PACAP

Summary

Gene Symbol: PACAP
Description: adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1
Alias: PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), prepro-PACAP
Species: human
Products:     PACAP

Top Publications

  1. Vaudry D, Falluel Morel A, Bourgault S, Basille M, Burel D, Wurtz O, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2009;61:283-357 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP ..
  2. Choi J, Di Nardo A. Skin neurogenic inflammation. Semin Immunopathol. 2018;40:249-259 pubmed publisher
    ..endorphin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) can modulate the immune system during psoriasis development...
  3. Abad C, Jayaram B, Becquet L, Wang Y, O DORISIO M, Waschek J, et al. VPAC1 receptor (Vipr1)-deficient mice exhibit ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with specific deficits in the effector stage. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:169 pubmed publisher
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are two highly homologous neuropeptides...
  4. Ergang P, Vodička M, Soták M, Klusoňová P, Behuliak M, Řeháková L, et al. Differential impact of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: gene expression changes in Lewis and Fisher rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;53:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and 3(UCN2, UCN3), arginine vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OXT) and adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in two inbred rat strains: stress hypo-responsive Lewis (LEW) and hyper-responsive Fisher 344 (F344) rats...
  5. Kozłowska A, Mikołajczyk A, Majewski M. Detailed Characterization of Sympathetic Chain Ganglia (SChG) Neurons Supplying the Skin of the Porcine Hindlimb. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (..
  6. Pradier B, Shin H, Kim D, St Laurent R, Lipscombe D, Kauer J. Long-Term Depression Induced by Optogenetically Driven Nociceptive Inputs to Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis or Headache Triggers. J Neurosci. 2018;38:7529-7540 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide PACAP-38 or the nitric oxide donors nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside are pharmacologic triggers of human headache...
  7. Kun J, Szitter I, Kemény A, Perkecz A, Kereskai L, Pohóczky K, et al. Upregulation of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 ion channel in the inflamed human and mouse colon and its protective roles. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108164 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPA1 is upregulated in colitis and its activation exerts protective roles by decreasing the expressions of several proinflammatory neuropeptides, cytokines and chemokines. ..
  8. Hori M, Nakamachi T, Shibato J, Rakwal R, Shioda S, Numazawa S. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38. Microarrays (Basel). 2015;4:2-24 pubmed publisher
    ..systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain...
  9. Algarni A, Hargreaves A, Dickenson J. Role of transglutaminase 2 in PAC1 receptor mediated protection against hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;128:55-73 pubmed publisher
    ..concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27)...

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wagner L, Kaestner F, Wolf R, Stiller H, Heiser U, Manhart S, et al. Identifying neuropeptide Y (NPY) as the main stress-related substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) in blood circulation. Neuropeptides. 2016;57:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..YY (PYY), Galanin-like peptide (GALP), Orexin B (OrxB), OrxA, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and substance P (SP) were studied in serum and in ex vivo human blood...
  2. Steinberg A, Frederiksen S, Blixt F, Warfvinge K, Edvinsson L. Expression of messenger molecules and receptors in rat and human sphenopalatine ganglion indicating therapeutic targets. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:78 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally the expression of the neurotransmitters pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-38), nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), VIP and 5-hydroxttryptamine subtype receptors (5-..
  3. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Saavedra J, Kumar A, Pandey V, Serova L, et al. Regulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene expression in the adrenal medulla by acute and repeated immobilization stress. J Endocrinol. 2012;215:291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the effects of stress on adrenomedullary AT(1A) and AT(2) receptor expression may contribute to allostatic changes, such as regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis. ..
  4. Yao K, Ge W. Differential regulation of kit ligand A (kitlga) expression in the zebrafish ovarian follicle cells--evidence for the existence of a cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate-mediated binary regulatory system during folliculogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;402:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we demonstrated that both human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibited insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced Akt phosphorylation and ..
  5. Cheng H, Ding Y, Yu R, Chen J, Wu C. Neuroprotection of a novel cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* from the cyclization of PACAP (1-5) in cellular and rodent models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108090 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* (CHC) from the cyclization of Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) (1-5) in cellular and rodent models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis...
  6. Zhao C, Kodama Y, Flatberg A, Beisvag V, Kulseng B, Sandvik A, et al. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors. Regul Pept. 2014;192-193:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1)...
  7. Frederiksen S, Warfvinge K, Ohlsson L, Edvinsson L. Expression of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Peptide, Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide and Headache Targets in the Trigeminal Ganglia of Rats and Humans. Neuroscience. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..presence of migraine targets in the TG with particular emphasis on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), known to be involved in cranial pain processing, and selected ..
  8. Meier J, Nauck M. Incretin-based therapies: where will we be 50 years from now?. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1745-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). ..
  9. Purrier N, Engeland W, Kofuji P. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111449 pubmed publisher
    ..reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals...
  10. Chen W, Deng W, Goldys E. Light-Triggerable Liposomes for Enhanced Endolysosomal Escape and Gene Silencing in PC12 Cells. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2017;7:366-377 pubmed publisher
    ..LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells...
  11. Grassel S, Muschter D. Do Neuroendocrine Peptides and Their Receptors Qualify as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Osteoarthritis?. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) proved to be chondroprotective and, thus, might be a novel target in OA...
  12. Valenzuela G, Perez A, Navarro M, Romero A, Figueroa J, Kausel G. Differential response of two somatolactin genes to zinc or estrogen in pituitary of Cyprinus carpio. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;215:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..the pituitary transcription factor pit1 and hypothalamic pituitary adenylase cyclase activating peptide (pacap)...
  13. Kozłowska A, Mikołajczyk A, Adamiak Z, Majewski M. Distribution and chemical coding of sensory neurons innervating the skin of the porcine hindlimb. Neuropeptides. 2017;61:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..other factors such as somatostatin (SOM), calbindin-D28k (CB), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)...
  14. Zacharko Siembida A, Matysek M, Szalak R, Radlinska A, Obszańska K, Arciszewski M. Distribution and immunohistochemical characteristics of cocaine- and amphetamineregulated transcript-positive nerve elements in the pelvic ganglia of the female pig. Pol J Vet Sci. 2017;20:173-183 pubmed publisher
    ..TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
  15. Reglodi D, Cseh S, Somoskoi B, Fulop B, Szentléleky E, Szegeczki V, et al. Disturbed spermatogenic signaling in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-deficient mice. Reproduction. 2018;155:129-139 pubmed publisher
    b>PACAP is a neuropeptide with diverse functions in various organs, including reproductive system...
  16. Mahata M, Zhang K, Gayen J, Nandi S, Brar B, Ghosh S, et al. Catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion: physiological and pharmacological effects of secretin. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;345:87-102 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) augment the biosynthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
  17. Francischetti I, Assumpção T, Ma D, Li Y, Vicente E, Uieda W, et al. The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies. J Proteomics. 2013;82:288-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed...
  18. Yu R, Cui Z, Li M, Yang Y, Zhong J. Dimer-dependent intrinsic/basal activity of the class B G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 promotes cellular anti-apoptotic activity through Wnt/β-catenin pathways that are associated with dimer endocytosis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113913 pubmed publisher
    The high expression of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide)-preferring receptor PAC1 is associated with nerve injury and tumors. Our previous report (Yu R, et al...
  19. Shpakov A, Shpakova E, Tarasenko I, Derkach K. [N-palmitoylated peptide 232-245 of rat type 4 melanocortin receptor possessing agonistic activity]. Tsitologiia. 2014;56:604-11 pubmed
    ..In the case of combined action of the peptide and hormones (γ-MSH, serotonin, PACAP-38) that activate AC via the other receptors, the additivity of their stimulating effects on the ACSS persisted ..
  20. Mosdósi B, Bölcskei K, Helyes Z. Impairment of microcirculation and vascular responsiveness in adolescents with primary Raynaud phenomenon. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2018;16:20 pubmed publisher
    ..and the vasoactive sensory neuropeptides somatostatin and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) were measured...
  21. Ávila Mendoza J, Perez Rueda E, Urban Sosa V, Carranza M, Martínez Moreno C, Luna M, et al. Characterization and distribution of GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 mRNAs in the green iguana. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;255:90-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST...
  22. Liu D, Guo B, Han D, Deng K, Gu Z, Yang M, et al. Comparatively study on the insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis through brain-gut peptides in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus after intraperitoneal and oral administration of glucose. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;266:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..had significant effects on the gene expressions of preprovasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and gastrin in intestine...
  23. Lindner S, Fiedler L, Wängler B, Bartenstein P, Schirrmacher R, Wängler C. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of heterobivalent peptidic radioligands targeting both GRP- and VPAC1-Receptors concomitantly overexpressed on various malignancies - Is the concept feasible?. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;155:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis of different HBPLs, comprising a GRPR-binding (BBN7-14) and a VPAC1R-targeting (PACAP-27) peptide...
  24. Tsonkova V, Sand F, Wolf X, Grunnet L, Kirstine Ringgaard A, Ingvorsen C, et al. The EndoC-?H1 cell line is a valid model of human beta cells and applicable for screenings to identify novel drug target candidates. Mol Metab. 2018;8:144-157 pubmed publisher
    ..and peptides, we found Bombesin (BB) receptor agonists and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptides (PACAP) to significantly induce insulin secretion and the proteins SerpinA6, STC1, and APOH to significantly stimulate ..
  25. Harfi I, D Hondt S, Corazza F, Sariban E. Regulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes functions by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide after activation of MAPKs. J Immunol. 2004;173:4154-63 pubmed
    Anti-inflammatory activities of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP) are mediated in part through specific effects on lymphocytes and macrophages...
  26. Halvorson L. PACAP modulates GnRH signaling in gonadotropes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;385:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Less well-appreciated is the role of pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) as both a hypothalamic-pituitary releasing factor as well as an autocrine-paracrine factor within the pituitary...
  27. Seo H, Lee K. Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells. BMB Rep. 2016;49:128-33 pubmed
    ..induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)...
  28. Pecoraro V, Sardone L, Chisari M, Licata F, Li Volsi G, Perciavalle V, et al. A subnanomolar concentration of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) pre-synaptically modulates glutamatergic transmission in the rat hippocampus acting through acetylcholine. Neuroscience. 2017;340:551-562 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated...
  29. Gruppetta M, Formosa R, Falzon S, Ariff Scicluna S, Falzon E, Degeatano J, et al. Expression of cell cycle regulators and biomarkers of proliferation and regrowth in human pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2017;20:358-371 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, c-MYC and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) protein expression were analysed and correlated with tumour and patient characteristics...
  30. Nakamachi T, Kamata E, Tanigawa A, Konno N, Shioda S, Matsuda K. Distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 2 in zebrafish brain. Peptides. 2018;103:40-47 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multipotent neuropeptide with an amino acid sequence that is well conserved among vertebrates...
  31. Ishiguro H, Ohtsuki T, Okubo Y, Kurumaji A, Arinami T. Association analysis of the pituitary adenyl cyclase activating peptide gene (PACAP) on chromosome 18p11 with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2001;108:849-54 pubmed
    In neurons, pituitary adenyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) stimulates signaling cascades, involving cAMP and calcium...
  32. Harfi I, Corazza F, D Hondt S, Sariban E. Differential calcium regulation of proinflammatory activities in human neutrophils exposed to the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein. J Immunol. 2005;175:4091-102 pubmed
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP) acts via the G protein-coupled receptor vasoactive intestinal peptide/PACAP receptor-1 to induce phospholipase C/calcium and MAPK-dependent proinflammatory ..
  33. Dias B, Ressler K. PACAP and the PAC1 receptor in post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:245-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Guo L, Xia J, Yang S, Li M, You X, Meng Z, et al. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:26137-50 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH...
  35. Ivic I, Solymár M, Fulop B, Hashimoto H, Toth G, Tamas A, et al. Aging-Induced Modulation of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-Induced Vasomotor Responses in the Arteries of Mice. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:359-366 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP; 1-38 and 1-27) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are related neuropeptides of the secretin/glucagon family...
  36. Wray V, Kakoschke C, Nokihara K, Naruse S. Solution structure of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1993;32:5832-41 pubmed
    ..9-26, and 27-38) of PACAP38 is shown by a comprehensive review of recent in vitro and in vivo investigations of PACAP analogues...
  37. Mercer A, Rönnholm H, Holmberg J, Lundh H, Heidrich J, Zachrisson O, et al. PACAP promotes neural stem cell proliferation in adult mouse brain. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:205-15 pubmed
    ..Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with pleiotropic effects acting through three receptors to which it has high affinity, namely, ..
  38. Jeanneteau F, Chao M. Promoting neurotrophic effects by GPCR ligands. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;276:181-9; discussion 189-92, 233-7, 275-81 pubmed
    ..Adenosine and PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) induce Trk activation specifically through their respective GPCRs to promote cell survival...
  39. Cunningham S, O Doherty C, Patterson C, McDonnell G, Hawkins S, Marrosu M, et al. The neuropeptide genes TAC1, TAC3, TAC4, VIP and PACAP(ADCYAP1), and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;183:208-13 pubmed
    ..neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP; gene symbol ADCYAP1) have recently been proposed as novel therapeutics for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (..
  40. Lamine Ajili A, Fahmy A, Letourneau M, Chatenet D, Labonte P, Vaudry D, et al. Effect of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the autophagic activation observed in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:688-695 pubmed publisher
    ..related to apoptosis and its activation can be blocked by the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)...
  41. Kovács Valasek A, Szabadfi K, Denes V, Szalontai B, Tamas A, Kiss P, et al. Accelerated retinal aging in PACAP knock-out mice. Neuroscience. 2017;348:1-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina...
  42. Szabadfi K, Reglodi D, Szabo A, Szalontai B, Valasek A, Setalo G, et al. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide, A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats: Focus on the Vertical Information Processing Pathway. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:432-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as retinal degenerations...
  43. Liu N, Zhang Y, Xiong J, Liu S, Zhu J, Lv S. The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) protects adrenal function in septic rats administered etomidate. Neuropeptides. 2016;58:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we explored whether treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) relieves adrenal suppression in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic rats...
  44. Farkas J, Kovács L, Gaspar L, Nafz A, Gaszner T, Ujvári B, et al. Construct and face validity of a new model for the three-hit theory of depression using PACAP mutant mice on CD1 background. Neuroscience. 2017;354:11-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic predisposition (hit 1, mutation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, PACAP gene), early-life adversity (hit 2, 180-min maternal deprivation, MD180) and chronic variable mild stress (hit 3, ..
  45. Khan A, Li M, Brant E, Maderdrut J, Majid D, Simon E, et al. Renoprotection with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity. J Investig Med. 2011;59:793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)38 on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubule epithelial (human kidney-2) cells and in intact ..
  46. Krajcs N, Hernádi L, Pirger Z, Reglődi D, Tóth G, Kiss T. PACAP Modulates Acetylcholine-Elicited Contractions at Nicotinic Neuromuscular Contacts of the Land Snail. J Mol Neurosci. 2015;57:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunohistochemistry, we show that PACAP and PAC1 receptors are present in nerve fibers innervating the flexor muscles but not in the muscle itself...
  47. Doan N, Poujol de Molliens M, Létourneau M, Fournier A, Chatenet D. Optimization of on-resin palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction for peptides and its use in a structure-activity relationship study of a class B GPCR ligand. Eur J Med Chem. 2015;104:106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, we have prepared a small library of PACAP-based analogs and evaluated the pharmacological profile of a few of them using a competitive binding assay, as ..
  48. Nakamachi T, Ohtaki H, Seki T, Yofu S, Kagami N, Hashimoto H, et al. PACAP suppresses dry eye signs by stimulating tear secretion. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12034 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction...
  49. Jozwiak Bebenista M, Jasińska Stroschein M, Kowalczyk E. The differential effects of neuroleptic drugs and PACAP on the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in a human glioblastoma cell line. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2017;77:205-213 pubmed
    ..Additionally, PACAP significantly up-regulated BDNF mRNA expression in T98G cells and the obtained results correlated positively with ..
  50. Fahrenkrug J, Buhl T, Hannibal J. PreproPACAP-derived peptides occur in VIP-producing tumours and co-exist with VIP. Regul Pept. 1995;58:89-98 pubmed
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a newly discovered neuropeptide which exists in two biologically active forms: PACAP-38 consisting of 38 amino acids and PACAP-27, a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 ..
  51. Inooka H, Ohtaki T, Kitahara O, Ikegami T, Endo S, Kitada C, et al. Conformation of a peptide ligand bound to its G-protein coupled receptor. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:161-5 pubmed
    ..We have determined the conformation of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, PACAP(1--21)NH(2), bound to a PACAP-specific receptor by NMR spectroscopy...
  52. Sandvik A, Cui G, Bakke I, Munkvold B, Waldum H. PACAP stimulates gastric acid secretion in the rat by inducing histamine release. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G997-G1003 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) stimulates enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell histamine release, but its role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion is disputed...
  53. Langel J, Smale L, Esquiva G, Hannibal J. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus. Front Neuroanat. 2015;9:93 pubmed publisher
    ..of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters...
  54. Bossowska A, Lepiarczyk E, Mazur U, Janikiewicz P, Markiewicz W. Botulinum toxin type A induces changes in the chemical coding of substance P-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:4797-816 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemistry using antibodies against SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL), calbindin (CB), and ..
  55. Maugeri G, D Amico A, Saccone S, Federico C, Cavallaro S, D Agata V. PACAP and VIP Inhibit HIF-1?-Mediated VEGF Expression in a Model of Diabetic Macular Edema. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:1209-1215 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exert a protective role against retinal injuries, including diabetic macular edema (DME)...
  56. Nicot A, Lelievre V, Tam J, Waschek J, Dicicco Bloom E. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and sonic hedgehog interact to control cerebellar granule precursor cell proliferation. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9244-54 pubmed
    ..In the embryo, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1) signaling regulates neural precursor proliferation...
  57. Cummings K, Klotz C, Liu W, Weese Mayer D, Marazita M, Cooper M, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in African Americans: polymorphisms in the gene encoding the stress peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:482-9 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are prone to sudden death in the second post-natal week, having respiratory and metabolic disturbances reminiscent of the human Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)...
  58. Sághy Ã, Payrits M, Helyes Z, ReglÅ‘di D, Bánki E, Tóth G, et al. Stimulatory effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 6-38, M65 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide 6-28 on trigeminal sensory neurons. Neuroscience. 2015;308:144-56 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) acts on G protein-coupled receptors: the specific PAC1 and VPAC1/VPAC2 receptors...
  59. Liu K, Lau S, Ge W. Spatiotemporal expression analysis of nuclear estrogen receptors in the zebrafish ovary and their regulation in vitro by endocrine hormones and paracrine factors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;246:218-225 pubmed publisher
    ..and paracrine factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) can modulate E2-induced lhcgr expression in vitro...
  60. de Seny D, Cobraiville G, Leprince P, Fillet M, Collin C, Mathieu M, et al. Biomarkers of inflammation and innate immunity in atrophic nonunion fracture. J Transl Med. 2016;14:258 pubmed publisher
    ..These biomarkers are inter-?-trypsin inhibitor H4, hepcidin, S100A8, S100A9, glycated hemoglobin ? subunit, PACAP related peptide, complement C3 ?-chain...
  61. Tevoufouet E, Nembo E, Distler F, Neumaier F, Hescheler J, Nguemo F, et al. Multiple nickel-sensitive targets elicit cardiac arrhythmia in isolated mouse hearts after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-mediated chronotropy. Pharmacol Res. 2017;117:140-147 pubmed publisher
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 modulates various biological processes, from the cellular level to function specification...
  62. Lind M, Marraccini M, Sheerin C, Bountress K, Bacanu S, Amstadter A, et al. Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With rs2267735 in the ADCYAP1R1 Gene: A Meta-Analysis. J Trauma Stress. 2017;30:389-398 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of these findings, including the role of rs2267735 as one modulator of the stress system, are discussed...
  63. Yamamoto K, Hashimoto H, Tomimoto S, Shintani N, Miyazaki J, Tashiro F, et al. Overexpression of PACAP in transgenic mouse pancreatic beta-cells enhances insulin secretion and ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1155-62 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family, stimulates insulin secretion from islets in a glucose-dependent manner at femtomolar concentrations...
  64. Sun C, Song D, Davis Taber R, Barrett L, Scott V, Richardson P, et al. Solution structure and mutational analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide binding to the extracellular domain of PAC1-RS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7875-80 pubmed
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor is a class II G protein-coupled receptor that contributes to many different cellular functions including neurotransmission, neuronal survival, and synaptic ..
  65. Englund A, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Haukka J, Reunanen A, Aromaa A, et al. NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. J Circadian Rhythms. 2009;7:5 pubmed publisher
    ..049). Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist. ..
  66. May V, Buttolph T, Girard B, Clason T, Parsons R. PACAP-induced ERK activation in HEK cells expressing PAC1 receptors involves both receptor internalization and PKC signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;306:C1068-79 pubmed publisher
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates adenylyl cyclase and PLC...
  67. Park H, Choi B, Song S, Lee D, Roh J, Chun S. Luteinizing hormone-stimulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide system and its role in progesterone production in human luteinized granulosa cells. Endocr J. 2010;57:127-34 pubmed
    The present study examined the gonadotropin regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type I receptor (PAC(1)-R) expression, and its role in progesterone production in the human luteinized ..
  68. Tompkins J, Clason T, Hardwick J, Girard B, Merriam L, May V, et al. Activation of MEK/ERK signaling contributes to the PACAP-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;311:C643-C651 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase (PAC)-activating polypeptide (PACAP) peptides (Adcyap1) signaling at the selective PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) participate in multiple homeostatic and stress-related responses, yet the cellular mechanisms ..
  69. Barrett K, Daubenspeck J, Wilson R. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide drives cardiorespiratory responses to heat stress in neonatal mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;313:R385-R394 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has emerged as a principal and rate-limiting regulator of physiological stress responses in adult rodents and has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome ..
  70. Filipsson K, Holst J, Ahren B. PACAP contributes to insulin secretion after gastric glucose gavage in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;279:R424-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is localized to pancreatic ganglia governing the parasympathetic nerves, which contribute to prandial insulin secretion...
  71. Hashimoto R, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Chiba S, Hattori S, Okada T, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is associated with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1026-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, ADCYAP1: adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1), a neuropeptide with neurotransmission modulating activity, is a promising schizophrenia candidate gene...
  72. Koppan M, Varnagy A, Reglodi D, Brubel R, Nemeth J, Tamas A, et al. Correlation between oocyte number and follicular fluid concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in women after superovulation treatment. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:617-22 pubmed
    ..Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the regulation of several endocrine processes and is present in ovarian follicular ..
  73. Simon A, Oláh J, Komlósi I, Javor A, Nemeth J, Szilvassy Z, et al. Changes in expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of calorie restricted hens. Acta Biol Hung. 2017;68:237-247 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), ..
  74. Morelli M, Barberi M, Gambardella A, Borini A, Cecconi S, Coticchio G, et al. Characterization, expression, and functional activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors in human granulosa-luteal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4924-32 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are found in the ovary of mammalian species, although nothing is known about the possible role of PACAP and VIP in the human ovary.
  75. Sjöholm L, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Schalling M, Lavebratt C, Partonen T. CLOCK is suggested to associate with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders. J Circadian Rhythms. 2010;8:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. ..
  76. Ko J, Hirata J, Yamane K, Sonoda K, Kiuchi Y. Up-regulation of semaphorin 4A expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by PACAP released from cocultured neural cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2015;33:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of the neural cells was mimicked by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and was abolished by the PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38)...
  77. Subramaniam V, Chuang G, Xia H, Burn B, Bradley J, Maderdrut J, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) protects against mitoxantrone-induced cardiac injury in mice. Peptides. 2017;95:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/vasoactive intestinal ..
  78. Rhea E, Bullock K, Banks W. Effect of controlled cortical impact on the passage of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) across the blood-brain barrier. Peptides. 2017;99:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here shows PACAP38 transport is temporally altered following CCI-treatment and PACAP38 uptake is greater in the cerebellum compared to the cortices...
  79. Waschek J. Multiple actions of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide in nervous system development and regeneration. Dev Neurosci. 2002;24:14-23 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is widely expressed in the embryonic brain at the onset of neurogenesis, and is strongly upregulated in several models of nerve injury...
  80. Le S, Yamaguchi D, McArdle C, Tachiki K, Pisegna J, Germano P. PAC1 and PACAP expression, signaling, and effect on the growth of HCT8, human colonic tumor cells. Regul Pept. 2002;109:115-25 pubmed
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1) is a heptahelical, G protein-coupled receptor that has been shown to be expressed by non-squamous lung cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and to be ..
  81. Baranowska Bik A, Kochanowski J, Uchman D, Wolinska Witort E, Kalisz M, Martynska L, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in humans with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;263:159-61 pubmed publisher
    ..VIP and PACAP are structurally related neuropeptides with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities...
  82. Shioda S, Nakamachi T. PACAP as a neuroprotective factor in ischemic neuronal injuries. Peptides. 2015;72:202-7 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family...
  83. Sundrum T, Walker C. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors in the trigeminovascular system: implications for migraine. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in a wide range of functions including vasodilatation, neuroprotection, nociception and neurogenic inflammation...
  84. Okazaki K, Kimura C, Kosaka T, Watanabe T, Ohkubo S, Ogi K, et al. Expression of human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) cDNA in CHO cells and characterization of the products. FEBS Lett. 1992;298:49-56 pubmed
    cDNA encoding human PACAP precursor was expressed in non-neuroendocrine Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHO-K1, The cells were transfected with expression vector (pTS705) containing the human PACAP cDNA by electroporation...
  85. Tominaga A, Sugawara H, Futagawa T, Inoue K, Sasaki K, Minamino N, et al. Characterization of the testis-specific promoter region in the human pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene. Genes Cells. 2010;15:595-606 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide localized in the testis at concentration comparable to that found in the brain, suggesting involvement in spermatogenesis...
  86. Isobe K, Kaneko M, Kaneko S, Nissato S, Nanmoku T, Takekoshi K, et al. Expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptor in human neuroblastomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis. Regul Pept. 2004;123:29-32 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells...
  87. Wang Y, Qian Y, Yang S, Shi H, Liao C, Zheng H, et al. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin. Genetics. 2005;170:801-6 pubmed
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and involved in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal signal transduction...
  88. Brown D, Tamas A, Reglodi D, Tizabi Y. PACAP protects against inflammatory-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells: implication for Parkinson's disease. Neurotox Res. 2014;26:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino acid containing neuropeptide that has been shown to ..
  89. Rudecki A, Gray S. PACAP in the Defense of Energy Homeostasis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27:620-632 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates diverse physiology from neuroprotection to thermoregulation...
  90. Bazzi G, Cecere J, Caprioli M, Gatti E, Gianfranceschi L, Podofillini S, et al. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds. Mol Ecol. 2016;25:6077-6091 pubmed publisher
  91. SMITH C, Eiden L. Is PACAP the major neurotransmitter for stress transduction at the adrenomedullary synapse?. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:403-12 pubmed
    It has been known for more than a decade that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is co-stored with acetylcholine in the splanchnic nerve terminals innervating the adrenal medulla...
  92. Rozzi S, Borelli G, Ryan K, Steiner J, Reglodi D, Mocchetti I, et al. PACAP27 is protective against tat-induced neurotoxicity. J Mol Neurosci. 2014;54:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP27, through CCL5, mitigates the effects of Tat-induced neuronal dysfunction, suggesting that PACAP27 could be a new strategy for an adjunct therapy against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. ..