Gene Symbol: p50
Description: nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1
Alias: CVID12, EBP-1, KBF1, NF-kB1, NF-kappa-B, NF-kappaB, NFKB-p105, NFKB-p50, NFkappaB, p105, p50, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit, DNA-binding factor KBF1, NF-kappabeta, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit, nuclear factor kappa-B DNA binding subunit, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1
Species: human
Products:     p50

Top Publications

  1. Annunziata C, Stavnes H, Kleinberg L, Berner A, Hernandez L, Birrer M, et al. Nuclear factor kappaB transcription factors are coexpressed and convey a poor outcome in ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:3276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant association of p50 with poor overall survival was observed (P = .02)...
  2. De Siervi A, De Luca P, Moiola C, Gueron G, Tongbai R, Chandramouli G, et al. Identification of new Rel/NFkappaB regulatory networks by focused genome location analysis. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2093-100 pubmed
    b>NFkappaB is an inducible transcription factor that controls kinetically complex patterns of gene expression. Several studies reveal multiple pathways linking NFkappaB to the promotion and progression of various cancers...
  3. Mells G, Floyd J, Morley K, Cordell H, Franklin C, Shin S, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies 12 new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2011;43:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..New candidate genes include STAT4, DENND1B, CD80, IL7R, CXCR5, TNFRSF1A, CLEC16A and NFKB1. This study has considerably expanded our knowledge of the genetic architecture of PBC. ..
  4. Pratt M, Bishop T, White D, Yasvinski G, Menard M, Niu M, et al. Estrogen withdrawal-induced NF-kappaB activity and bcl-3 expression in breast cancer cells: roles in growth and hormone independence. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6887-900 pubmed
    ..LCC1 NF-kappaB activity consists primarily of p50 dimers, although low levels of a p65/p50 complex are also present...
  5. Peloponese J, Yasunaga J, Kinjo T, Watashi K, Jeang K. Peptidylproline cis-trans-isomerase Pin1 interacts with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax and modulates its activation of NF-kappaB. J Virol. 2009;83:3238-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is over expressed in HTLV-1 cell lines; Pin1 binds Tax and regulates Tax-induced NF-kappaB activation...
  6. Gasparini C, Foxwell B, Feldmann M. RelB/p50 regulates CCL19 production, but fails to promote human DC maturation. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the NF-kappaB subunits RelB and p50 in human DC activation using adenoviral vectors expressing RelB or p50...
  7. Lee T, Yeh J, Friedman J, Yan B, Yang X, Yeh N, et al. A signal network involving coactivated NF-kappaB and STAT3 and altered p53 modulates BAX/BCL-XL expression and promotes cell survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of signal activation of both NF-kappaB and STAT3 together with reexpression of p53 could be the most effective strategy to restore BAX/BCL-XL regulation and for cytotoxic therapy of HNSCC. ..
  8. Zhou B, Rao L, Peng Y, Wang Y, Li Y, Gao L, et al. Functional polymorphism of the NFKB1 gene promoter is related to the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:47 pubmed publisher
    ..015) and the ATTG2 carrier (ATTG1/ATTG2 + ATTG2/ATTG2) was susceptible to DCM. Our data suggested that NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism is associated with DCM. ..
  9. Flister M, Wilber A, Hall K, Iwata C, Miyazono K, Nisato R, et al. Inflammation induces lymphangiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGFR-3 mediated by NF-kappaB and Prox1. Blood. 2010;115:418-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that Prox1 synergizes with the p50 of NF-kappaB to control VEGFR-3 expression...

More Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nookala A, Shah A, Noel R, Kumar A. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78855 pubmed publisher
    ..This was further confirmed at transcriptional level that AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? were involved in CCL5 up-regulation. ..
  2. Gedey R, Jin X, Hinthong O, Shisler J. Poxviral regulation of the host NF-kappaB response: the vaccinia virus M2L protein inhibits induction of NF-kappaB activation via an ERK2 pathway in virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells. J Virol. 2006;80:8676-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, in 293T cells, VV apparently utilizes its M2L protein to interfere with a step(s) that would otherwise enable ERK2 phosphorylation and the consequential activation of an NF-kappaBeta response. ..
  3. Liu H, Zheng H, Li M, Hu D, Tang M, Cao Y. Upregulated expression of kappa light chain by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via NF-kappaB and AP-1 pathways. Cell Signal. 2007;19:419-27 pubmed
    ..The present study provided some hints of possible mechanisms by which human cancer cells of epithelial origin produced immunoglobulins. ..
  4. Pauli E, Schmolke M, Wolff T, Viemann D, Roth J, Bode J, et al. Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-kappaB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000196 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effect is at least in part due to the induction of SOCS-3 gene expression, which results in an impaired antiviral response. ..
  5. Royan S, Jones R, Koutsouris A, Roxas J, Falzari K, Weflen A, et al. Enteropathogenic E. coli non-LEE encoded effectors NleH1 and NleH2 attenuate NF-?B activation. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1232-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that NleH1 and NleH2 function to dampen host inflammation and facilitate EPEC colonization during pathogenesis. ..
  6. Andersen V, Christensen J, Ernst A, Jacobsen B, Tjønneland A, Krarup H, et al. Polymorphisms in NF-?B, PXR, LXR, PPAR? and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.75 and OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.24-5.03, respectively). Common PXR and LXR polymorphisms may contribute to risk of IBD, especially among never smokers. ..
  7. Zhang J, Herreros Villanueva M, Herreros Vilanueva M, Koenig A, Deng Z, de Narvajas A, et al. Differential activity of GSK-3 isoforms regulates NF-?B and TRAIL- or TNF? induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1142 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition resulted in either decreased p65 binding to the promoter of BIR3, which encodes cIAP2, or increased p50 binding as well as recruitment of SIRT1 and HDAC3 to the promoter of BCL2L1, which encodes Bcl-xL...
  8. Banno T, Gazel A, Blumenberg M. Pathway-specific profiling identifies the NF-kappa B-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha-regulated genes in epidermal keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18973-80 pubmed
    ..This could lead to more specific anti-inflammatory agents that are both more effective and safer. ..
  9. Bu H, Rosdahl I, Sun X, Zhang H. Importance of polymorphisms in NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaBIalpha genes for melanoma risk, clinicopathological features and tumor progression in Swedish melanoma patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:859-66 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaBIalpha genes might be susceptible genes for melanoma risk and functional polymorphisms of these genes might be biological predictors for melanoma progression. ..
  10. Lee K, Kim J. Regulation of HGF-mediated cell proliferation and invasion through NF-?B, JunB, and MMP-9 cascades in stomach cancer cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012;29:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results may contribute to the JunB-associated malignant phenotype of gastric cancers by regulating MMP-9, and serve as a novel therapeutic target for stomach cancer therapy in the future. ..
  11. Ayroldi E, Migliorati G, Bruscoli S, Marchetti C, Zollo O, Cannarile L, et al. Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB. Blood. 2001;98:743-53 pubmed
    ..These results identify a new molecular mechanism involved in the dexamethasone-induced regulation of NF-kappaB activity and T-cell activation. (Blood. 2001;98:743-753) ..
  12. Chen Park F, Huang D, Noro B, Thanos D, Ghosh G. The kappa B DNA sequence from the HIV long terminal repeat functions as an allosteric regulator of HIV transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24701-8 pubmed
    ..we first observed and compared unique conformations between the crystallographic structure of the NF-kappaB p50.p65 heterodimer bound to the uPA-kappaB target site to that of the p50.p65.HIV-kappaB complex...
  13. Kirchner D, Duyster J, Ottmann O, Schmid R, Bergmann L, Munzert G. Mechanisms of Bcr-Abl-mediated NF-kappaB/Rel activation. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:504-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, NF-kappaB/Rel activation was dependent on Ras activity. Primary CML blasts showed constitutive p65/RelA NF-kappaB/Rel DNA binding activity. Thus NF-kappaB/Rel represents a potential target for molecular therapies in CML. ..
  14. Holloway J, Murthy S, El Ashry D. A cytoplasmic substrate of mitogen-activated protein kinase is responsible for estrogen receptor-alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells: the role of nuclear factor-kappaB. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1396-410 pubmed
  15. Gangwani M, Noel R, Shah A, Rivera Amill V, Kumar A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces CCL5 expression in astrocytes via PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific siRNAs against p50 and p65 subunits of NF-?B, p38? MAPK, Akt-2 and Akt-3, and AP-1 transcription factor substantially inhibited the ..
  16. Kang B, Tirumurugaan K, Deshpande D, Amrani Y, Panettieri R, Walseth T, et al. Transcriptional regulation of CD38 expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of NF-kappaB and sensitivity to glucocorticoids. FASEB J. 2006;20:1000-2 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that TNF-alpha-induced CD38 expression involves NF-kappaB expression and its activation and dexamethasone inhibits CD38 expression through NF-kappaB-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  17. Pereira S, Oakley F. Nuclear factor-kappaB1: regulation and function. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1425-30 pubmed
    ..as a hetero- or homo-dimer which can be formed from five NF-kappaB subunits, NF-kappaB1 (p50 and its precursor p105), NF-kappaB2 (p52 and its precursor p100), RelA (p65), RelB and c-Rel...
  18. Lewander A, Butchi A, Gao J, He L, Lindblom A, Arbman G, et al. Polymorphism in the promoter region of the NFKB1 gene increases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer in Swedish but not in Chinese populations. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:1332-8 pubmed
    ..05). Deletion of the polymorphism was associated with increased susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancers in the Swedish population, but not in the Swedish patients with a family history of colorectal cancer or in Chinese patients. ..
  19. Bhaumik D, Scott G, Schokrpur S, Patil C, Campisi J, Benz C. Expression of microRNA-146 suppresses NF-kappaB activity with reduction of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:5643-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate miR-146a/b as a negative regulator of constitutive NF-kappaB activity in a breast cancer setting and suggest that modulating miR-146a/b levels has therapeutic potential to suppress breast cancer metastases. ..
  20. Senol Tuncay S, Okyay P, Bardakci F. Identification of NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaBIAlpha polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP assay in a Turkish population. Biochem Genet. 2010;48:104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, and G/G 38.5%. Distribution of genotype frequencies was tested by Hardy-Weinberg; the NF-kappaB1 gene was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (chi(2) = 3.402, P > 0.05), the NF-kappaBIA gene was not (chi(2) = 8.293, P < 0.05). ..
  21. Condé C, Rambout X, Lebrun M, Lecat A, Di Valentin E, Dequiedt F, et al. The inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 inhibits NOD2-induced NF-?B activation by disturbing the interaction of XIAP with RIP2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41005 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon NOD2 activation, SHIP-1 C-terminal proline rich domain (PRD) interacts with XIAP, thereby disturbing the interaction between XIAP and RIP2 in order to decrease NF-?B signaling. ..
  22. Mansur D, Maluquer de Motes C, Unterholzner L, Sumner R, Ferguson B, Ren H, et al. Poxvirus targeting of E3 ligase ?-TrCP by molecular mimicry: a mechanism to inhibit NF-?B activation and promote immune evasion and virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003183 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, despite encoding nine other inhibitors of NF-?B, a VACV lacking A49 showed reduced virulence in vivo...
  23. Heissmeyer V, Krappmann D, Wulczyn F, Scheidereit C. NF-kappaB p105 is a target of IkappaB kinases and controls signal induction of Bcl-3-p50 complexes. EMBO J. 1999;18:4766-78 pubmed
    The NF-kappaB precursor p105 has dual functions: cytoplasmic retention of attached NF-kappaB proteins and generation of p50 by processing...
  24. Tong X, Yin L, Washington R, Rosenberg D, Giardina C. The p50-p50 NF-kappaB complex as a stimulus-specific repressor of gene activation. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;265:171-83 pubmed
    ..Intestinal epithelial cells have been found to modulate the relative levels of the p65-p50 and p50-p50 NF-kappaB complexes in a number of instances, and here we show that this ratio was altered in response ..
  25. Yasunaga J, Lin F, Lu X, Jeang K. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 20 targets TRAF6 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 tax to negatively regulate NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2011;85:6212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to USP20 as a key negative regulator of Tax-induced NF-?B signaling. ..
  26. Macian F, Rao A. Reciprocal modulatory interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and transcription factor NFAT1. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3645-53 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potentially opposing roles of NFAT1 and another family member, NFAT2, in regulating gene transcription of HIV-1 and endogenous cytokine genes. ..
  27. Matta H, Chaudhary P. Activation of alternative NF-kappa B pathway by human herpes virus 8-encoded Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1 beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (vFLIP). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9399-404 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic agents targeting the alternative NF-kappa B pathway may have a role in the treatment of KSHV-associated lymphomas. ..
  28. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Harhaj E. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 for NF-kappaB activation. J Virol. 2007;81:13735-42 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results reveal that Ubc13 is essential for Tax ubiquitination, its interaction with NEMO, and Tax-mediated NF-kappaB activation...
  29. Chan J, Greene W. NF-?B/Rel: agonist and antagonist roles in HIV-1 latency. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Various NF-?B/Rel family members can reinforce maintenance of HIV-1 latency. For example, p50 recruits histone deacetylase 1 to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoting chromatin condensation and reduced RNA ..
  30. Sif S, Gilmore T. Interaction of the v-Rel oncoprotein with cellular transcription factor Sp1. J Virol. 1994;68:7131-8 pubmed
    ..Other Rel proteins, such as c-Rel, RelA, p52, and p50, were also able to form a complex with Sp1 in vitro...
  31. Borm M, van Bodegraven A, Mulder C, Kraal G, Bouma G. A NFKB1 promoter polymorphism is involved in susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. Int J Immunogenet. 2005;32:401-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings confirm the previously found association between this polymorphism and susceptibility to UC in an independent study population and adds further evidence for the role of this gene in disease susceptibility. ..
  32. Kwon H, Brent M, Getachew R, Jayakumar P, Chen L, Schnolzer M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein inhibits the SIRT1 deacetylase and induces T cell hyperactivation. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These events likely contribute to the state of immune cell hyperactivation found in HIV-infected individuals. ..
  33. Nair R, Duffin K, Helms C, Ding J, Stuart P, Goldgar D, et al. Genome-wide scan reveals association of psoriasis with IL-23 and NF-kappaB pathways. Nat Genet. 2009;41:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results expand the catalog of genetic loci implicated in psoriasis susceptibility and suggest priority targets for study in other auto-immune disorders. ..
  34. Zhang P, Wei Q, Li X, Wang K, Zeng H, Bu H, et al. A functional insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for prostate cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009;191:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..insertion/deletion polymorphism (-94 insertion/deletion ATTG) in the promoter of the NFKB1 gene, which encodes the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB, was identified recently...
  35. Ronaldson P, Ashraf T, Bendayan R. Regulation of multidrug resistance protein 1 by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cultured glial cells: involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:644-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results imply that both NF-kappaB and JNK signaling are involved in Mrp1 regulation during an HIV-1 associated inflammatory response. ..
  36. Jani T, DeVecchio J, Mazumdar T, Agyeman A, Houghton J. Inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling by quinacrine is cytotoxic to human colon carcinoma cell lines and is synergistic in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or oxaliplatin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19162-72 pubmed publisher
  37. Lee M, Mabb A, GILL G, Yeh E, Miyamoto S. NF-?B induction of the SUMO protease SENP2: A negative feedback loop to attenuate cell survival response to genotoxic stress. Mol Cell. 2011;43:180-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study establishes a self-attenuating feedback mechanism selective to DNA damage-induced signaling to limit NF-?B-dependent cell survival responses. ..
  38. Alcami J, Lain de Lera T, Folgueira L, Pedraza M, Jacque J, Bachelerie F, et al. Absolute dependence on kappa B responsive elements for initiation and Tat-mediated amplification of HIV transcription in blood CD4 T lymphocytes. EMBO J. 1995;14:1552-60 pubmed
    ..Analysis of nuclear extracts of resting, normal T lymphocytes revealed the presence of the p50, but not the p65, NF-kappa B subunit and the induction by phorbol esters of bona fide (p50-p65) NF-kappa B ..
  39. Jacobs M, Harrison S. Structure of an IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex. Cell. 1998;95:749-58 pubmed
    ..The structure of the IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain, bound to a partially truncated NF-kappaB heterodimer (p50/ p65), has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.7 A resolution...
  40. Roux P, Alfieri C, Hrimech M, Cohen E, Tanner J. Activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and NF-IL-6 by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein R (Vpr) induces interleukin-8 expression. J Virol. 2000;74:4658-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a new role for Vpr in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, namely, the activation of transcription factors NF-IL-6 and NF-kappaB. ..
  41. Saccani S, Pantano S, Natoli G. Modulation of NF-kappaB activity by exchange of dimers. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1563-74 pubmed
    ..We show here that during dendritic cell maturation, rapidly activated dimers (e.g., p50/RelA) bound to a subset of target promoters are gradually replaced by slowly activated dimers (e.g., p52/RelB)...
  42. Van Laere S, Van der Auwera I, Van den Eynden G, Elst H, Weyler J, Harris A, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB signature of inflammatory breast cancer by cDNA microarray validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA-binding. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3249-56 pubmed
    ..The NF-kappaB transcription factor pathway probably contributes to the phenotype of IBC and possibly offers new options for treatment of patients diagnosed with this aggressive form of breast cancer. ..
  43. Hotter D, Kirchhoff F, Sauter D. HIV-1 Vpu does not degrade interferon regulatory factor 3. J Virol. 2013;87:7160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Vpu suppresses innate immune activation through inhibition of NF-?B rather than degradation of IRF-3. ..
  44. Zhong H, May M, Jimi E, Ghosh S. The phosphorylation status of nuclear NF-kappa B determines its association with CBP/p300 or HDAC-1. Mol Cell. 2002;9:625-36 pubmed
    Homodimers of the NF-kappa B p50 subunit are transcriptionally repressive in cells, whereas they can promote transcription in vitro, suggesting that their endogenous effects are mediated by association with other factors...
  45. Griffin B, Moynagh P. Persistent interleukin-1beta signaling causes long term activation of NFkappaB in a promoter-specific manner in human glial cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10316-26 pubmed
    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating the expression of a wide range of immune and inflammatory response genes...
  46. Quaedackers M, van den Brink C, van der Saag P, Tertoolen L. Direct interaction between estrogen receptor alpha and NF-kappaB in the nucleus of living cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;273:42-50 pubmed
    ..were used to study direct interactions between fluorescent fusion proteins of ERalpha and the NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65...
  47. Min C, Eddy S, Sherr D, Sonenshein G. NF-kappaB and epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:733-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, NF-kappaB is identified as a key target in prevention and in the treatment of invasive carcinomas. ..
  48. Miyake A, Ishida T, Yamagishi M, Hara T, Umezawa K, Watanabe T, et al. Inhibition of active HIV-1 replication by NF-kappaB inhibitor DHMEQ. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that NF-kappaB is a molecular target for controlling active HIV-1 replication. ..
  49. Andersen V, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Vogel U. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:484 pubmed publisher
    ..A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology. ..
  50. Baldwin A. The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annu Rev Immunol. 1996;14:649-83 pubmed
  51. Chen F, Castranova V, Shi X, Demers L. New insights into the role of nuclear factor-kappaB, a ubiquitous transcription factor in the initiation of diseases. Clin Chem. 1999;45:7-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, development of modulatory strategies targeting this transcription factor may provide a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment or prevention of various diseases. ..
  52. Yamamoto M, Ito T, Shimizu T, Ishida T, Semba K, Watanabe S, et al. Epigenetic alteration of the NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) gene is involved in enhanced NIK expression in basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NIK and genes induced by the NIK-mediated constitutive NF-?B activation could be therapeutic targets of basal-like breast cancer. ..
  53. Yang X, Lu H, Yan B, Romano R, Bian Y, Friedman J, et al. ΔNp63 versatilely regulates a Broad NF-κB gene program and promotes squamous epithelial proliferation, migration, and inflammation. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals ΔNp63 as a master transcription factor that, in coordination with NF-κB/Rels, orchestrates a broad gene program promoting epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation, and the malignant phenotype of HNSCC. ..
  54. Chan J, Greene W. Dynamic roles for NF-?B in HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogenesis. Immunol Rev. 2012;246:286-310 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the dynamic and intimate interplay that occurs between NF-?B and the HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogens. ..
  55. Westendorp M, Shatrov V, Schulze Osthoff K, Frank R, Kraft M, Los M, et al. HIV-1 Tat potentiates TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation and cytotoxicity by altering the cellular redox state. EMBO J. 1995;14:546-54 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  56. Ismail H, Lessard L, Mes Masson A, Saad F. Expression of NF-kappaB in prostate cancer lymph node metastases. Prostate. 2004;58:308-13 pubmed
    ..01). Nuclear localization/activation of NF-kappaB is up-regulated in prostate cancer LN metastasis. Such up-regulation of NF-kappaB activity is observed in the tumor cells as well as in the surrounding lymphocytes. ..
  57. Xiao G. Autophagy and NF-kappaB: fight for fate. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2007;18:233-43 pubmed
    ..We also list some most intriguing and outstanding questions that are likely to engage researchers in the near future. ..
  58. Mahlknecht U, Dichamp I, Varin A, Van Lint C, Herbein G. NF-kappaB-dependent control of HIV-1 transcription by the second coding exon of Tat in T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:718-27 pubmed
  59. Cuní S, Perez Aciego P, Perez Chacon G, Vargas J, Sanchez A, Martín Saavedra F, et al. A sustained activation of PI3K/NF-kappaB pathway is critical for the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Leukemia. 2004;18:1391-400 pubmed
    ..The PI3K pathway seems to play a pivotal role in B-CLL cell survival and growth. ..
  60. Mauro C, Pacifico F, Lavorgna A, Mellone S, Iannetti A, Acquaviva R, et al. ABIN-1 binds to NEMO/IKKgamma and co-operates with A20 in inhibiting NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18482-8 pubmed
    ..Altogether our data indicate that ABIN-1 physically links A20 to NEMO/IKKgamma and facilitates A20-mediated de-ubiquitination of NEMO/IKKgamma, thus resulting in inhibition of NF-kappaB. ..
  61. Cheng D, Han W, Chen S, Sherrill T, Chont M, Park G, et al. Airway epithelium controls lung inflammation and injury through the NF-kappa B pathway. J Immunol. 2007;178:6504-13 pubmed
  62. Chen W, Wang X, Bai L, Liang X, Zhuang J, Lin Y. Blockage of NF-kappaB by IKKbeta- or RelA-siRNA rather than the NF-kappaB super-suppressor IkappaBalpha mutant potentiates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:554-61 pubmed publisher
  63. Fortin J, Barat C, Beauséjour Y, Barbeau B, Tremblay M. Hyper-responsiveness to stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected CD4+ T cells requires Nef and Tat virus gene products and results from higher NFAT, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 induction. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39520-31 pubmed
  64. Oliver J, Gómez Garcia M, Paco L, Lopez Nevot M, Piñero A, Correro F, et al. A functional polymorphism of the NFKB1 promoter is not associated with ulcerative colitis in a Spanish population. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005;11:576-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the NFKB1 -94ins/delATTG gene variation, previously associated with UC susceptibility in North Americans, does not influence either susceptibility or phenotype of UC in the Spanish population. ..
  65. Williams S, Kwon H, Chen L, Greene W. Sustained induction of NF-kappa B is required for efficient expression of latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81:6043-56 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the action of this phosphatase is overcome in the presence of Tat, promoting very efficient RNA Pol II elongation. ..
  66. Weichert W, Boehm M, Gekeler V, Bahra M, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, et al. High expression of RelA/p65 is associated with activation of nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent signaling in pancreatic cancer and marks a patient population with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:523-30 pubmed
    ..Based on our findings, this subgroup could be identified by applying simple immunohistochemical techniques. ..
  67. Sarkar D, Park E, Emdad L, Lee S, Su Z, Fisher P. Molecular basis of nuclear factor-kappaB activation by astrocyte elevated gene-1. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1478-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In these contexts, AEG-1 represents a viable potential target for the therapy of malignant glioma. ..
  68. Shimizu H, Bolati D, Adijiang A, Adelibieke Y, Muteliefu G, Enomoto A, et al. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates renal expression of Klotho through production of ROS and activation of nuclear factor-?B. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Indoxyl sulfate downregulates Klotho expression in kidneys through production of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF-?B in proximal tubular cells. Indoxyl sulfate may be involved in reduced renal expression of Klotho in CKD. ..
  69. Postler T, Desrosiers R. The cytoplasmic domain of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 induces NF-?B activation through TGF-?-activated kinase 1. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved role for gp41CD in activating NF-?B to promote infection. ..
  70. Liou Y, Wang H, Lee M, Wang S, Chiang H, Chen C, et al. Genome-wide association study of treatment refractory schizophrenia in Han Chinese. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33598 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that rs28362691 in NFKB1 might be involved in the development of TRS. ..
  71. Cheng C, Su J, Lin C, Su C, Shih C, Yang S, et al. Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathological features. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56130 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the NFKB1 -94 Ins promoter polymorphism increased the risk of HCC, and may be applied as a predictive factor for the clinical stage and tumor size in female HCC patients. ..
  72. Sun S, Ganchi P, Ballard D, Greene W. NF-kappa B controls expression of inhibitor I kappa B alpha: evidence for an inducible autoregulatory pathway. Science. 1993;259:1912-5 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that NF-kappa B controls the expression of I kappa B alpha by means of an inducible autoregulatory pathway. ..
  73. Ayyavoo V, Mahboubi A, Mahalingam S, Ramalingam R, Kudchodkar S, Williams W, et al. HIV-1 Vpr suppresses immune activation and apoptosis through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nat Med. 1997;3:1117-23 pubmed
    ..The effects of Vpr could be reversed by RU486. Our finding that Vpr can regulate NF-kappa B supports the hypothesis that some aspects of viral pathogenesis are the consequence of cell dysregulation by Vpr. ..
  74. Sheng W, Hu S, Lokensgard J, Peterson P. U50,488 inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) production by human astrocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:9-14 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that KOR ligands could have an anti-inflammatory effect in the CNS and thereby be beneficial in the treatment of HIV-1-associated brain disease. ..
  75. Liptay S, Weber C, Ludwig L, Wagner M, Adler G, Schmid R. Mitogenic and antiapoptotic role of constitutive NF-kappaB/Rel activity in pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:735-46 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB/Rel-binding activity consists of NF-kappaB1(p50) and RelA(p65)...
  76. Liao G, Zhang M, Harhaj E, Sun S. Regulation of the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase by tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3-induced degradation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26243-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that induction of noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling may involve the rescue of NIK from TRAF3-mediated negative regulation. ..
  77. Hung J, Su I, Lei H, Wang H, Lin W, Chang W, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 through activation of NF-kappaB and pp38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46384-92 pubmed
    ..Our results provide important insights into cellular carcinogenesis associated with latent endoplasmic reticulum stress. ..
  78. Mattson M, Meffert M. Roles for NF-kappaB in nerve cell survival, plasticity, and disease. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:852-60 pubmed
    ..Molecular pathways upstream and downstream of NF-kappaB in neurons are being elucidated and may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in various neurological disorders. ..
  79. Campbell K, O Shea J, Perkins N. Differential regulation of NF-kappaB activation and function by topoisomerase II inhibitors. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:101 pubmed
    ..In a clinical setting such effects could profoundly influence the response to chemotherapy and suggest that new methods of analyzing NF-kappaB function could have both diagnostic and prognostic value. ..
  80. King J, Eugenin E, Buckner C, Berman J. HIV tat and neurotoxicity. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1347-57 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the most recent data addressing tat-induced neurotoxicity and integrates these new findings in the context of NeuroAIDS. ..
  81. Chiu T, Leung W, Moyer M, Strieter R, Rozengurt E. Protein kinase D2 mediates lysophosphatidic acid-induced interleukin 8 production in nontransformed human colonic epithelial cells through NF-kappaB. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C767-77 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of a member of the PKD family in the production of IL-8, a potent proinflammatory chemokine, by epithelial cells. ..
  82. Joo J, Jetten A. NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation in lung carcinoma cells by farnesol involves p65/RelA(Ser276) phosphorylation via the MEK-MSK1 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by farnesol might be part of a prosurvival response during farnesol-induced ER stress...
  83. Guo L, Pu Y, Han Z, Liu T, Li Y, Liu M, et al. MicroRNA-9 inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth through regulation of NF-kappaB1. FEBS J. 2009;276:5537-46 pubmed publisher
  84. Xue J, Li X, Jiao S, Wei Y, Wu G, Fang J. Prolyl hydroxylase-3 is down-regulated in colorectal cancer cells and inhibits IKKbeta independent of hydroxylase activity. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:606-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of NF-kappaB has been observed in colon cancer. Determination of PHD3 status could aid targeted therapy selection for patients with colorectal tumors that have increased NF-kappaB activity. ..
  85. Kenneth N, Mudie S, Rocha S. IKK and NF-kappaB-mediated regulation of Claspin impacts on ATR checkpoint function. EMBO J. 2010;29:2966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover a novel function for IKK and NF-kappaB modulating the DNA-damage checkpoint response, allowing the cell to integrate different signalling pathways with the DNA-damage response. ..
  86. Soutto M, Belkhiri A, Piazuelo M, Schneider B, Peng D, Jiang A, et al. Loss of TFF1 is associated with activation of NF-?B-mediated inflammation and gastric neoplasia in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1753-67 pubmed publisher
  87. Jeang K, Chun R, Lin N, Gatignol A, Glabe C, Fan H. In vitro and in vivo binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein and Sp1 transcription factor. J Virol. 1993;67:6224-33 pubmed
    ..These experiments extend previous genetic experiments and suggest a direct interaction between Tat and Sp1 during transactivation...
  88. Palombella V, Rando O, Goldberg A, Maniatis T. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is required for processing the NF-kappa B1 precursor protein and the activation of NF-kappa B. Cell. 1994;78:773-85 pubmed
    ..The p105 precursor of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B is processed in vitro by an ATP-dependent process that requires ..
  89. Mathew S, Murty V, Dalla Favera R, Chaganti R. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding the transcription factors, c-rel, NF-kappa Bp50, NF-kappa Bp65, and lyt-10 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oncogene. 1993;8:191-3 pubmed
    ..The map position of lyt-10, inferred from its isolation from a t(10;14)(q24;q32) translocation, has been confirmed. NF-kappa Bp65 has now been mapped to 11q13, a site of frequent involvement in aberration in multiple tumor types. ..