Gene Symbol: p65
Description: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
Alias: NFKB3, p65, transcription factor p65, NF-kappa-B p65delta3, NF-kappa-B transcription factor p65, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A, v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A
Species: human
Products:     p65

Top Publications

  1. Baldwin A. The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annu Rev Immunol. 1996;14:649-83 pubmed
  2. Sakurai H, Chiba H, Miyoshi H, Sugita T, Toriumi W. IkappaB kinases phosphorylate NF-kappaB p65 subunit on serine 536 in the transactivation domain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:30353-6 pubmed
    ..We have examined the possibility that IKK can phosphorylate the p65 NF-kappaB subunit as well as IkappaB in the cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation...
  3. Higashitsuji H, Higashitsuji H, Nagao T, Nonoguchi K, Fujii S, Itoh K, et al. A novel protein overexpressed in hepatoma accelerates export of NF-kappa B from the nucleus and inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:335-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that overexpression of HSCO suppresses p53-induced apoptosis by preventing nuclear localization of NF-kappa B during signaling and thus contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  4. Kiernan R, Brès V, Ng R, Coudart M, El Messaoudi S, Sardet C, et al. Post-activation turn-off of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription is regulated by acetylation of p65. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2758-66 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB is acetylated by both p300 and PCAF on lysines 122 and 123...
  5. Sosic D, Richardson J, Yu K, Ornitz D, Olson E. Twist regulates cytokine gene expression through a negative feedback loop that represses NF-kappaB activity. Cell. 2003;112:169-80 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal an evolutionarily conserved signaling circuit in which twist proteins regulate cytokine signaling by establishing a negative feedback loop that represses the NF-kappaB-dependent cytokine pathway. ..
  6. Levy D, Kuo A, Chang Y, Schaefer U, Kitson C, Cheung P, et al. Lysine methylation of the NF-κB subunit RelA by SETD6 couples activity of the histone methyltransferase GLP at chromatin to tonic repression of NF-κB signaling. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which chromatin signaling regulates inflammation programs. ..
  7. Annunziata C, Stavnes H, Kleinberg L, Berner A, Hernandez L, Birrer M, et al. Nuclear factor kappaB transcription factors are coexpressed and convey a poor outcome in ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:3276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription factors p65 and v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B (RelB) were coexpressed with IkappaB kinase alpha, 1 ..
  8. Fiume G, Vecchio E, De Laurentiis A, Trimboli F, Palmieri C, Pisano A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat activates NF-?B via physical interaction with I?B-? and p65. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3548-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Tat associated with the p65 subunit of NF-?B and increased the p65 DNA-binding affinity and transcriptional activity...
  9. Colleran A, Collins P, O Carroll C, Ahmed A, Mao X, McManus B, et al. Deubiquitination of NF-?B by Ubiquitin-Specific Protease-7 promotes transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a unique mechanism controlling NF-?B activity and demonstrate that the deubiquitination of NF-?B by USP7 is critical for target gene transcription. ..

More Information

Publications156 found, 100 shown here

  1. Quintana A, Aviles F, Terra X, Alcolea S, Camacho M, Quer M, et al. Overexpression of the nuclear factor-kappa B (p65) in association with local failure in patients with head and neck carcinoma undergong radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Head Neck. 2013;35:370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA NF-κB (p65) expression in pretreatment tumors was significantly related to local control (p = .03)...
  2. Hou Y, Moreau F, Chadee K. PPAR? is an E3 ligase that induces the degradation of NF?B/p65. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1300 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that PPAR? acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, physically interacting with p65 to induce its ubiquitination and degradation...
  3. Balermpas P, Michel Y, Wagenblast J, Seitz O, Sipek F, Rodel F, et al. Nuclear NF-?B expression correlates with outcome among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with primary chemoradiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;86:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment biopsy specimens were analyzed for NF-?B p65 (RelA) nuclear immunoreactivity. A sample was assigned to be positive with more than 5% positive nuclear expression...
  4. Ba X, Bacsi A, Luo J, Aguilera Aguirre L, Zeng X, Radak Z, et al. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 augments proinflammatory gene expression by facilitating the recruitment of site-specific transcription factors. J Immunol. 2014;192:2384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that nonproductive binding of OGG1 to 8-oxoG in promoter sequences could be an epigenetic mechanism to modulate gene expression for a prompt innate immune response. ..
  5. Sabatel H, Di Valentin E, Gloire G, Dequiedt F, Piette J, Habraken Y. Phosphorylation of p65(RelA) on Ser(547) by ATM represses NF-?B-dependent transcription of specific genes after genotoxic stress. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38246 pubmed publisher
    ..In this manuscript, a direct interaction between p65(RelA) and the N-terminal extremity of ATM is reported...
  6. Ma Z, Vocadlo D, Vosseller K. Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is anti-apoptotic and maintains constitutive NF-?B activity in pancreatic cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..PDAC is supported by oncogenic NF-?B transcriptional activity. The NF-?B p65 subunit and upstream kinases IKK?/IKK? were O-GlcNAcylated in PDAC...
  7. Gangwani M, Noel R, Shah A, Rivera Amill V, Kumar A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces CCL5 expression in astrocytes via PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific siRNAs against p50 and p65 subunits of NF-?B, p38? MAPK, Akt-2 and Akt-3, and AP-1 transcription factor substantially inhibited the production ..
  8. Nookala A, Shah A, Noel R, Kumar A. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78855 pubmed publisher
    ..This was further confirmed at transcriptional level that AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? were involved in CCL5 up-regulation. ..
  9. Tanaka T, Grusby M, Kaisho T. PDLIM2-mediated termination of transcription factor NF-kappaB activation by intranuclear sequestration and degradation of the p65 subunit. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:584-91 pubmed
    ..report that PDLIM2 negatively regulated NF-kappaB activity, acting as a nuclear ubiquitin E3 ligase targeting the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. PDLIM2 bound to p65 and promoted p65 polyubiquitination...
  10. Shimada H, Rajagopalan L. Rho kinase-2 activation in human endothelial cells drives lysophosphatidic acid-mediated expression of cell adhesion molecules via NF-kappaB p65. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..LPA activated Rho kinase within minutes and subsequently the NF-kappaB pathway through phosphorylation of the p65 subunit...
  11. Sasaki C, Barberi T, Ghosh P, Longo D. Phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on serine 536 defines an I{kappa}B{alpha}-independent NF-{kappa}B pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34538-47 pubmed
    The association of the NF-kappaB p65/p50 dimer with IkappaBalpha plays a pivotal role in regulating its nuclear translocation and gene transcription...
  12. Tsuchiya Y, Asano T, Nakayama K, Kato T, Karin M, Kamata H. Nuclear IKKbeta is an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation. Mol Cell. 2010;39:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB activated by the nuclear IKKbeta adaptor protein suppresses anti-apoptotic gene expression and promotes UV-induced cell death. ..
  13. Yang X, Tajkhorshid E, Chen L. Functional interplay between acetylation and methylation of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate for the first time an interplay between RelA acetylation and methylation and also provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of lysine methylation by acetylation. ..
  14. Nourbakhsh M, Hauser H. Constitutive silencing of IFN-beta promoter is mediated by NRF (NF-kappaB-repressing factor), a nuclear inhibitor of NF-kappaB. EMBO J. 1999;18:6415-25 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggest that the NRF-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB is a critical component of the IFN-beta gene silencing prior to viral infection. ..
  15. Baeuerle P, Baltimore D. I kappa B: a specific inhibitor of the NF-kappa B transcription factor. Science. 1988;242:540-6 pubmed
    ..The data show the existence of a phorbol ester-responsive regulatory protein that acts by controlling the DNA binding activity and subcellular localization of a transcription factor. ..
  16. Ea C, Baltimore D. Regulation of NF-kappaB activity through lysine monomethylation of p65. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Set9 specifically methylates p65 at lysine 37. Both TNFalpha and IL-1beta treatments induced methylation of p65...
  17. Williams S, Chen L, Kwon H, Ruiz Jarabo C, Verdin E, Greene W. NF-kappaB p50 promotes HIV latency through HDAC recruitment and repression of transcriptional initiation. EMBO J. 2006;25:139-49 pubmed
    ..The combination of HDAC inhibitors and Tat merits consideration as a new strategy for purging latent HIV proviruses from their cellular reservoirs. ..
  18. Buss H, Dörrie A, Schmitz M, Frank R, Livingstone M, Resch K, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 468 by GSK-3beta negatively regulates basal p65 NF-kappaB activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49571-4 pubmed
    ..activity of NF-kappaB is controlled at several levels including the phosphorylation of the strongly transactivating p65 (RelA) subunit...
  19. Maine G, Mao X, Komarck C, Burstein E. COMMD1 promotes the ubiquitination of NF-kappaB subunits through a cullin-containing ubiquitin ligase. EMBO J. 2007;26:436-47 pubmed
    ..Our data uncover that ubiquitination and degradation of NF-kappaB subunits by this COMMD1-containing ubiquitin ligase is a novel and critical mechanism of regulation of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription. ..
  20. Mattioli I, Sebald A, Bucher C, Charles R, Nakano H, Doi T, et al. Transient and selective NF-kappa B p65 serine 536 phosphorylation induced by T cell costimulation is mediated by I kappa B kinase beta and controls the kinetics of p65 nuclear import. J Immunol. 2004;172:6336-44 pubmed
    ..costimulation-induced phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal half of the strongly trans-activating NF-kappaB p65 subunit and identified serine 536 as the main phosphorylation site...
  21. Guo R, Qiao Y, Zhou Y, Li L, Shi H, Chen K. Increased staining for phosphorylated AKT and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 and their relationship with prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Pathol Int. 2008;58:749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..present study was to determine the expression of phosphorylated AKT (P-AKT) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 and their association with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in epithelial ovarian tumor...
  22. Scala G, Ruocco M, Ambrosino C, Mallardo M, Giordano V, Baldassarre F, et al. The expression of the interleukin 6 gene is induced by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAT protein. J Exp Med. 1994;179:961-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TAT protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of some HIV1-associated diseases by modulating the expression of host cellular genes. ..
  23. Yoboua F, Martel A, Duval A, Mukawera E, Grandvaux N. Respiratory syncytial virus-mediated NF-kappa B p65 phosphorylation at serine 536 is dependent on RIG-I, TRAF6, and IKK beta. J Virol. 2010;84:7267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..that aside from the well-characterized IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536 is an essential event regulating the RSV-mediated NF-kappaB-dependent promoter transactivation...
  24. Alcami J, Lain de Lera T, Folgueira L, Pedraza M, Jacque J, Bachelerie F, et al. Absolute dependence on kappa B responsive elements for initiation and Tat-mediated amplification of HIV transcription in blood CD4 T lymphocytes. EMBO J. 1995;14:1552-60 pubmed
    ..Analysis of nuclear extracts of resting, normal T lymphocytes revealed the presence of the p50, but not the p65, NF-kappa B subunit and the induction by phorbol esters of bona fide (p50-p65) NF-kappa B complexes...
  25. Fujita F, Taniguchi Y, Kato T, Narita Y, Furuya A, Ogawa T, et al. Identification of NAP1, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase-related kinases that potentiates NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7780-93 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the NAK-NAP1 complex itself effectively phosphorylated serine 536 of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-kappaB, and this activity was stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)...
  26. Benezra M, Chevallier N, Morrison D, Maclachlan T, El Deiry W, Licht J. BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26333-41 pubmed
    ..BRCA1 protein is involved in apoptosis and growth/tumor suppression. In this study, we present evidence that p65/RelA, one of the two subunits of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, binds to the BRCA1 protein...
  27. Yang X, Huang B, Li M, Lamb A, Kelleher N, Chen L. Negative regulation of NF-kappaB action by Set9-mediated lysine methylation of the RelA subunit. EMBO J. 2009;28:1055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings unveil a novel mechanism by which methylation of RelA dictates the turnover of NF-kappaB and controls the NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response. ..
  28. Mao X, Gluck N, Li D, Maine G, Li H, Zaidi I, et al. GCN5 is a required cofactor for a ubiquitin ligase that targets NF-kappaB/RelA. Genes Dev. 2009;23:849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data indicate that GCN5 participates in the ubiquitination process as an accessory factor for a ubiquitin ligase, where it provides a novel link between phosphorylation and ubiquitination. ..
  29. Khandelwal N, Simpson J, Taylor G, Rafique S, Whitehouse A, Hiscox J, et al. Nucleolar NF-?B/RelA mediates apoptosis by causing cytoplasmic relocalization of nucleophosmin. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1889-903 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are relevant to the design of novel anticancer agents that target RelA to this compartment...
  30. Liu B, Yang R, Wong K, Getman C, Stein N, Teitell M, et al. Negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling by PIAS1. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1113-23 pubmed
    ..Upon cytokine stimulation, the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB translocates into the nucleus, where it interacts with PIAS1...
  31. Schwabe R, Sakurai H. IKKbeta phosphorylates p65 at S468 in transactivaton domain 2. FASEB J. 2005;19:1758-60 pubmed
    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunit p65 is phosphorylated by IkappaB kinase (IKK) at S536 in transactivation domain (TAD) 1. In this study, we investigate the presence of IKK sites in TAD2 of p65...
  32. Jamaluddin M, Tian B, Boldogh I, Garofalo R, Brasier A. Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces a reactive oxygen species-MSK1-phospho-Ser-276 RelA pathway required for cytokine expression. J Virol. 2009;83:10605-15 pubmed publisher
  33. Jiang X, Takahashi N, Matsui N, Tetsuka T, Okamoto T. The NF-kappa B activation in lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling depends on the phosphorylation of p65 at serine 536. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:919-26 pubmed
    ..both NIK and IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha) are involved in LTbetaR signaling and that the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit at serine 536 in its transactivation domain 1 (TA1) plays an essential role...
  34. Nozell S, Laver T, Moseley D, Nowoslawski L, De Vos M, Atkinson G, et al. The ING4 tumor suppressor attenuates NF-kappaB activity at the promoters of target genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6632-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and NF-kappaB bind simultaneously at NF-kappaB-regulated promoters, and this binding correlates with reductions in p65 phosphorylation, p300, and the levels of acetylated histones and H3-Me3K4, while enhancing the levels of HDAC-1 at ..
  35. Shukla S, MacLennan G, Fu P, Patel J, Marengo S, Resnick M, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (Rel A) is constitutively activated in human prostate adenocarcinoma and correlates with disease progression. Neoplasia. 2004;6:390-400 pubmed
    ..and paraffin-embedded sections of benign and cancer specimens, we determined the nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/p65 and NF-kappaB/p50, cytoplasmic expression of IkappaBalpha, its phosphorylation, and expression of NF-kappaB-..
  36. Nihira K, Ando Y, Yamaguchi T, Kagami Y, Miki Y, Yoshida K. Pim-1 controls NF-kappaB signalling by stabilizing RelA/p65. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The NF-kappaB signaling pathway is controlled by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. RelA/p65, which is a main subunit of NF-kappaB, is ubiquitinated for degradation by SOCS-1, but the functional mechanism of ..
  37. Westendorp M, Shatrov V, Schulze Osthoff K, Frank R, Kraft M, Los M, et al. HIV-1 Tat potentiates TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation and cytotoxicity by altering the cellular redox state. EMBO J. 1995;14:546-54 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  38. Yang J, Fan G, Wadzinski B, Sakurai H, Richmond A. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with and directly dephosphorylates RelA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47828-33 pubmed
    ..and Richmond, A. (2001) Cancer Res. 61, 4901-4909) could be due, at least in part, to the deficiency of PP2A, which exhibits decreased dephosphorylation of NF-kappa B/RelA. ..
  39. Chapman N, Webster G, Gillespie P, Wilson B, Crouch D, Perkins N. A novel form of the RelA nuclear factor kappaB subunit is induced by and forms a complex with the proto-oncogene c-Myc. Biochem J. 2002;366:459-69 pubmed
    ..We have discovered that both c-Myc and v-Myc can induce a previously undescribed, truncated form of the RelA(p65) NF-kappaB subunit, RelA(p37)...
  40. Preston G, Zarella C, Pendergraft W, Rudolph E, Yang J, Sekura S, et al. Novel effects of neutrophil-derived proteinase 3 and elastase on the vascular endothelium involve in vivo cleavage of NF-kappaB and proapoptotic changes in JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:2840-9 pubmed
    ..It is here shown that protease entry results in direct cleavage of p65 NF-kappaB in the N-terminal region by PR3 and in the C-terminal region by HNE...
  41. Lim C, Yao F, Wong J, George J, Xu H, Chiu K, et al. Genome-wide mapping of RELA(p65) binding identifies E2F1 as a transcriptional activator recruited by NF-kappaB upon TLR4 activation. Mol Cell. 2007;27:622-35 pubmed
    ..Global gene expression profiling subsequently revealed a spectrum of NF-kappaB target genes that are positively regulated by E2F1, further demonstrating the critical role of E2F1 in the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway. ..
  42. Covic M, Hassa P, Saccani S, Buerki C, Meier N, Lombardi C, et al. Arginine methyltransferase CARM1 is a promoter-specific regulator of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. EMBO J. 2005;24:85-96 pubmed
    ..CARM1 forms a complex with p300 and NF-kappaB in vivo and interacts directly with the NF-kappaB subunit p65 in vitro. CARM1 seems to act in a gene-specific manner mainly by enhancing NF-kappaB recruitment to cognate sites...
  43. Sen R, Baltimore D. Multiple nuclear factors interact with the immunoglobulin enhancer sequences. Cell. 1986;46:705-16 pubmed
    ..The third protein binds to a sequence in the kappa enhancer (and to an identical sequence in the SV40 enhancer) and is restricted in its occurrence to B cells. ..
  44. Sarkar D, Park E, Emdad L, Lee S, Su Z, Fisher P. Molecular basis of nuclear factor-kappaB activation by astrocyte elevated gene-1. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1478-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The p65-interaction domain was identified between amino acids 101 to 205, indicating that p65 interaction alone is not ..
  45. Liptay S, Weber C, Ludwig L, Wagner M, Adler G, Schmid R. Mitogenic and antiapoptotic role of constitutive NF-kappaB/Rel activity in pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:735-46 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB/Rel-binding activity consists of NF-kappaB1(p50) and RelA(p65)...
  46. Joo J, Jetten A. NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation in lung carcinoma cells by farnesol involves p65/RelA(Ser276) phosphorylation via the MEK-MSK1 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Farnesol treatment reduces the level of IkappaBalpha and induces translocation of p65/RelA to the nucleus, its phosphorylation at Ser(276), and transactivation of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription...
  47. Buss H, Dörrie A, Schmitz M, Hoffmann E, Resch K, Kracht M. Constitutive and interleukin-1-inducible phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B at serine 536 is mediated by multiple protein kinases including I{kappa}B kinase (IKK)-{alpha}, IKK{beta}, IKK{epsilon}, TRAF family member-associated (TANK)-binding kinase 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55633-43 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65(RelA) serine 536 is physiologically induced in response to a variety of proinflammatory stimuli, but the responsible pathways have not been conclusively unraveled, and the function of this phosphorylation ..
  48. Zhang H, Sang W, Ruan Z, Wang Y. Akt/Nox2/NF-?B signaling pathway is involved in Tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;505:266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition of NADPH oxidase by both pharmacologic NADPH oxidase inhibitors and by siRNA Nox2 attenuated Tat-induced p65 phosphorylation and IKK phosphorylation...
  49. Ashburner B, Westerheide S, Baldwin A. The p65 (RelA) subunit of NF-kappaB interacts with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressors HDAC1 and HDAC2 to negatively regulate gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7065-77 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the transactivation function of NF-kappaB is also regulated through interaction of the p65 (RelA) subunit with histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor proteins...
  50. Ryo A, Suizu F, Yoshida Y, Perrem K, Liou Y, Wulf G, et al. Regulation of NF-kappaB signaling by Pin1-dependent prolyl isomerization and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of p65/RelA. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1413-26 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB function is regulated by Pin1-mediated prolyl isomerization and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of its p65/RelA subunit...
  51. Leitges M, Sanz L, Martin P, Duran A, Braun U, Garcia J, et al. Targeted disruption of the zetaPKC gene results in the impairment of the NF-kappaB pathway. Mol Cell. 2001;8:771-80 pubmed
    ..EFs) severely impairs kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity as well as cytokine-induced phosphorylation of p65. Also, a cytokine-inducible interaction of zetaPKC with p65 was detected which requires the previous degradation of ..
  52. Demarchi F, Gutierrez M, Giacca M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat protein activates transcription factor NF-kappaB through the cellular interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. J Virol. 1999;73:7080-6 pubmed
    ..Activation of NF-kappaB by Tat required integrity of the basic domain of Tat; previous studies have indicated that this domain is necessary for specific Tat-PKR interaction. ..
  53. Jeon Y, Kim D, Jung H, Chung S, Chi S, Cho S, et al. Annexin A4 interacts with the NF-kappaB p50 subunit and modulates NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results collectively indicate that ANXA4 differentially modulates the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, depending on its interactions with p50 and the intracellular Ca(2+) ion level. ..
  54. Soligo M, Camperio C, Caristi S, Scotta C, Del Porto P, Costanzo A, et al. CD28 costimulation regulates FOXP3 in a RelA/NF-?B-dependent mechanism. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest a new mechanism by which FOXP3 is activated and supports the critical role of CD28 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance. ..
  55. Demarchi F, d Adda di Fagagna F, Falaschi A, Giacca M. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB by the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1996;70:4427-37 pubmed
    ..These results show that NF-kappaB activation by Tat is important for LTR transcriptional activation. Furthermore, they suggest that some of the pleiotropic effects of Tat on cellular functions can be mediated by induction of NF-kappaB. ..
  56. Jacobs M, Harrison S. Structure of an IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex. Cell. 1998;95:749-58 pubmed
    ..The structure of the IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain, bound to a partially truncated NF-kappaB heterodimer (p50/ p65), has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.7 A resolution...
  57. Yeh P, Yeh K, Chuang S, Song Y, Cheng A. Suppression of MEK/ERK signaling pathway enhances cisplatin-induced NF-kappaB activation by protein phosphatase 4-mediated NF-kappaB p65 Thr dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26143-8 pubmed
    ..directly interacts with and activates NF-kappaB led us to examine the phosphorylation status of NF-kappaB p65. Coincident with activation of NF-kappaB, cisplatin induced Ser phosphorylation but decreased Thr phosphorylation ..
  58. Ganchi P, Sun S, Greene W, Ballard D. A novel NF-kappa B complex containing p65 homodimers: implications for transcriptional control at the level of subunit dimerization. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7826-35 pubmed
    ..NF-kappa B transcription factor is a heteromeric complex containing two Rel-related DNA-binding subunits, termed p65 and p50...
  59. Toborek M, Lee Y, Pu H, Malecki A, Flora G, Garrido R, et al. HIV-Tat protein induces oxidative and inflammatory pathways in brain endothelium. J Neurochem. 2003;84:169-79 pubmed
    ..These changes can directly lead to disruption of the BBB. Thus, Tat can play an important role in the development of detrimental vascular changes in the brains of HIV-infected patients. ..
  60. Weichert W, Boehm M, Gekeler V, Bahra M, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, et al. High expression of RelA/p65 is associated with activation of nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent signaling in pancreatic cancer and marks a patient population with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:523-30 pubmed
    ..However, information on the expression of RelA/p65, the major transcription activating NF-kappaB subunit, in these carcinomas and possible correlations thereof with ..
  61. Bohuslav J, Chen L, Kwon H, Mu Y, Greene W. p53 induces NF-kappaB activation by an IkappaB kinase-independent mechanism involving phosphorylation of p65 by ribosomal S6 kinase 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26115-25 pubmed
    ..expression stimulates the serine/threonine kinase ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which in turn phosphorylates the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB...
  62. Cao H, Fang Y, Zhang X, Chen W, Zhou W, Wang H, et al. Tumor metastasis and the reciprocal regulation of heparanase gene expression by nuclear factor kappa B in human gastric carcinoma tissue. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:903-7 pubmed
    ..194, P = 0.046<0.05). NF-kappaB RelA (p65) activation was related with increased heparanase gene expression and correlated with poor clinicopathological ..
  63. Babakov V, Petukhova O, Turoverova L, Kropacheva I, Tentler D, Bolshakova A, et al. RelA/NF-kappaB transcription factor associates with alpha-actinin-4. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1030-8 pubmed publisher
    ..After a 30-min stimulation with EGF or TNF-alpha, alpha-actinin-4 and p65 were found in the nucleus...
  64. Kalkhoven E, Wissink S, van der Saag P, van der Burg B. Negative interaction between the RelA(p65) subunit of NF-kappaB and the progesterone receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6217-24 pubmed
    ..The present study describes the mutual repression of two transcription factors, the RelA(p65) subunit of NF-kappaB and the progesterone receptor (PR)...
  65. Nelson D, Ihekwaba A, Elliott M, Johnson J, Gibney C, Foreman B, et al. Oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling control the dynamics of gene expression. Science. 2004;306:704-8 pubmed
    ..The functional consequences of NF-kappaB signaling may thus depend on number, period, and amplitude of oscillations. ..
  66. Chen L, Williams S, Mu Y, Nakano H, Duerr J, Buckbinder L, et al. NF-kappaB RelA phosphorylation regulates RelA acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7966-75 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the acetylation of RelA at lysine 310 is importantly regulated by prior phosphorylation of serines 276 and 536. Such phosphorylated and acetylated forms of RelA display enhanced transcriptional activity. ..
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    ..As well as providing new understanding of the molecular determinants of RelA function, these findings also have relevance to the development of novel chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative agents. ..
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    ..are required for the expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules I and II by CPAF and cleavage of p65 of the NF-kappaB pathway by the encoded CT441 protein...
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    ..DNA binding assay, we demonstrate that the increase in IL-8 gene expression correlates with a specific increase in p65 NF-kappa B binding activity only in the nucleus of the Tat-expressing cells...
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    ..The activation of NF-kappaB has been shown to be regulated by multiple phosphorylations of IkappaBs and the NF-kappaB p65 subunit...
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    ..These data contribute to the understanding of the complexities of NF-kappaB function and have considerable relevance to cancer prevention and therapy. ..
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    ..We demonstrated here that TNF-alpha induced binding of NF kappa B p50 and p65 to the NF kappa B-like element of the MHC class I promoter termed region I and IFN-gamma induced binding of IRF-1 ..
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