PACAP

Summary

Gene Symbol: PACAP
Description: adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1
Alias: PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), prepro-PACAP
Species: human
Products:     PACAP

Top Publications

  1. Vaudry D, Falluel Morel A, Bourgault S, Basille M, Burel D, Wurtz O, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2009;61:283-357 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP ..
  2. Filipsson K, Holst J, Ahren B. PACAP contributes to insulin secretion after gastric glucose gavage in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;279:R424-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is localized to pancreatic ganglia governing the parasympathetic nerves, which contribute to prandial insulin secretion...
  3. Hashimoto R, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Chiba S, Hattori S, Okada T, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is associated with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1026-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, ADCYAP1: adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1), a neuropeptide with neurotransmission modulating activity, is a promising schizophrenia candidate gene...
  4. Koppan M, Varnagy A, Reglodi D, Brubel R, Nemeth J, Tamas A, et al. Correlation between oocyte number and follicular fluid concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in women after superovulation treatment. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:617-22 pubmed
    ..Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the regulation of several endocrine processes and is present in ovarian follicular ..
  5. Simon A, Oláh J, Komlósi I, Javor A, Nemeth J, Szilvassy Z, et al. Changes in expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of calorie restricted hens. Acta Biol Hung. 2017;68:237-247 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), ..
  6. Ko J, Hirata J, Yamane K, Sonoda K, Kiuchi Y. Up-regulation of semaphorin 4A expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by PACAP released from cocultured neural cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2015;33:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of the neural cells was mimicked by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and was abolished by the PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38)...
  7. Morelli M, Barberi M, Gambardella A, Borini A, Cecconi S, Coticchio G, et al. Characterization, expression, and functional activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors in human granulosa-luteal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4924-32 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are found in the ovary of mammalian species, although nothing is known about the possible role of PACAP and VIP in the human ovary.
  8. Subramaniam V, Chuang G, Xia H, Burn B, Bradley J, Maderdrut J, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) protects against mitoxantrone-induced cardiac injury in mice. Peptides. 2017;95:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/vasoactive intestinal ..
  9. Sjöholm L, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Schalling M, Lavebratt C, Partonen T. CLOCK is suggested to associate with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders. J Circadian Rhythms. 2010;8:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. ..
  10. Rhea E, Bullock K, Banks W. Effect of controlled cortical impact on the passage of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) across the blood-brain barrier. Peptides. 2017;99:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here shows PACAP38 transport is temporally altered following CCI-treatment and PACAP38 uptake is greater in the cerebellum compared to the cortices...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Vaudry D, Falluel Morel A, Bourgault S, Basille M, Burel D, Wurtz O, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2009;61:283-357 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP ..
  2. Filipsson K, Holst J, Ahren B. PACAP contributes to insulin secretion after gastric glucose gavage in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;279:R424-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is localized to pancreatic ganglia governing the parasympathetic nerves, which contribute to prandial insulin secretion...
  3. Hashimoto R, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Chiba S, Hattori S, Okada T, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is associated with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1026-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, ADCYAP1: adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1), a neuropeptide with neurotransmission modulating activity, is a promising schizophrenia candidate gene...
  4. Koppan M, Varnagy A, Reglodi D, Brubel R, Nemeth J, Tamas A, et al. Correlation between oocyte number and follicular fluid concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in women after superovulation treatment. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:617-22 pubmed
    ..Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the regulation of several endocrine processes and is present in ovarian follicular ..
  5. Simon A, Oláh J, Komlósi I, Javor A, Nemeth J, Szilvassy Z, et al. Changes in expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of calorie restricted hens. Acta Biol Hung. 2017;68:237-247 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), ..
  6. Ko J, Hirata J, Yamane K, Sonoda K, Kiuchi Y. Up-regulation of semaphorin 4A expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by PACAP released from cocultured neural cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2015;33:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of the neural cells was mimicked by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and was abolished by the PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38)...
  7. Morelli M, Barberi M, Gambardella A, Borini A, Cecconi S, Coticchio G, et al. Characterization, expression, and functional activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors in human granulosa-luteal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4924-32 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are found in the ovary of mammalian species, although nothing is known about the possible role of PACAP and VIP in the human ovary.
  8. Subramaniam V, Chuang G, Xia H, Burn B, Bradley J, Maderdrut J, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) protects against mitoxantrone-induced cardiac injury in mice. Peptides. 2017;95:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/vasoactive intestinal ..
  9. Sjöholm L, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Schalling M, Lavebratt C, Partonen T. CLOCK is suggested to associate with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders. J Circadian Rhythms. 2010;8:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. ..
  10. Rhea E, Bullock K, Banks W. Effect of controlled cortical impact on the passage of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) across the blood-brain barrier. Peptides. 2017;99:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here shows PACAP38 transport is temporally altered following CCI-treatment and PACAP38 uptake is greater in the cerebellum compared to the cortices...
  11. Ávila Mendoza J, Perez Rueda E, Urban Sosa V, Carranza M, Martínez Moreno C, Luna M, et al. Characterization and distribution of GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 mRNAs in the green iguana. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;255:90-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST...
  12. Le S, Yamaguchi D, McArdle C, Tachiki K, Pisegna J, Germano P. PAC1 and PACAP expression, signaling, and effect on the growth of HCT8, human colonic tumor cells. Regul Pept. 2002;109:115-25 pubmed
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1) is a heptahelical, G protein-coupled receptor that has been shown to be expressed by non-squamous lung cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and to be ..
  13. Sundrum T, Walker C. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors in the trigeminovascular system: implications for migraine. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in a wide range of functions including vasodilatation, neuroprotection, nociception and neurogenic inflammation...
  14. Waschek J. Multiple actions of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide in nervous system development and regeneration. Dev Neurosci. 2002;24:14-23 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is widely expressed in the embryonic brain at the onset of neurogenesis, and is strongly upregulated in several models of nerve injury...
  15. Baranowska Bik A, Kochanowski J, Uchman D, Wolinska Witort E, Kalisz M, Martynska L, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in humans with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;263:159-61 pubmed publisher
    ..VIP and PACAP are structurally related neuropeptides with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities...
  16. Shioda S, Nakamachi T. PACAP as a neuroprotective factor in ischemic neuronal injuries. Peptides. 2015;72:202-7 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family...
  17. Tominaga A, Sugawara H, Futagawa T, Inoue K, Sasaki K, Minamino N, et al. Characterization of the testis-specific promoter region in the human pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene. Genes Cells. 2010;15:595-606 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide localized in the testis at concentration comparable to that found in the brain, suggesting involvement in spermatogenesis...
  18. Okazaki K, Kimura C, Kosaka T, Watanabe T, Ohkubo S, Ogi K, et al. Expression of human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) cDNA in CHO cells and characterization of the products. FEBS Lett. 1992;298:49-56 pubmed
    cDNA encoding human PACAP precursor was expressed in non-neuroendocrine Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHO-K1, The cells were transfected with expression vector (pTS705) containing the human PACAP cDNA by electroporation...
  19. Wang Y, Qian Y, Yang S, Shi H, Liao C, Zheng H, et al. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin. Genetics. 2005;170:801-6 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and involved in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal signal transduction...
  20. Bazzi G, Cecere J, Caprioli M, Gatti E, Gianfranceschi L, Podofillini S, et al. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds. Mol Ecol. 2016;25:6077-6091 pubmed publisher
    ....
  21. Rudecki A, Gray S. PACAP in the Defense of Energy Homeostasis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27:620-32 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates diverse physiology from neuroprotection to thermoregulation...
  22. Brown D, Tamas A, Reglodi D, Tizabi Y. PACAP protects against inflammatory-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells: implication for Parkinson's disease. Neurotox Res. 2014;26:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino acid containing neuropeptide that has been shown to ..
  23. Isobe K, Kaneko M, Kaneko S, Nissato S, Nanmoku T, Takekoshi K, et al. Expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptor in human neuroblastomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis. Regul Pept. 2004;123:29-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells...
  24. Iemolo A, Seiglie M, Blasio A, Cottone P, Sabino V. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the central nucleus of the amygdala induces anxiety via melanocortin receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:3269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1 (PAC1R) are highly expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and they have ..
  25. Huang J, Waters K, Machaalani R. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor 1 (PAC1) in the human infant brain and changes in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Neurobiol Dis. 2017;103:70-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control...
  26. Okragly A, Morin S, DeRosa D, Martin A, Johnson K, Johnson M, et al. Human mast cells release the migraine-inducing factor pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Cephalalgia. 2017;:333102417740563 pubmed publisher
    ..Mast cell degranulation assays were performed and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) activity was measured with a bioassay...
  27. SMITH C, Eiden L. Is PACAP the major neurotransmitter for stress transduction at the adrenomedullary synapse?. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:403-12 pubmed
    It has been known for more than a decade that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is co-stored with acetylcholine in the splanchnic nerve terminals innervating the adrenal medulla...
  28. King S, Lezak K, O Reilly M, Toufexis D, Falls W, BRAAS K, et al. The Effects of Prior Stress on Anxiety-Like Responding to Intra-BNST Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide in Male and Female Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42:1679-1687 pubmed publisher
    ..In male rodents, chronic variate stress (CVS) has been shown to increase BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate PAC1 receptor transcript, and BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the ..
  29. Rozzi S, Borelli G, Ryan K, Steiner J, Reglodi D, Mocchetti I, et al. PACAP27 is protective against tat-induced neurotoxicity. J Mol Neurosci. 2014;54:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP27, through CCL5, mitigates the effects of Tat-induced neuronal dysfunction, suggesting that PACAP27 could be a new strategy for an adjunct therapy against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. ..
  30. Bacchelli E, Cainazzo M, Cameli C, Guerzoni S, Martinelli A, Zoli M, et al. A genome-wide analysis in cluster headache points to neprilysin and PACAP receptor gene variants. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:114 pubmed
    ..1?×?10-6) with a common variant of the PACAP receptor gene (ADCYAP1R1). Furthermore, gene-based analysis provided significant evidence of association (P?=?2...
  31. Lohoff F, Bloch P, Weller A, Ferraro T, Berrettini W. Association analysis of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP/ADCYAP1) gene in bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Genet. 2008;18:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) (PACAP/ADCYAP1) gene maps to this region...
  32. Shioda S, Takenoya F, Wada N, Hirabayashi T, Seki T, Nakamachi T. Pleiotropic and retinoprotective functions of PACAP. Anat Sci Int. 2016;91:313-24 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family...
  33. Portela Gomes G, Lukinius A, Ljungberg O, Efendic S, Ahren B, Abdel Halim S. PACAP is expressed in secretory granules of insulin and glucagon cells in human and rodent pancreas. Evidence for generation of cAMP compartments uncoupled from hormone release in diabetic islets. Regul Pept. 2003;113:31-9 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an islet neuropeptide with potent insulinotropic action...
  34. Budzik J, Omer S, Morris J, Christian H. Vascular endothelial growth factor secretion from pituitary folliculostellate cells: role of KATP channels. J Neuroendocrinol. 2014;26:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a well-documented stimulant of VEGF secretion, caused a robust increase in VEGF secretion over 24 h...
  35. Vallejo I, Vallejo M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces astrocyte differentiation of precursor cells from developing cerebral cortex. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;21:671-83 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), but not the related vasoactive intestinal peptide, induces astrocyte differentiation of cortical precursor cells,..
  36. Kozłowska A, Mikołajczyk A, Majewski M. Distribution and neurochemistry of porcine urinary bladder-projecting sensory neurons in subdomains of the dorsal root ganglia: A quantitative analysis. Ann Anat. 2017;216:36-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, describes the arrangement of UBP DRGs neurons within particular subdomains of sacral ganglia, taking into account their size and chemical phenotype. ..
  37. Ki E, Lee K, Hur S, Rhee J, Kee M, Kang C, et al. Methylation of Cervical Neoplastic Cells Infected With Human Papillomavirus 16. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016;26:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that the methylation of ADCYAP1, PAX1, CADM1, and MAL may be highly associated with the development of cervical cancer, and that gene expression can be suppressed by gene promoter hypermethylation. ..
  38. Maugeri G, Longo A, D Amico A, Rasà D, Reibaldi M, Russo A, et al. Trophic effect of PACAP on human corneal endothelium. Peptides. 2018;99:20-26 pubmed publisher
    ..different studies have demonstrated the protective effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in different ocular diseases...
  39. Liu M, Deng M, Ma Y. Differently polarized macrophages affect the viability and growth of NSPCs by regulating the expression of PACAP. Neuropeptides. 2017;65:114-119 pubmed publisher
    ..of NSPCs and its possible mechanism, especially the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in it. Spinal cord-derived NSPCs were co-cultured with M1 or M2 through a transwell system...
  40. Kakall Z, Pilowsky P, Farnham M. PACAP(6-38) or kynurenate microinjections into the RVLM prevent development of sympathetic long-term facilitation following acute intermittent hypoxia. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;:ajpheart.00596.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neurotransmitter that causes long-lasting sympathetic excitation...
  41. Reglodi D, Cseh S, Somoskoi B, Fulop B, Szentléleky E, Szegeczki V, et al. Disturbed spermatogenic signaling in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-deficient mice. Reproduction. 2018;155:129-139 pubmed publisher
    b>PACAP is a neuropeptide with diverse functions in various organs, including reproductive system...
  42. Szanto Z, Sarszegi Z, Reglodi D, Nemeth J, Szabadfi K, Kiss P, et al. PACAP immunoreactivity in human malignant tumor samples and cardiac diseases. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:667-73 pubmed
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having important roles in various physiological processes...
  43. Gey M, Wanner R, Schilling C, Pedro M, Sinske D, Knöll B. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury. Open Biol. 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3...
  44. Peng J, Yang P, Zhang Q, Jiang Q. Tilapia adropin: the localization and regulation of growth hormone gene expression in pituitary cells. Peptides. 2017;97:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel experiments, pituitary cells co-treated with ovine pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (oPACAP38) and adropin showed a similar increase level compared to those treated with ..
  45. Hosoya M, Kimura C, Ogi K, Ohkubo S, Miyamoto Y, Kugoh H, et al. Structure of the human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1129:199-206 pubmed
    The human gene encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined. By comparison with a human PACAP cDNA, the exon/intron organization of PACAP gene was determined...
  46. Wray V, Nokihara K, Naruse S, Ando E, Kakoschke C, Wei M. Synthesis, solution structure and biological action of PACAP-related peptide. Biomed Pept Proteins Nucleic Acids. 1995;1:77-82 pubmed
    High quality PACAP-related peptide (PRP), a 29 amino-acid region of the PACAP precursor protein, has been synthesized in quantities sufficient for biological and structural studies...
  47. Eiden L, Emery A, Zhang L, SMITH C. PACAP signaling in stress: insights from the chromaffin cell. Pflugers Arch. 2018;470:79-88 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was first identified in hypothalamus, based on its ability to elevate cyclic AMP in the anterior pituitary...
  48. Soria V, Martínez Amorós E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Pérez Egea R, Garcia C, et al. Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the contribution of the circadian system to the genetic susceptibility to MD and suggest that different circadian genes may have specific effects on MD polarity. ..
  49. Godlewski J, Łakomy I. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2010;48:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and ..
  50. Brubel R, Reglodi D, Jambor E, Koppan M, Varnagy A, Biro Z, et al. Investigation of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in human gynecological and other biological fluids by using MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2011;46:189-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional and pleiotropic neuropeptide...
  51. Maasz G, Zrínyi Z, Reglodi D, Petrovics D, Rivnyak A, Kiss T, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:127-139 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models...
  52. Zeng N, Athmann C, Kang T, Lyu R, Walsh J, Ohning G, et al. PACAP type I receptor activation regulates ECL cells and gastric acid secretion. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1383-91 pubmed
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present in gastric nerves, and PACAP receptors (PAC1) are found on gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells...
  53. Han P, Liang W, Baxter L, Yin J, Tang Z, Beach T, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is reduced in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2014;82:1724-8 pubmed publisher
    There is growing evidence that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in animal models, but human studies are needed...
  54. Tuka B, Szabó N, Tóth E, Kincses Z, Pardutz A, Szok D, et al. Release of PACAP-38 in episodic cluster headache patients - an exploratory study. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Since pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) is present both in the SPG and the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and its role in migraine has been described, our ..
  55. Koga M, Ishiguro H, Horiuchi Y, Inada T, Ujike H, Itokawa M, et al. Replication study of association between ADCYAP1 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2010;20:123-5 pubmed publisher
    ..53-0.86). It is concluded that single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including Asp54Gly, of the ADCYAP1 gene are unlikely to play a sizeable role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. ..
  56. Germano P, Lieu S, Xue J, Cooke H, Christofi F, Lu Y, et al. PACAP induces signaling and stimulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and growth in neuroendocrine tumor cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), released from the enteric neurons in the gastrointestinal tract by binding to its ..
  57. Weber B, Riess O, Daneshvar H, Graham R, Hayden M. (CA)n-dinucleotide repeat at the PDEB locus in 4p16.3. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:827 pubmed
  58. Ohtaki T, Masuda Y, Ishibashi Y, Kitada C, Arimura A, Fujino M. Purification and characterization of the receptor for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26650-7 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid peptide (PACAP38) or a truncated peptide with the same 27 amino-terminal residues (PACAP27)...
  59. Hashimoto R, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Ohi K, Hori H, Saitoh O, et al. Possible association between the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene and major depressive disorder. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:300-2 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, ADCYAP1: adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1) is a neuropeptide with neurotransmission modulating activity...
  60. Guo S, Petersen A, Schytz H, Barløse M, Caparso A, Fahrenkrug J, et al. Cranial parasympathetic activation induces autonomic symptoms but no cluster headache attacks. Cephalalgia. 2017;:333102417738250 pubmed publisher
    ..724). There was no difference in mechanical detection and pain thresholds, and in PACAP and VIP plasma concentrations between LF and sham stimulation ( p???0.162)...
  61. Gaylinn B, Harrison J, Zysk J, Lyons C, Lynch K, Thorner M. Molecular cloning and expression of a human anterior pituitary receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:77-84 pubmed
    ..A specific GHRH antagonist blocked both binding and second messenger response. Northern analysis indicated that GHRH-R mRNA was most abundant in extracts of pituitary and was not detected in other tissues. ..
  62. Han X, Ran Y, Su M, Liu Y, Tang W, Dong Z, et al. Chronic changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and related receptors in response to repeated chemical dural stimulation in rats. Mol Pain. 2017;13:1744806917720361 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective increase in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-related receptors suggests that the PAC1 receptor pathway is a novel target for the treatment of migraine. ..