeVore S, Young C, Li G, Sundararajan A, Ramaraj T, Mudge J, et al. Histone Citrullination Represses MicroRNA Expression, Resulting in Increased Oncogene mRNAs in Somatolactotrope Cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..To begin to address these issues, we first examined normal human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas and found that PAD2, PAD4, and citrullinated histones are highest in prolactinomas and somatoprolactinomas...
  17. Liang Y, Pan B, Alam H, Deng Q, Wang Y, Chen E, et al. Inhibition of peptidylarginine deiminase alleviates LPS-induced pulmonary dysfunction and improves survival in a mouse model of lethal endotoxemia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;833:432-440 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that treatment with YW3-56, a PAD2/PAD4 inhibitor, significantly diminished PAD activation, blocked LPS-induced pulmonary vascular leakage, alleviated ..
  18. Damgaard D, Senolt L, Nielsen C. Increased levels of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 in synovial fluid from anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients: Association with disease activity and inflammatory markers. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55:918-27 pubmed publisher
    To quantify peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in SF of RA patients and OA patients, and to determine the association between PAD2 levels, disease activity and inflammatory markers in RA...
  19. Wong A, Bryzek D, Dobosz E, Scavenius C, Svoboda P, Rapala Kozik M, et al. A Novel Biological Role for Peptidyl-Arginine Deiminases: Citrullination of Cathelicidin LL-37 Controls the Immunostimulatory Potential of Cell-Free DNA. J Immunol. 2018;200:2327-2340 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, preincubation of carbamylated LL-37 with PAD2 abrogated the peptide's ability to bind DNA...
  20. Clancy K, Weerapana E, Thompson P. Detection and identification of protein citrullination in complex biological systems. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2016;30:1-6 pubmed publisher
  21. Mancuso R, Raut D, Marino N, De Luca G, Giordano C, Catalano S, et al. A Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation Approach to Eight-Membered Lactam Derivatives with Antitumor Activity. Chemistry. 2016;22:3053-64 pubmed publisher
    The reactivity of 2-(2-alkynylphenoxy)anilines under PdI2 /KI-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation conditions has been studied...
  22. Lavoie S, Dumas E, Vulesevic B, Neagoe P, White M, Sirois M. Synthesis of Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Contributes to Angiopoietin-Mediated In Vitro Proinflammatory and Proangiogenic Activities. J Immunol. 2018;200:3801-3813 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reports the capacity of Ang1 and Ang2 to promote the release of NETs and that these NETs contribute to angiopoietin-mediated in vitro proinflammatory and proangiogenic activities. ..
  23. Sommese L, Benincasa G, Lanza M, Sorriento A, Schiano C, Lucchese R, et al. Novel epigenetic-sensitive clinical challenges both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..A hypo-methylation of H3K4 at SOD2 promoter by LSD-1 increased ROS causing diabetic retinopathy. Epigenetics played a relevant role in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. ..
  24. Lu Y, Li J, Cheng J, Lubahn D. Messenger RNA profile analysis deciphers new Esrrb responsive genes in prostate cancer cells. BMC Mol Biol. 2015;16:21 pubmed publisher
    ..tagln, loc441454, tkel1, sema3f, zcwpw2, sdc2) and as an agonist for 4 of the 15 mRNAs (rarres3, oasl, padi2, ddx60)...
  25. Khajavi M, Zhou Y, Birsner A, Bazinet L, Rosa Di Sant A, Schiffer A, et al. Identification of Padi2 as a novel angiogenesis-regulating gene by genome association studies in mice. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006848 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, we found the expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II (Padi2), known to be involved in metabolic pathways, to have a strong correlation with a haplotype shared by multiple ..
  26. Yu R, Li C, Sun L, Jian L, Ma Z, Zhao J, et al. Hypoxia induces production of citrullinated proteins in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes through regulating HIF1α. Scand J Immunol. 2018;87:e12654 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) and citrullinated proteins were increased in HFLS after exposure to hypoxia...
  27. Engstrom M, Eriksson K, Lee L, Hermansson M, Johansson A, Nicholas A, et al. Increased citrullination and expression of peptidylarginine deiminases independently of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans in gingival tissue of patients with periodontitis. J Transl Med. 2018;16:214 pubmed publisher
    ..Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyse differences between groups. PADI2 and PADI4 mRNA levels were assessed by RT-qPCR and analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test...
  28. Datta R, Chattopadhyay S. Changes in the proteome of pad2-1, a glutathione depleted Arabidopsis mutant, during Pseudomonas syringae infection. J Proteomics. 2015;126:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanism conferring this tolerance remains to be explored. Here, proteomic analysis of pad2-1, an Arabidopsis thaliana GSH-depleted mutant, in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection has been performed to ..
  29. Witalison E, Cui X, Causey C, Thompson P, Hofseth L. Molecular targeting of protein arginine deiminases to suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:36053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease in cell proliferation markers and increase in tumor suppressor miRNA expression potentially define a mechanism of how Cl-amidine is suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. ..
  30. Fadini G, Menegazzo L, Rigato M, Scattolini V, Poncina N, Bruttocao A, et al. NETosis Delays Diabetic Wound Healing in Mice and Humans. Diabetes. 2016;65:1061-71 pubmed publisher
    ..PAD4 inhibition by Cl-amidine reduced NETting neutrophils and rescued wound healing in diabetic mice. Cumulatively, these data suggest that NETosis delays DFU healing. ..
  31. Halladay J, Lenhart K, Robasky K, Jones W, Homan W, Cummings D, et al. Applicability of Precision Medicine Approaches to Managing Hypertension in Rural Populations. J Pers Med. 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our integrative analysis identified AQP4-AS1 and PADI2 as genes whose expression levels may contribute to the pleiotropy of complex traits involved in cardiovascular ..
  32. Palladino E, Katunga L, Kolar G, Ford D. 2-Chlorofatty acids: lipid mediators of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:1424-1432 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 2-ClFA elicits NETosis in bone-marrow derived neutrophils from MPO-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings suggest 2-ClFA as an MPO product that triggers the NETosis pathway following neutrophil activation. ..
  33. Vincent D, Klinke M, Eschenburg G, Trochimiuk M, Appl B, Tiemann B, et al. NEC is likely a NETs dependent process and markers of NETosis are predictive of NEC in mice and humans. Sci Rep. 2018;8:12612 pubmed publisher
    ..As findings of the mouse NEC model correlate positively with human NEC samples immunohistochemically, the hyperinflammation reaction observed in mice could potentially be applied to human NEC pathogenesis. ..
  34. Li D, Liu C, Lin J. Theoretical study of the mechanism of protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibition by F-amidine. J Mol Graph Model. 2015;55:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, the three-membered sulfonium ring collapses and rearranges to the final thioether product. His471 acts as a proton donor in the transition state and facilitates the inhibition reaction of PAD4. ..
  35. Datta R, Kumar D, Sultana A, Hazra S, Bhattacharyya D, Chattopadhyay S. Glutathione Regulates 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Transcription via WRKY33 and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase by Modulating Messenger RNA Stability to Induce Ethylene Synthesis during Stress. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:2963-81 pubmed publisher
    ..transcript as well as protein levels, while they were down-regulated in the GSH-depleted phytoalexin deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant...
  36. Lewis H, Nacht M. iPAD or PADi-'tablets' with therapeutic disease potential?. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2016;33:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..recent development of inhibitors of the PAD family, coupled with the availability of mice genetically deficient in PAD2 or PAD4, has accelerated understanding of the role of these targets in varied disease models...
  37. McNee G, Eales K, Wei W, Williams D, Barkhuizen A, Bartlett D, et al. Citrullination of histone H3 drives IL-6 production by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in MGUS and multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2017;31:373-381 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe a mechanism by which increased expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) by BMMSCs in patients with MGUS and MM directly alters malignant plasma cell phenotype...
  38. Bawadekar M, Shim D, Johnson C, Warner T, Rebernick R, Damgaard D, et al. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced citrullination and arthritis, but not neutrophil extracellular trap formation. J Autoimmun. 2017;80:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, PAD4 is not required for citrullination in inflamed lungs. PAD2 is important for citrullination in healthy tissues and is present in NETs, but its role in citrullination in the ..
  39. Tilvawala R, Nguyen S, Maurais A, Nemmara V, Nagar M, Salinger A, et al. The Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Citrullinome. Cell Chem Biol. 2018;25:691-704.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data suggest that inhibition of extracellular PAD activity will be therapeutically relevant. ..
  40. Koffler B, Luschin Ebengreuth N, Stabentheiner E, Müller M, Zechmann B. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Sci. 2014;227:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days...
  41. Anisimova T, Guedes da Silva M, Kukushkin V, Pombeiro A, Luzyanin K. Metal-mediated coupling of amino acid esters with isocyanides leading to new chiral acyclic aminocarbene complexes. Dalton Trans. 2014;43:15861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding reaction between trans-[PdI2(CNR1)2] (6) and 8 brings about the formation of trans-[PdI2(CNCy){C(ProOtBu)vNHCy}] (16, 76% isolated yield)...
  42. Wang F, Chen F, Gao W, Wang H, Zhao N, Xu M, et al. Identification of citrullinated peptides in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:2185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Eighty-three autoantigens except protein-arginine deiminase type-2 (PADI2) and protein-arginine deiminase type-2 (PADI4) were over-citrullinated compared with controls, and the ..
  43. Berthelot J, Le Goff B, Neel A, Maugars Y, Hamidou M. NETosis: At the crossroads of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and vasculitis. Joint Bone Spine. 2017;84:255-262 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibiting NETois may not be sufficient to improve autoimmune disorders whereas such latent infections remain uncontrolled. ..
  44. Kanduc D, Shoenfeld Y. From HBV to HPV: Designing vaccines for extensive and intensive vaccination campaigns worldwide. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15:1054-1061 pubmed publisher
  45. Crèvecoeur I, Gudmundsdottir V, Vig S, Marques Câmara Sodré F, D Hertog W, Fierro A, et al. Early differences in islets from prediabetic NOD mice: combined microarray and proteomic analysis. Diabetologia. 2017;60:475-489 pubmed publisher
    ..our analyses pointed to an important role for post-translational modifications (PTMs), especially citrullination by PAD2 and protein misfolding due to low expression levels of protein disulphide isomerases (PDIA3, 4 and 6), as causative ..
  46. Jang B, Jeon Y, Shin H, Lee Y, Kim H, Kondo Y, et al. Myelin Basic Protein Citrullination, a Hallmark of Central Nervous System Demyelination, Assessed by Novel Monoclonal Antibodies in Prion Diseases. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:3172-3184 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the high levels of citMBP were not correlated with PAD2 expression. The clone 3G5 recognized significantly increased expression of the 18.5 kDa and/or 21...
  47. Fert Bober J, Giles J, Holewinski R, Kirk J, Uhrigshardt H, Crowgey E, et al. Citrullination of myofilament proteins in heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;108:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Myocardial PAD isoforms were confirmed by RT-PCR with PAD2 being the major isoform in myocytes...
  48. Modak S, Gangwar M, Nageswar Rao M, Madasu M, Kalita A, Dorcet V, et al. Fluoride-free Hiyama coupling by palladium abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Dalton Trans. 2015;44:17617-28 pubmed publisher
    A series of palladium complexes of the abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene ligands of the type (a-NHC)PdI2(L) [L = NC5H5(1-3)b and PPh3(1-3)c] effectively catalyzed the Hiyama coupling of aryl bromides and iodides with PhSi(OMe)3 under the ..
  49. Chin D, Hsieh C, Lin H, Yeh K. A Low Glutathione Redox State Couples with a Decreased Ascorbate Redox Ratio to Accelerate Flowering in Oncidium Orchid. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..GR1 displayed a high GSH redox ratio as well as delayed flowering under high ambient temperature treatment, while pad2, cad2 and gr1 mutants exhibited early flowering and a low GSH redox ratio...
  50. Engelmann R, Biemelt A, Cordshagen A, Johl A, Kuthning D, Müller Hilke B. The Prerequisites for Central Tolerance Induction against Citrullinated Proteins in the Mouse. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158773 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pad2 and Pad4 are the main Pad isoforms expressed in mature medullary thymic epithelial cells of the mouse and their ..
  51. Mancuso R, Raut D, Della Ca N, Fini F, Carfagna C, Gabriele B. Catalytic Oxidative Carbonylation of Amino Moieties to Ureas, Oxamides, 2-Oxazolidinones, and Benzoxazolones. ChemSusChem. 2015;8:2204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that it is possible to perform these transformations using the PdI2 /KI catalytic system in an ionic liquid, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, as the solvent, the ..
  52. Blachère N, Parveen S, Fak J, Frank M, Orange D. Inflammatory but not apoptotic death of granulocytes citrullinates fibrinogen. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:369 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentiation was confirmed by CD11b staining, PAD4, PAD2 and myeloperoxidase expression, cell division, and nuclear morphology...
  53. Chang H, Liu G, Dwivedi N, Sun B, Okamoto Y, Kinslow J, et al. A molecular signature of preclinical rheumatoid arthritis triggered by dysregulated PTPN22. JCI Insight. 2016;1:e90045 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAD2- or PAD4-mediated hypercitrullination reduces the expression of Th2 cytokines...
  54. Isakova A, Murdoch B, Novakovic K. From small molecules to polymeric catalysts in the oscillatory carbonylation reaction: multiple effects of adding HI. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018;20:9281-9288 pubmed publisher
    ..acetate was able to generate oscillations under the conditions already established in our previous research on PdI2-catalysed oscillators, the other two catalysts needed the addition of HI to induce oscillations...
  55. Hoekstra A, van den Ende B, Julià X, van Breemen L, Scheurwater K, Tops C, et al. Simple and rapid characterization of novel large germline deletions in SDHB, SDHC and SDHD-related paraganglioma. Clin Genet. 2017;91:536-544 pubmed publisher
    ..In six patients proximal genes were also deleted, including PADI2, MFAP2, ATP13A2 (PARK9), CFAP126, TIMM8B and C11orf57...
  56. Damgaard D, Bjørn M, Steffensen M, Pruijn G, Nielsen C. Reduced glutathione as a physiological co-activator in the activation of peptidylarginine deiminase. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:102 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of recombinant human (rh) PAD2 and PAD4, PADs contained in synovial fluid (SF) samples from RA patients and PADs released from phorbol 12-..
  57. Saijo S, Nagai A, Kinjo S, Mashimo R, Akimoto M, Kizawa K, et al. Monomeric Form of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type I Revealed by X-ray Crystallography and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:3058-73 pubmed publisher
    ..2-Å resolution. Although human PAD2 and PAD4 isozymes were previously reported to form a head-to-tail homodimer, it is still unknown whether this ..
  58. Engelmann R, Müller Hilke B. Experimental silicosis does not aggravate collagen-induced arthritis in mice. J Negat Results Biomed. 2017;16:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation in the lungs was not associated with elevated PAD2 and PAD4 expression, yet silica treated animals had significantly higher aCCP serum titers...
  59. Cantarino N, Fernández Figueras M, Valero V, Musulen E, Malinverni R, Granada I, et al. A cellular model reflecting the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutant HRAS driven squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:1106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and as such can be used to identify novel tumor-promoting alterations such as the overexpression of the PADI2 oncogene in solid-type SCC...
  60. Suzuki A, Kochi Y, Shoda H, Seri Y, Fujio K, Sawada T, et al. Decreased severity of experimental autoimmune arthritis in peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 knockout mice. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:205 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Padi2 expression was induced in the immune cells of the Padi4(-/-) mice as a compensation for the defect in Padi4...
  61. Cedervall J, Zhang Y, Olsson A. Tumor-Induced NETosis as a Risk Factor for Metastasis and Organ Failure. Cancer Res. 2016;76:4311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventing NETosis in cancer could provide a strategy to counteract tumor-induced thrombosis and organ failure as well as to suppress metastasis. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4311-5. ©2016 AACR. ..
  62. Badillo Soto M, Rodríguez Rodríguez M, Pérez Pérez M, Daza Benítez L, Bollain Y Goytia J, Carrillo Jiménez M, et al. Potential protein targets of the peptidylarginine deiminase 2 and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 enzymes in rheumatoid synovial tissue and its possible meaning. Eur J Rheumatol. 2016;3:44-49 pubmed
    ..By hypothesizing that PAD2 and PAD4 enzymes produce autoantigens, we investigated five possible synovial protein targets of PAD enzymes...
  63. Turunen S, Huhtakangas J, Nousiainen T, Valkealahti M, Melkko J, Risteli J, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis antigens homocitrulline and citrulline are generated by local myeloperoxidase and peptidyl arginine deiminases 2, 3 and 4 in rheumatoid nodule and synovial tissue. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:239 pubmed
    ..Rheumatoid nodules and synovia contain significant amount of PAD2, 3 and 4 and myeloperoxidase enzymes...
  64. Tran D, Cavett V, Dang V, Torres H, Paegel B. Evolution of a mass spectrometry-grade protease with PTM-directed specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:14686-14691 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique mass spectral features of PTM-dependent proteolytic digest products promise a generalized PTM site-mapping strategy based on a toolbox of such mutant proteases, which are now accessible by laboratory evolution. ..
  65. Musse A, Polverini E, Raijmakers R, Harauz G. Kinetics of human peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (hPAD2)--reduction of Ca2+ dependence by phospholipids and assessment of proposed inhibition by paclitaxel side chains. Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;86:437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..of myelin basic and other proteins, catalysed by the Ca2+ -dependent enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2). Thus, inhibition of PAD2 may be of value in treatment of this disease...
  66. Bonilha V, Shadrach K, Rayborn M, Li Y, Pauer G, Hagstrom S, et al. Retinal deimination and PAD2 levels in retinas from donors with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Exp Eye Res. 2013;111:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAD2 is the principal deiminase expressed in the retina...
  67. Dreyton C, Knuckley B, Jones J, Lewallen D, Thompson P. Mechanistic studies of protein arginine deiminase 2: evidence for a substrate-assisted mechanism. Biochemistry. 2014;53:4426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the sequence similarity of PAD2 across mammalian species and the genomic organization of the PAD2 gene, PAD2 is predicted to be the ancestral ..
  68. McElwee J, Mohanan S, Horibata S, Sams K, Anguish L, Mclean D, et al. PAD2 overexpression in transgenic mice promotes spontaneous skin neoplasia. Cancer Res. 2014;74:6306-17 pubmed publisher
    Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2/PADI2) has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases and, more recently, cancer. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that PAD2 promotes oncogenesis using a transgenic mouse model...
  69. Cantarino N, Musulen E, Valero V, Peinado M, Perucho M, Moreno V, et al. Downregulation of the Deiminase PADI2 Is an Early Event in Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Indicates Poor Prognosis. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that PADI2 is the dominantly expressed PADI enzyme in colon mucosa and is upregulated during differentiation...
  70. König K, Vaseghi M, Dreyer A, Dietz K. The significance of glutathione and ascorbate in modulating the retrograde high light response in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Physiol Plant. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..and redox and reactive oxygen species signaling by exploiting the glutathione and ascorbate deficient mutants pad2 and vtc1...
  71. Sambandam T, Belousova M, Accaviti Loper M, Blanquicett C, Guercello V, Raijmakers R, et al. Increased peptidylarginine deiminase type II in hypoxic astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:1324-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate a measurable response in the amounts of PAD 2 mRNA, protein and activity in human astrocytes by prolonged hypoxic exposure. ..
  72. Cafaro T, Santo S, Robles L, Crim N, Urrets Zavalia J, Serra H. Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 is over expressed in the glaucomatous optic nerve. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1654-8 pubmed
    To determine levels of Peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) and its product protein-bound citrulline in cadaver eyes that suffered from normal tension glaucoma (NTG) compared to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and controls...
  73. Okada Y, Muramatsu T, Suita N, Kanai M, Kawakami E, Iotchkova V, et al. Significant impact of miRNA-target gene networks on genetics of human complex traits. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22223 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a miRNA (miR-4728-5p) that downregulates PADI2, a novel RA risk gene considered as a promising therapeutic target (rs761426, adjusted P = 2...
  74. Sarswat A, Wasilewski E, Chakka S, Bello A, Caprariello A, Muthuramu C, et al. Inhibitors of protein arginine deiminases and their efficacy in animal models of multiple sclerosis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:2643-2656 pubmed publisher
    ..We designed thirteen compounds as potential inhibitors of PAD2 and PAD4 enzymes-two important PAD enzymes implicated in MS...
  75. Qu Y, Olsen J, Yuan X, Cheng P, Levesque M, Brokstad K, et al. Small molecule promotes ?-catenin citrullination and inhibits Wnt signaling in cancer. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Using chemoproteomic approaches, we have identified peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) as the functional target of NTZ in Wnt inhibition...
  76. Loos T, Mortier A, Gouwy M, Ronsse I, Put W, Lenaerts J, et al. Citrullination of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by peptidylarginine deiminase: a naturally occurring posttranslational modification of chemokines and new dimension of immunoregulation. Blood. 2008;112:2648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..deimination of arginine at position 5 into citrulline of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) by rabbit PAD and human PAD2. Citrullination reduced (>/= 10-fold) the chemoattracting and signaling capacity of CXCL10 for CXC chemokine ..
  77. Olivares Martínez E, Hernández Ramírez D, Núñez Álvarez C, Cabral A, Llorente L. The amount of citrullinated proteins in synovial tissue is related to serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue with peripheral anti-citrullinated peptides autoantibodies (ACPA) and peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) PADI2, PADI3, and PADI4 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in synovial tissue and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in ..
  78. Khan S, Edwards B, Muth A, Thompson P, Cherrington B, Navratil A. GnRH Stimulates Peptidylarginine Deiminase Catalyzed Histone Citrullination in Gonadotrope Cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2016;30:1081-1091 pubmed
    ..The gonadotrope-derived L?T2 cell line strongly expresses PAD2 at the protein level compared with other PAD isoforms...
  79. Mohanan S, Horibata S, Anguish L, Mukai C, Sams K, McElwee J, et al. PAD2 overexpression in transgenic mice augments malignancy and tumor-associated inflammation in chemically initiated skin tumors. Cell Tissue Res. 2017;370:275-283 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this report was to better understand the potential mechanisms by which PAD2 overexpression promotes skin cancer...
  80. Damgaard D, Bjørn M, Jensen P, Nielsen C. Reactive oxygen species inhibit catalytic activity of peptidylarginine deiminase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017;32:1203-1208 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAD2, PAD4, and citrullinated proteins are found in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients...
  81. Watanabe K, Senshu T. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding rat skeletal muscle peptidylarginine deiminase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:15255-60 pubmed
    ..No positive bands were detected on the blots of the corresponding RNA fractions of liver and kidney. Possible similarity of the amino acid sequence of peptidylarginine deiminase to those of other calcium binding proteins is discussed. ..
  82. Wizeman J, Mohan R. Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 in an alkali injury model of retinal gliosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:134-139 pubmed publisher
    ..also subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), citrullinated species, PAD2, and PAD4 and tissue levels of GFAP, citrullinated species, and PAD4 were measured by western blots...
  83. Tejeda E, Bello A, Wasilewski E, Koebel A, Dunn S, Kotra L. Noncovalent Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) Inhibitors Are Efficacious in Animal Models of Multiple Sclerosis. J Med Chem. 2017;60:8876-8887 pubmed publisher
    ..compound 23, carrying an imidazole moiety, exhibited the highest potency in this series with some selectivity for PAD2, and was further investigated in vivo. Pharmacokinetics in mice suggested the Cmax to be 12.0 ± 2...
  84. Yu L, Dawe R, Boyle P, Gaiteri C, Yang J, Buchman A, et al. Association Between Brain Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Alteration of Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Transverse Relaxation in Late-Life Cognitive Decline. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74:1473-1480 pubmed publisher
    ..4 (6.0) years. Four co-expressed genes (PADI2 [Ensembl ENSG00000117115], ZNF385A [Ensembl ENSG00000161642], PSD2 [Ensembl ENSG00000146005], and A2ML1 [Ensembl ..
  85. Chavanas S, Méchin M, Takahara H, Kawada A, Nachat R, Serre G, et al. Comparative analysis of the mouse and human peptidylarginine deiminase gene clusters reveals highly conserved non-coding segments and a new human gene, PADI6. Gene. 2004;330:19-27 pubmed
    ..This study is the first description of the human PADI6 gene and encoded protein, and the first step towards a better understanding of the coordinated regulation of PADI gene expression. ..
  86. Nakayama Hamada M, Suzuki A, Kubota K, Takazawa T, Ohsaka M, Kawaida R, et al. Comparison of enzymatic properties between hPADI2 and hPADI4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:192-200 pubmed
    ..understand the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of RA, we compared the properties of two PADIs, human PADI2 and human PADI4, which are present in the synovial tissues of RA patients...
  87. Mastronardi F, Noor A, Wood D, Paton T, Moscarello M. Peptidyl argininedeiminase 2 CpG island in multiple sclerosis white matter is hypomethylated. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:2006-16 pubmed
    ..This increase was due to the myelin enzyme peptidyl argininedeiminase 2 (PAD2)...
  88. Hsu P, Liao Y, Lin C, Lin W, Liu G, Hung H. Vimentin is involved in peptidylarginine deiminase 2-induced apoptosis of activated Jurkat cells. Mol Cells. 2014;37:426-34 pubmed publisher
    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) deiminates (or citrullinates) arginine residues in protein to citrulline residues in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and is found in lymphocytes and macrophages...
  89. Spengler J, Lugonja B, Ytterberg A, Zubarev R, Creese A, Pearson M, et al. Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:3135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and ..
  90. Damgaard D, Senolt L, Nielsen M, Pruijn G, Nielsen C. Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:498 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations of PAD2 and calcium were also determined...
  91. Hadjisolomou E, Stefanidis K, Papatheodorou G, Papastergiadou E. Assessing the Contribution of the Environmental Parameters to Eutrophication with the Use of the "PaD" and "PaD2" Methods in a Hypereutrophic Lake. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13: pubmed publisher
    ..The synergistic effect of the paired parameters was calculated with the use of the "PaD2" algorithm. The SRP-WT paired parameter was the most influential, with a relative contribution of 22%...
  92. Kuzina E, Kudriaeva A, Glagoleva I, Knorre V, Gabibov A, Belogurov A. Deimination of the myelin basic protein decelerates its proteasome-mediated metabolism. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016;469:277-80 pubmed publisher