Gene Symbol: p50
Description: nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1
Alias: CVID12, EBP-1, KBF1, NF-kB1, NF-kappa-B, NF-kappaB, NFKB-p105, NFKB-p50, NFkappaB, p105, p50, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit, DNA-binding factor KBF1, NF-kappabeta, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit, nuclear factor kappa-B DNA binding subunit, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1
Species: human
Products:     p50

Top Publications

  1. Annunziata C, Stavnes H, Kleinberg L, Berner A, Hernandez L, Birrer M, et al. Nuclear factor kappaB transcription factors are coexpressed and convey a poor outcome in ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:3276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant association of p50 with poor overall survival was observed (P = .02)...
  2. De Siervi A, De Luca P, Moiola C, Gueron G, Tongbai R, Chandramouli G, et al. Identification of new Rel/NFkappaB regulatory networks by focused genome location analysis. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2093-100 pubmed
    b>NFkappaB is an inducible transcription factor that controls kinetically complex patterns of gene expression. Several studies reveal multiple pathways linking NFkappaB to the promotion and progression of various cancers...
  3. Mells G, Floyd J, Morley K, Cordell H, Franklin C, Shin S, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies 12 new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2011;43:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..New candidate genes include STAT4, DENND1B, CD80, IL7R, CXCR5, TNFRSF1A, CLEC16A and NFKB1. This study has considerably expanded our knowledge of the genetic architecture of PBC. ..
  4. Yang H, Sadda M, Yu V, Zeng Y, Lee T, Ou X, et al. Induction of human methionine adenosyltransferase 2A expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Role of NF-kappa B and AP-1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50887-96 pubmed
    ..Increased trans-activation of these two sites also contributes to MAT2A up-regulation in HCC. ..
  5. Wu S, Tan M, Hu Y, Wang J, Scheuner D, Kaufman R. Ultraviolet light activates NFkappaB through translational inhibition of IkappaBalpha synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34898-902 pubmed
    UV light induces a delayed and prolonged (3-20 h) activation of NFkappaB when compared with the immediate and acute (10-90 min) activation of NFkappaB in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment...
  6. Jono H, Lim J, Chen L, Xu H, Trompouki E, Pan Z, et al. NF-kappaB is essential for induction of CYLD, the negative regulator of NF-kappaB: evidence for a novel inducible autoregulatory feedback pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36171-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, TRAF2 and TRAF6 appear to be differentially involved in NF-kappaB-dependent induction of CYLD by TNF-alpha and NTHi. These findings provide novel insights into the autoregulation of NF-kappaB activation. ..
  7. Zhang P, Pellitteri P, Law A, Gilroy P, Wood G, Kennedy T, et al. Overexpression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia is associated with poor prognosis. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:924-32 pubmed
  8. Smith D, Shimamura T, Barbera S, Bejcek B. NF-kappaB controls growth of glioblastomas/astrocytomas. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;307:141-7 pubmed
    ..Creation of cell lines that had inducible expression of shRNAs directed against either c-Rel or RelA inhibited growth almost 90% indicating that NF-kappaB plays a central role in glioblastoma growth. ..
  9. Keating S, Maloney G, Moran E, Bowie A. IRAK-2 participates in multiple toll-like receptor signaling pathways to NFkappaB via activation of TRAF6 ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33435-43 pubmed
    ..Further, although IRAK-1 was originally thought to be central for the TLR-NFkappaB signaling axis, recent data have shown that it is dispensable for NFkappaB activation for some TLRs and ..

More Information

Publications268 found, 100 shown here

  1. Muroi M, Tanamoto K. TRAF6 distinctively mediates MyD88- and IRAK-1-induced activation of NF-kappaB. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:702-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TRAF6 is involved but with different mechanisms in MyD88-induced and IRAK-induced activation of NF-kappaB and suggest that TRAF6 uses a distinctive mechanism to activate NF-kappaB depending on signals. ..
  2. Shah A, Singh D, Buch S, Kumar A. HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 up regulates CCL5 production in astrocytes which can be circumvented by inhibitors of NF-?B pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ± 4.2% at the level of mRNA and 51.8 ± 5.0% at the protein level. This was further confirmed by knocking down NF-?B through the use of siRNA. ..
  3. Lin C, Hsieh Y, Hsin C, Su C, Lin C, Wei L, et al. Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to environmental factors and the clinicopathologic development of oral cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35078 pubmed publisher
  4. Heissmeyer V, Krappmann D, Hatada E, Scheidereit C. Shared pathways of IkappaB kinase-induced SCF(betaTrCP)-mediated ubiquitination and degradation for the NF-kappaB precursor p105 and IkappaBalpha. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1024-35 pubmed
    b>p105 (NFKB1) acts in a dual way as a cytoplasmic IkappaB molecule and as the source of the NF-kappaB p50 subunit upon processing...
  5. Bossis G, Salinas S, Cartier C, Devaux C, Briant L. NF-kappaB activation upon interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with cell surface CD4 involves IkappaB kinases. FEBS Lett. 2002;516:257-64 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results confirm that IKKs complex play a key role in gp120(env)-induced NF-kappaB activation. ..
  6. Tsai P, Shiah S, Lin M, Wu C, Kuo M. Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C in breast cancer cells by heregulin-beta 1. A critical role of p38/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5750-9 pubmed
    ..Our data thus suggests that HRG-beta 1 stimulated a NF-kappa B-dependent up-regulation of VEGF-C through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells. ..
  7. Fradet V, Lessard L, Begin L, Karakiewicz P, Masson A, Saad F. Nuclear factor-kappaB nuclear localization is predictive of biochemical recurrence in patients with positive margin prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:8460-4 pubmed
    ..We propose that nuclear NF-kappaB may serve as a useful independent molecular marker for stratifying patients at risk for recurrence. ..
  8. Yan B, Yang X, Lee T, Friedman J, Tang J, Van Waes C, et al. Genome-wide identification of novel expression signatures reveal distinct patterns and prevalence of binding motifs for p53, nuclear factor-kappaB and other signal transcription factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R78 pubmed
    ..Defining these novel gene signatures and regulatory mechanisms will be important for establishing new molecular classifications and subtyping, which in turn will promote development of targeted therapeutics for HNSCC. ..
  9. Schmid J, Birbach A. IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta/IKK2/IKBKB)--a key molecule in signaling to the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2008;19:157-65 pubmed publisher
  10. Lodewick J, Lamsoul I, Polania A, Lebrun S, Burny A, Ratner L, et al. Acetylation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein by p300 promotes activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Virology. 2009;386:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Tax acetylation favors NF-kappaB activation and might play an important role in HTLV-1-induced cell transformation. ..
  11. Bazzoni F, Rossato M, Fabbri M, Gaudiosi D, Mirolo M, Mori L, et al. Induction and regulatory function of miR-9 in human monocytes and neutrophils exposed to proinflammatory signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5282-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Ott M, Lovett J, Mueller L, Verdin E. Superinduction of IL-8 in T cells by HIV-1 Tat protein is mediated through NF-kappaB factors. J Immunol. 1998;160:2872-80 pubmed
    ..IL-8 promoter was characterized as a low-affinity NF-kappaB binding site recognized by the transcription factors p50 (NF-kappaB1), p65 (RelA) and c-rel...
  13. Cahir McFarland E, Davidson D, Schauer S, Duong J, Kieff E. NF-kappa B inhibition causes spontaneous apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6055-60 pubmed
    ..However, caspase inhibition failed to block apoptosis. These experiments indicate that NF-kappaB inhibitors may be useful in the therapy of EBV-induced cellular proliferation. ..
  14. Fagerlund R, Kinnunen L, Kohler M, Julkunen I, Melen K. NF-{kappa}B is transported into the nucleus by importin {alpha}3 and importin {alpha}4. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15942-51 pubmed
    ..importin alpha3 and importin alpha4 as the main importin alpha isoforms mediating TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB p50/p65 heterodimer translocation into the nucleus...
  15. Janssens S, Tschopp J. Signals from within: the DNA-damage-induced NF-kappaB response. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:773-84 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in this review, we will try to summarize the current knowledge of distinct DNA damage-induced NF-kappaB signalling pathways. ..
  16. Song X, Lv L, Li W, Hao Y, Zhao J. The interaction of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines is associated with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Schizophrenic patients showed activation of the cytokine system and immune disturbance. NF-kappaB activation may play a pivotal role in schizophrenia through interaction with cytokines. ..
  17. Yamaguchi N, Ito T, Azuma S, Ito E, Honma R, Yanagisawa Y, et al. Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB is preferentially involved in the proliferation of basal-like subtype breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1668-74 pubmed publisher
  18. Maier H, Schmidt Strassburger U, Huber M, Wiedemann E, Beug H, Wirth T. NF-kappaB promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;295:214-28 pubmed publisher
    ..EMT could also be induced in cells with defective TGF-beta signalling. Functional assays demonstrated reduced or strongly enhanced migration and invasion upon NF-kappaB inhibition or activation, respectively. ..
  19. Yu Y, Liu H, Jin M, Zhang M, Pan Y, Zhang S, et al. The joint association of REST and NFKB1 polymorphisms on the risk of colorectal cancer. Ann Hum Genet. 2012;76:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, significant REST-NFKB1 joint association was observed for CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer risk. ..
  20. Higuchi M, Matsuda T, Mori N, Yamada Y, Horie R, Watanabe T, et al. Elevated expression of CD30 in adult T-cell leukemia cell lines: possible role in constitutive NF-kappaB activation. Retrovirology. 2005;2:29 pubmed
    ..Elevated CD30 expression is considered one of the causes of constitutive NF-kappaB activation in ATL cells, and may be involved in ATL development. ..
  21. Djavaheri Mergny M, Amelotti M, Mathieu J, Besancon F, Bauvy C, Souquere S, et al. NF-kappaB activation represses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30373-82 pubmed
    ..We suggest that stimulation of autophagy may be a potential way bypassing the resistance of cancer cells to anti-cancer agents that activate NF-kappaB. ..
  22. Medici D, Nawshad A. Type I collagen promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition through ILK-dependent activation of NF-kappaB and LEF-1. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms by which collagen I stimulates EMT and identify potential therapeutic targets for suppressing this transition in pathological conditions. ..
  23. Lang V, Janzen J, Fischer G, Soneji Y, Beinke S, Salmeron A, et al. betaTrCP-mediated proteolysis of NF-kappaB1 p105 requires phosphorylation of p105 serines 927 and 932. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:402-13 pubmed
    NF-kappaB1 p105 functions both as a precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50 and as a cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappaB...
  24. Krappmann D, Wegener E, Sunami Y, Esen M, Thiel A, Mordmuller B, et al. The IkappaB kinase complex and NF-kappaB act as master regulators of lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression and control subordinate activation of AP-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6488-500 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data illustrate that NF-kappaB orchestrates immediate-early effects of LPS signaling and controls secondary AP-1 activation to mount an appropriate biological response. ..
  25. Edenberg H, Xuei X, Wetherill L, Bierut L, Bucholz K, Dick D, et al. Association of NFKB1, which encodes a subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, with alcohol dependence. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:963-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, variations in NFKB1 appear to affect the risk for alcoholism, particularly contributing to an earlier onset of the disease. ..
  26. Feng W, Brown R, Trung C, Li W, Wang L, Khoury T, et al. Morphoproteomic profile of mTOR, Ras/Raf kinase/ERK, and NF-kappaB pathways in human gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2008;38:195-209 pubmed
  27. Park S, Choi H, Yang H, Do K, Kim J, Lee D, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated C/EBP homologous protein enhances nuclear factor-kappaB signals via repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35330-9 pubmed publisher
  28. Shah A, Verma A, Patel K, Noel R, Rivera Amill V, Silverstein P, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces expression of IL-6 through a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent mechanism: suppression by gp120 specific small interfering RNA. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21261 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120-mediated over-expression of IL-6 in astrocytes is one mechanism responsible for neuroinflammation in HIV-infected individuals and this is mediated by the NF-?B pathway. ..
  29. Conant K, Ma M, Nath A, Major E. Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and protein kinase C activity in primary human astrocytes. J Virol. 1996;70:1384-9 pubmed
    ..These effects include Tat's ability to upregulate the synthesis of specific cytokines and to act as a growth factor. ..
  30. Sun S, Xiao G. Deregulation of NF-kappaB and its upstream kinases in cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2003;22:405-22 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of NF-kappaB activation, with a focus on the NF-kappaB-activating kinases and their roles in cancer formation. ..
  31. Besnard Guerin C, Belaïdouni N, Lassot I, Segeral E, Jobart A, Marchal C, et al. HIV-1 Vpu sequesters beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP) in the cytoplasm and provokes the accumulation of beta-catenin and other SCFbetaTrCP substrates. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:788-95 pubmed
    ..was translocated into the nucleus, whereas the tumor necrosis factor-induced nuclear translocation of NFkappaB was impaired...
  32. Wachter T, Sprick M, Hausmann D, Kerstan A, McPherson K, Stassi G, et al. cFLIPL inhibits tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated NF-kappaB activation at the death-inducing signaling complex in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52824-34 pubmed
    ..Hence, cFLIP(L) modulation in keratinocytes may not only influence apoptosis sensitivity but may also lead to altered death receptor-dependent skin inflammation. ..
  33. Bernal Mizrachi L, Lovly C, Ratner L. The role of NF-{kappa}B-1 and NF-{kappa}B-2-mediated resistance to apoptosis in lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9220-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate an important role of both NF-kappaB pathways in mediating resistance to apoptosis and distinctive antiapoptotic downstream target gene profiles responsible for this effect. ..
  34. Sun X, Zhang H. NFKB and NFKBI polymorphisms in relation to susceptibility of tumour and other diseases. Histol Histopathol. 2007;22:1387-98 pubmed publisher
  35. Ackerman W, Summerfield T, Vandre D, Robinson J, Kniss D. Nuclear factor-kappa B regulates inducible prostaglandin E synthase expression in human amnion mesenchymal cells. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:68-76 pubmed
    ..This is mediated, in part, through activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB)...
  36. Allen C, Saigal K, Nottingham L, Arun P, Chen Z, Van Waes C. Bortezomib-induced apoptosis with limited clinical response is accompanied by inhibition of canonical but not alternative nuclear factor-{kappa}B subunits in head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4175-85 pubmed publisher
  37. Takebayashi T, Higashi H, Sudo H, Ozawa H, Suzuki E, Shirado O, et al. NF-kappa B-dependent induction of cyclin D1 by retinoblastoma protein (pRB) family proteins and tumor-derived pRB mutants. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14897-905 pubmed
    ..Certain pRB pocket mutants may give rise to a cellular situation in which deregulated E2F and cyclin D1 cooperatively promote abnormal cell proliferation. ..
  38. Sun H, Chung W, Ryu S, Ju Z, Tran H, Kim E, et al. Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein- and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated CXC chemokine gene expression in lung carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:316-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that targeting CREB or NF-kappaB using small-molecule inhibitors, such as KG-501, holds promise as a preventive and/or therapeutic approach for NSCLC. ..
  39. Lehnerdt G, Bankfalvi A, Grehl S, Adamzik M, Lang S, Schmid K, et al. No association of the NF-kappaB1 -94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism with relapse-free and overall survival in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008;21:827-32 pubmed
    ..Transcription of NFKB1, which encodes the subunit p50/p105 of NF-kappaB, seems to be influenced by an insertion/deletion polymorphism in its promoter region...
  40. Hernandez L, Hsu S, Davidson B, Birrer M, Kohn E, Annunziata C. Activation of NF-kappaB signaling by inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase beta increases aggressiveness of ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4005-14 pubmed publisher
  41. Palozza P, Simone R, Catalano A, Monego G, Barini A, Mele M, et al. Lycopene prevention of oxysterol-induced proinflammatory cytokine cascade in human macrophages: inhibition of NF-?B nuclear binding and increase in PPAR? expression. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken all together, these data bring new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of lycopene, and on its mechanisms of action in atherosclerosis prevention. ..
  42. López Mejías R, García Bermúdez M, Gonzalez Juanatey C, Castañeda S, Miranda Filloy J, Gomez Vaquero C, et al. NFKB1-94ATTG ins/del polymorphism (rs28362491) is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:426-9 pubmed publisher
    ..03), while heterozygous patients had an intermediate (but non-significant) risk (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.90-1.92, p = 0.16). Our results suggest that NFKB1-94ATTG ins/del polymorphism is associated with CV disease in patients with RA. ..
  43. Mirani M, Elenkov I, Volpi S, Hiroi N, Chrousos G, Kino T. HIV-1 protein Vpr suppresses IL-12 production from human monocytes by enhancing glucocorticoid action: potential implications of Vpr coactivator activity for the innate and cellular immunity deficits observed in HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2002;169:6361-8 pubmed
    ..Through this effect, Vpr may contribute to the suppression of innate and cellular immunities of HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. ..
  44. Ebner K, Bandion A, Binder B, de Martin R, Schmid J. GMCSF activates NF-kappaB via direct interaction of the GMCSF receptor with IkappaB kinase beta. Blood. 2003;102:192-9 pubmed
    ..Further biologic studies using GMCSF-dependent TF-1 cells indicated that GMCSF-triggered activation of NF-kappaB is important for cell survival and proliferation. ..
  45. Abdallah A, Sato H, Grutters J, Veeraraghavan S, Lympany P, Ruven H, et al. Inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) promoter polymorphisms in UK and Dutch sarcoidosis. Genes Immun. 2003;4:450-4 pubmed
    ..01). The -826T allelic carriage did not show any association with lung function. These results indicate that the NF-kappaB activation pathway might be associated with the inflammation of sarcoidosis. ..
  46. He L, Grammer A, Wu X, Lipsky P. TRAF3 forms heterotrimers with TRAF2 and modulates its ability to mediate NF-{kappa}B activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55855-65 pubmed
    ..Together, these results reveal a novel association between TRAF2 and TRAF3 that is mediated by unique portions of each protein and that specifically regulates activation of NF-kappaB, but not AP-1. ..
  47. Riemann K, Becker L, Struwe H, Rubben H, Eisenhardt A, Siffert W. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter of NFKB1 as a potential molecular marker for the risk of recurrence in superficial bladder cancer. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;45:423-30 pubmed
    ..038). These results suggest that the NFKB1 promoter polymorphism is a useful marker for the identification of patients with superficial bladder cancer where the risk of recurrence is high. ..
  48. Mao Z, Ma X, Rong Y, Cui L, Wang X, Wu W, et al. Connective tissue growth factor enhances the migration of gastric cancer through downregulation of E-cadherin via the NF-?B pathway. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data reported here demonstrate CTGF could modulate the NF-?appaB pathway and perhaps be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. ..
  49. Tian F, Zang W, Hou W, Liu H, Xue L. Nuclear factor-kB signaling pathway constitutively activated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and inhibition of growth of cells by small interfering RNA. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2006;38:318-26 pubmed
    ..The results showed that p50, p65, IkappaBalpha p-IkappaBalpha and IkappaB kinase beta were expressed and mainly localized in the cytoplasm...
  50. Kwon O, Kim K, Kim S, Ha R, Oh W, Kim M, et al. NF-kappaB inhibition increases chemosensitivity to trichostatin A-induced cell death of Ki-Ras-transformed human prostate epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:2258-68 pubmed
    ..with proteasome inhibitor-I (ProI), accompanied by accumulations of both IkappaBalpha and p65/RelA (but not p50/NF-kappaB1) in the cytoplasm...
  51. Oeckinghaus A, Ghosh S. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009;1:a000034 pubmed publisher
    ..This has made the NF-kappaB pathway a paradigm for understanding general principles of signal transduction and gene regulation. ..
  52. Liu X, Jana M, Dasgupta S, Koka S, He J, Wood C, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat induces nitric-oxide synthase in human astroglia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39312-9 pubmed
    ..This study illustrates a novel role for HIV-1 tat in inducing the expression of iNOS in human astrocytes that may participate in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. ..
  53. Karban A, Okazaki T, Panhuysen C, Gallegos T, Potter J, Bailey Wilson J, et al. Functional annotation of a novel NFKB1 promoter polymorphism that increases risk for ulcerative colitis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:35-45 pubmed
    ..The NFKB1 gene encodes the NF-kappaB p105/p50 isoforms. Genome-wide screens in IBD families show evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q where NFKB1 maps...
  54. Glas J, Török H, Tonenchi L, Muller Myhsok B, Mussack T, Wetzke M, et al. Role of the NFKB1 -94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism in IBD and potential interactions with polymorphisms in the CARD15/NOD2, IKBL, and IL-1RN genes. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:606-11 pubmed
    ..The results do not give evidence for a role of this NFKB1 polymorphism in the pathogenesis of UC and CD. ..
  55. Lerebours F, Vacher S, Andrieu C, Espie M, Marty M, Lidereau R, et al. NF-kappa B genes have a major role in inflammatory breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Some upregulated NF-kappaB-related genes might serve as novel therapeutic targets in IBC. ..
  56. O Hara S, Splinter P, Gajdos G, Trussoni C, Fernandez Zapico M, Chen X, et al. NFkappaB p50-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta)-mediated transcriptional repression of microRNA let-7i following microbial infection. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the mechanism revealed that microbial infection promotes the formation of a NFkappaB p50-C/EBPbeta silencer complex in the regulatory sequence...
  57. Shah A, Silverstein P, Kumar S, Singh D, Kumar A. Synergistic cooperation between methamphetamine and HIV-1 gsp120 through the P13K/Akt pathway induces IL-6 but not IL-8 expression in astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52060 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore provides novel information regarding the interaction between MA and gp120 in terms of the expression of IL-6 and the mechanisms underlying potential synergy between MA and gp120 in astrocytes...
  58. Varin A, Manna S, Quivy V, Decrion A, Van Lint C, Herbein G, et al. Exogenous Nef protein activates NF-kappa B, AP-1, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and stimulates HIV transcription in promonocytic cells. Role in AIDS pathogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2219-27 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous Nef could fuel the progression of the disease via stimulation of HIV-1 provirus present in such cellular reservoirs as mononuclear phagocytes in HIV-infected patients. ..
  59. Dudziak D, Kieser A, Dirmeier U, Nimmerjahn F, Berchtold S, Steinkasserer A, et al. Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus induces CD83 by the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. J Virol. 2003;77:8290-8 pubmed
    ..Our studies show that CD83 is also a target of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in B cells. ..
  60. Lee J, Kim Y, Choi D, Bang M, Han T, Joh T, et al. Transglutaminase 2 induces nuclear factor-kappaB activation via a novel pathway in BV-2 microglia. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53725-35 pubmed
    ..Safe and stable TGase2 inhibitors may be effective agents in diseases associated with inflammation. ..
  61. Gao Z, Chiao P, Zhang X, Zhang X, Lazar M, Seto E, et al. Coactivators and corepressors of NF-kappaB in IkappaB alpha gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21091-8 pubmed
    ..This model may represent a mechanism for integration of extracellular signals into a precise control of gene transcription. ..
  62. Willis A, Tran N, Chatigny J, Charlton N, Vu H, Brown S, et al. The fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 receptor is highly expressed in HER2-positive breast tumors and regulates breast cancer cell invasive capacity. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression profiling of the Fn14-depleted cells revealed deregulation of NF-kappaB activity. Our findings support a role for Fn14-mediated NF-kappaB pathway activation in breast tumor invasion and metastasis. ..
  63. Rahighi S, Ikeda F, Kawasaki M, Akutsu M, Suzuki N, Kato R, et al. Specific recognition of linear ubiquitin chains by NEMO is important for NF-kappaB activation. Cell. 2009;136:1098-109 pubmed publisher
  64. King E, Holden N, Gong W, Rider C, Newton R. Inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription by MKP-1: transcriptional repression by glucocorticoids occurring via p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26803-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GR transactivation is essential to the anti-inflammatory properties of GR ligands. ..
  65. Tang T, Cui S, Deng X, Gong Z, Jiang G, Wang P, et al. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for superficial bladder cancer in Chinese. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:9-12 pubmed publisher
    ..insertion/deletion polymorphism (-94 insertion/deletion ATTG) in the promoter of NFKB1 gene, which encodes the p50 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB protein complex, was identified...
  66. Yang Y, Xia F, Hermance N, Mabb A, Simonson S, Morrissey S, et al. A cytosolic ATM/NEMO/RIP1 complex recruits TAK1 to mediate the NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK-activated protein 2 responses to DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2774-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have translational implications and reveal RIP1 and TAK1 as potential therapeutic targets in chemoresistance. ..
  67. Lin L, DeMartino G, Greene W. Cotranslational biogenesis of NF-kappaB p50 by the 26S proteasome. Cell. 1998;92:819-28 pubmed
    The NFkappaB1 gene encodes two functionally distinct proteins termed p50 and p105. p50 corresponds to the N terminus of p105 and with p65 (RelA) forms the prototypical NF-kappaB transcription factor complex...
  68. Urban M, Schreck R, Baeuerle P. NF-kappa B contacts DNA by a heterodimer of the p50 and p65 subunit. EMBO J. 1991;10:1817-25 pubmed
    ..subunit (p65) of the NF-kappa B transcription factor can modulate the DNA-binding specificity of the 50 kd subunit (p50) of NF-kappa B. In this study we provide an explanation for this property of p65...
  69. Scala G, Ruocco M, Ambrosino C, Mallardo M, Giordano V, Baldassarre F, et al. The expression of the interleukin 6 gene is induced by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAT protein. J Exp Med. 1994;179:961-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TAT protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of some HIV1-associated diseases by modulating the expression of host cellular genes. ..
  70. Takahashi N, Tetsuka T, Uranishi H, Okamoto T. Inhibition of the NF-kappaB transcriptional activity by protein kinase A. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4559-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, the inhibitory action of the cAMP/PKA pathway on the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB appears to be exhibited by modifying the C-terminal transactivation domain of p65, either directly or indirectly. ..
  71. Guan H, Hou S, Ricciardi R. DNA binding of repressor nuclear factor-kappaB p50/p50 depends on phosphorylation of Ser337 by the protein kinase A catalytic subunit. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9957-62 pubmed
    The NF-kappaB p50/p50 homodimer is mainly associated with transcriptional repression. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p50 Ser(337) is critical for DNA binding...
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    ..We show that NF-kappaB p50-HDAC1 complexes constitutively bind the latent HIV LTR and induce histone deacetylation and repressive changes in ..
  73. Solt L, Madge L, Orange J, May M. Interleukin-1-induced NF-kappaB activation is NEMO-dependent but does not require IKKbeta. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8724-33 pubmed
    ..These findings further suggest NEMO differentially regulates the fidelity of the IKK subunits activated by distinct upstream signaling pathways. ..
  74. Garg A, Aggarwal B. Nuclear transcription factor-kappaB as a target for cancer drug development. Leukemia. 2002;16:1053-68 pubmed
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  75. Curran J, Weinstein S, Griffiths L. Polymorphic variants of NFKB1 and its inhibitory protein NFKBIA, and their involvement in sporadic breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2002;188:103-7 pubmed
    ..Results do not support an involvement of the tested NFKB1 and NFKBIA polymorphisms in susceptibility to sporadic breast cancer, in the tested Caucasian population. ..
  76. Gohda J, Irisawa M, Tanaka Y, Sato S, Ohtani K, Fujisawa J, et al. HTLV-1 Tax-induced NFkappaB activation is independent of Lys-63-linked-type polyubiquitination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:225-30 pubmed
    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) is thought to play a critical role in T-cell transformation and onset of adult T-cell leukemia...
  77. Wilson C, Purcell C, Seaton A, Oladipo O, Maxwell P, O Sullivan J, et al. Chemotherapy-induced CXC-chemokine/CXC-chemokine receptor signaling in metastatic prostate cancer cells confers resistance to oxaliplatin through potentiation of nuclear factor-kappaB transcription and evasion of apoptosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;327:746-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further support NF-kappaB activity as an important determinant of cancer cell sensitivity to oxaliplatin and identify the induction of autocrine CXCR2 signaling as a novel mode of resistance to this drug. ..
  78. Benito M, Murphy E, Murphy E, van den Berg W, Fitzgerald O, Bresnihan B. Increased synovial tissue NF-kappa B1 expression at sites adjacent to the cartilage-pannus junction in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1781-7 pubmed
    To compare the expression of the Rel/NF-kappa B subunits, NF-kappa B1 (p50) and RelA (p65), in paired synovial tissue samples selected from sites adjacent to and remote from the cartilage-pannus junction (CPJ) in patients with ..
  79. Blonska M, Shambharkar P, Kobayashi M, Zhang D, Sakurai H, Su B, et al. TAK1 is recruited to the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor 1 complex in a receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-dependent manner and cooperates with MEKK3 leading to NF-kappaB activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:43056-63 pubmed
    ..Together, we conclude that TAK1 is recruited to the TNF-R1 complex via RIP and likely cooperates with MEKK3 to activate NF-kappaB in TNF-alpha signaling. ..
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    ..Here, we review the mechanism of the specification of DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB complexes, one of the most important aspects of NF-kappaB transcriptional control. ..
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    ..Revealing this novel mechanism of NF-?B activation by an miRNA offers new avenues for therapeutic interventions against pancreatic cancer. ..
  82. Fan Y, Yu W, Ye P, Wang H, Wang Z, Meng Q, et al. NFKB1 insertion/deletion promoter polymorphism increases the risk of advanced ovarian cancer in a Chinese population. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..insertion/deletion polymorphism (-94 ins/del ATTG) in the promoter region of the NFKB1 gene, which encodes the p50 subunit of the NF-?B protein, has been recently identified and shown to increase the susceptibility to many ..
  83. Boulabiar M, Boubaker S, Favre M, Demeret C. Keratinocyte sensitization to tumour necrosis factor-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation by the E2 regulatory protein of human papillomaviruses. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since NF-?B controls epithelial differentiation, this activity may be involved in the commitment of infected keratinocytes to proliferation arrest and differentiation, both required for the implementation of the productive viral cycle. ..
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    ..These cells were also not protected from apoptosis in response to cytokines. ELKS likely functions by recruiting IkappaBalpha to the IKK complex and thus serves a regulatory function for IKK activation. ..
  85. Bottero V, Kerur N, Sadagopan S, Patel K, Sharma Walia N, Chandran B. Phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 are necessary for activation of NF-kappaB by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor. J Virol. 2011;85:1980-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, inhibition of TAK1 by celastrol inhibited vGPCR-induced NF-?B activation, indicating this natural compound could be used as a potential therapeutic drug against KSHV malignancies involving vGPCR...
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    ..Proteinuria might be one of the main factors inducing the observed pro-inflammatory phenotype. ..
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    ..Thus, TWEAK can act in a juxtacrine manner to initiate cellular responses, and this property may be important for TWEAK function during physiological wound repair and disease pathogenesis. ..
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    ..Therefore, drugs that separate the transactivation and transrepression functions of ER will be very helpful for treatment of osteoporosis without causing undesirable side effects. ..
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    ..However, in the presence of Vpu, this HIV-mediated NF-kappaB activation was markedly reduced. These results suggest that Vpu modulates both virus- and cytokine-induced activation of NF-kappaB in HIV-1-infected cells. ..
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    ..These results show that NF-kappaB activation by Tat is important for LTR transcriptional activation. Furthermore, they suggest that some of the pleiotropic effects of Tat on cellular functions can be mediated by induction of NF-kappaB. ..
  91. Fujioka S, Niu J, Schmidt C, Sclabas G, Peng B, Uwagawa T, et al. NF-kappaB and AP-1 connection: mechanism of NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of AP-1 activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7806-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study revealed a distinct and essential role of NF-kappaB in participating in the regulation of elk-1, c-fos, and VEGF expression. ..