p38

Summary

Gene Symbol: p38
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
Alias: CSBP, CSBP1, CSBP2, CSPB1, EXIP, Mxi2, PRKM14, PRKM15, SAPK2A, p38, p38ALPHA, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, CSAID-binding protein, Csaids binding protein, MAP kinase 14, MAP kinase Mxi2, MAP kinase p38 alpha, MAX-interacting protein 2, cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drug binding protein, mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha, p38 MAP kinase, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, p38alpha Exip, stress-activated protein kinase 2A
Species: human
Products:     p38

Top Publications

  1. Ota A, Zhang J, Ping P, Han J, Wang Y. Specific regulation of noncanonical p38alpha activation by Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone complex in cardiomyocyte. Circ Res. 2010;106:1404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..proteomic and biochemical tools, we established that heat shock protein (Hsp)90-Cdc37 chaperones are part of the p38alpha signaling complex in mammalian cells both in vitro and in vivo...
  2. Ferrari G, Terushkin V, Wolff M, Zhang X, Valacca C, Poggio P, et al. TGF-?1 induces endothelial cell apoptosis by shifting VEGF activation of p38(MAPK) from the prosurvival p38? to proapoptotic p38?. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..induces endothelial cell expression of VEGF, which mediates TGF-?1 induction of apoptosis through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
  3. Nookala A, Shah A, Noel R, Kumar A. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78855 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were further confirmed by knockdown of the respective genes using siRNA. Furthermore, p38 MAPK was found to be involved since the knockdown of p38? but not other isoforms showed partial reduction in CCL5 ..
  4. Medders K, Sejbuk N, Maung R, Desai M, Kaul M. Activation of p38 MAPK is required in monocytic and neuronal cells for HIV glycoprotein 120-induced neurotoxicity. J Immunol. 2010;185:4883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebrocortical cell cultures from rodents containing microglia, astrocytes, and neurons that overall inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling abrogated the neurotoxic effect of HIV-1 gp120...
  5. Kolosova I, Nethery D, Kern J. Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we studied the roles and mechanisms of TGF-?1-induced Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in EMT-related changes in pulmonary epithelial cells...
  6. Cheriyan J, Webb A, Sarov Blat L, Elkhawad M, Wallace S, Maki Petaja K, et al. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase improves nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation and reduces inflammation in hypercholesterolemia. Circulation. 2011;123:515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..lipoprotein reduces endothelial nitric oxide production (an important mediator of vasoregulation) and activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a mediator of vascular inflammation...
  7. Zheng Y, Tian C, Meng Y, Qin Y, Du Y, Du J, et al. Osteopontin stimulates autophagy via integrin/CD44 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, inhibition of integrin/CD44 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways markedly abrogated the biological effects of OPN on SMCs...
  8. Chihara T, Hashimoto M, Osman A, Hiyoshi Yoshidomi Y, Suzu I, Chutiwitoonchai N, et al. HIV-1 proteins preferentially activate anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. J Immunol. 2012;188:3620-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Marchant D, Singhera G, Utokaparch S, Hackett T, Boyd J, Luo Z, et al. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is a determinant of respiratory virus entry and tropism. J Virol. 2010;84:11359-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was able to significantly inhibit replication by all viruses ..

More Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mamik M, Banerjee S, Walseth T, Hirte R, Tang L, Borgmann K, et al. HIV-1 and IL-1? regulate astrocytic CD38 through mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-?B signaling mechanisms. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:145 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies may be directed towards understanding the role of CD38 in response to infection and thus its role in HAND. ..
  2. Chien S, Lin S, Wang C, Lee Y, Chen K, Fong Y, et al. Acacetin inhibits the invasion and migration of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by suppressing the p38? MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;350:135-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of mixed-lineage protein kinase 3 (MLK3), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MKK3/6), and p38? MAPK signal involved in the downregulation of the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix ..
  3. Mamik M, Ghorpade A. Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) 2 and p38 regulate the expression of chemokine CXCL8 in human astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45596 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of SHP2 and p38 enzymes in astrocytes led to elevated CXCL8 expression; however, inactivating SHP2 and p38 with dominant negative ..
  4. Jiang Q, Li F, Shi K, Wu P, An J, Yang Y, et al. ATF4 activation by the p38MAPK-eIF4E axis mediates apoptosis and autophagy induced by selenite in Jurkat cells. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:2420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, autophagy induction enhances cell apoptosis under this condition. ..
  5. Mocchetti I, Bachis A, Avdoshina V. Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1: viral proteins and axonal transport. Neurotox Res. 2012;21:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these proteins have been shown to possess neurotoxic properties. This review describes new evidence of a direct interaction of the HIV protein gp120 with neurons, which might play a role in the etiopathology of HAND. ..
  6. Liao Y, Wang X, Huang M, Tam J, Liu D. Regulation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and dual-specificity phosphatase 1 feedback loop modulates the induction of interleukin 6 and 8 in cells infected with coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Virology. 2011;420:106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that IBV infection of cultured human and animal cells activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8...
  7. Gill K, Mohanti B, Ashraf M, Singh A, Dey S. Quantification of p38?MAP kinase: a prognostic marker in HNSCC with respect to radiation therapy. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:219-25 pubmed publisher
    Translation of early findings from basic research is aimed to benefit cancer therapeutics. We report the p38? level in serum of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients indicating it as a prognostic marker and established ..
  8. Wu Z, Xiong Y, Gajanayake T, Ming X, Yang Z. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for glucosamine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and plasminogen-activator inhibitor expression. Circ J. 2012;76:2015-22 pubmed
    ..b>p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) has been shown to be involved in HBP-mediated biological processes...
  9. Tan G, Niu J, Shi Y, Ouyang H, Wu Z. NF-?B-dependent microRNA-125b up-regulation promotes cell survival by targeting p38? upon ultraviolet radiation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33036-47 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that UV radiation induces up-regulation of miR-125b, which negatively regulates p38? expression through targeting its 3'-UTR...
  10. Kumari G, Ulrich T, Gaubatz S. A role for p38 in transcriptional elongation of p21 (CIP1) in response to Aurora B inhibition. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:2051-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified a role for the p38 MAP kinase in activation of p21 when Aurora B is inhibited...
  11. Alspach E, Flanagan K, Luo X, Ruhland M, Huang H, Pazolli E, et al. p38MAPK plays a crucial role in stromal-mediated tumorigenesis. Cancer Discov. 2014;4:716-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38MAPK) controls AUF1 occupancy on SASP mRNAs and thus controls their stability...
  12. Strippoli R, Benedicto I, Foronda M, Perez Lozano M, Sánchez Perales S, López Cabrera M, et al. p38 maintains E-cadherin expression by modulating TAK1-NF-kappa B during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:4321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We used primary mesothelial cells from human omentum to analyze the role of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the induction of EMT...
  13. Tzarum N, Diskin R, Engelberg D, Livnah O. Active mutants of the TCR-mediated p38? alternative activation site show changes in the phosphorylation lip and DEF site formation. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:1154-69 pubmed publisher
    The p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase is commonly activated by dual (Thr and Tyr) phosphorylation catalyzed by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases...
  14. Li H, Pauza C. HIV envelope-mediated, CCR5/?4?7-dependent killing of CD4-negative ?? T cells which are lost during progression to AIDS. Blood. 2011;118:5824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..that soluble or cell-associated envelope glycoproteins from CCR5-tropic strains of HIV could bind, activates the p38-caspase pathway, and induce the death of ?? cells...
  15. Kwong J, Hong L, Liao R, Deng Q, Han J, Sun P. p38alpha and p38gamma mediate oncogenic ras-induced senescence through differential mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we demonstrated that p38alpha and p38gamma, but not p38beta, play an essential role in oncogenic ras-induced senescence...
  16. Bulavin D, Saito S, Hollander M, Sakaguchi K, Anderson C, Appella E, et al. Phosphorylation of human p53 by p38 kinase coordinates N-terminal phosphorylation and apoptosis in response to UV radiation. EMBO J. 1999;18:6845-54 pubmed
    Components of the ras signaling pathway contribute to activation of cellular p53. In MCF-7 cells, p38 kinase activated p53 more effectively than other members of the ras pathway...
  17. Askari N, Diskin R, Avitzour M, Capone R, Livnah O, Engelberg D. Hyperactive variants of p38alpha induce, whereas hyperactive variants of p38gamma suppress, activating protein 1-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:91-9 pubmed
    ..Recently we described a series of mutants of the human p38alpha, which were spontaneously active as recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli cells...
  18. Ventura J, Tenbaum S, Perdiguero E, Huth M, Guerra C, Barbacid M, et al. p38alpha MAP kinase is essential in lung stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Nat Genet. 2007;39:750-8 pubmed
    Stem cell function is central for the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Here we show that deletion of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in adult mice results in increased proliferation and defective differentiation ..
  19. Khan N, Di Cello F, Stins M, Kim K. Gp120-mediated cytotoxicity of human brain microvascular endothelial cells is dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:242-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, the authors showed that gp120-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity involved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway...
  20. Ge B, Xiong X, Jing Q, Mosley J, Filose A, Bian D, et al. TAB1beta (transforming growth factor-beta-activated protein kinase 1-binding protein 1beta ), a novel splicing variant of TAB1 that interacts with p38alpha but not TAK1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2286-93 pubmed
    ..We have recently found that activation of p38alpha MAPK can be carried out not only by its upstream MAPK kinases (MKKs) but also by p38alpha autophosphorylation...
  21. Dickinson R, Williams D, Slack D, Williamson J, Seternes O, Keyse S. Characterization of a murine gene encoding a developmentally regulated cytoplasmic dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase. Biochem J. 2002;364:145-55 pubmed
    ..extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 and, to a lesser extent, the stress-activated MAPK p38alpha. These properties define the ability of this enzyme to dephosphorylate and inactivate ERK1/2 and p38alpha, but ..
  22. Alvarado Kristensson M, Andersson T. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates apoptosis in neutrophils by dephosphorylating both p38 MAPK and its substrate caspase 3. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6238-44 pubmed
    ..We found recently that the reduction of the activity of the neutrophil survival factor p38 MAPK and dephosphorylation and thus activation of caspases must occur to initiate such cell death in these ..
  23. Xia M, Ling W, Zhu H, Ma J, Wang Q, Hou M, et al. Anthocyanin attenuates CD40-mediated endothelial cell activation and apoptosis by inhibiting CD40-induced MAPK activation. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Anthocyanins also decreased activation of JNK and p38 induced by CD40...
  24. Spaziani A, Alisi A, Sanna D, Balsano C. Role of p38 MAPK and RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in hepatitis C virus core-dependent nuclear delocalization of cyclin B1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10983-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the viral protein also increases the activity of the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex via the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways...
  25. Cardone R, Bagorda A, Bellizzi A, Busco G, Guerra L, Paradiso A, et al. Protein kinase A gating of a pseudopodial-located RhoA/ROCK/p38/NHE1 signal module regulates invasion in breast cancer cell lines. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3117-27 pubmed
  26. Iwasa H, Han J, Ishikawa F. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 defines the common senescence-signalling pathway. Genes Cells. 2003;8:131-44 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays important causative roles in senescent cells following telomere ..
  27. Tong L, Pav S, White D, Rogers S, Crane K, Cywin C, et al. A highly specific inhibitor of human p38 MAP kinase binds in the ATP pocket. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:311-6 pubmed
    The crystal structure of human p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in complex with a potent and highly specific pyridinyl-imidazole inhibitor has been determined at 2.0 A resolution...
  28. Tanos T, Marinissen M, Leskow F, Hochbaum D, Martinetto H, Gutkind J, et al. Phosphorylation of c-Fos by members of the p38 MAPK family. Role in the AP-1 response to UV light. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18842-52 pubmed
    ..Using a specific pharmacological inhibitor for p38alpha and -beta, we found that most likely these two isoforms mediate UV-induced c-Fos phosphorylation in vivo...
  29. Saxena M, Williams S, Tasken K, Mustelin T. Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:305-11 pubmed
    The haematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) is a negative regulator of the MAP kinases Erk1, Erk2 and p38. HePTP binds to these kinases through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) in its non-catalytic amino terminus and ..
  30. Adachi S, Natsume H, Yamauchi J, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Joe A, Moriwaki H, et al. p38 MAP kinase controls EGF receptor downregulation via phosphorylation at Ser1046/1047. Cancer Lett. 2009;277:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Anisomycin, a potent kinase activator, induced the activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), but ..
  31. Bulavin D, Higashimoto Y, Popoff I, Gaarde W, Basrur V, Potapova O, et al. Initiation of a G2/M checkpoint after ultraviolet radiation requires p38 kinase. Nature. 2001;411:102-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that p38 kinase has a critical role in the initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation...
  32. Balasubramanian A, Ganju R, Groopman J. Hepatitis C virus and HIV envelope proteins collaboratively mediate interleukin-8 secretion through activation of p38 MAP kinase and SHP2 in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35755-66 pubmed
    ..Both specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase and sodium vanadate, a potent protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked IL-8 production in a dose-..
  33. Ben Levy R, Hooper S, Wilson R, Paterson H, Marshall C. Nuclear export of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 mediated by its substrate MAPKAP kinase-2. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1049-57 pubmed
    ..Whether components of the pathway mediated by the SAP kinase p38 change their cellular location on activation is not clear; we have therefore studied the cellular localisation of ..
  34. Wu Z, Woodring P, Bhakta K, Tamura K, Wen F, Feramisco J, et al. p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate the myogenic program at multiple steps. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3951-64 pubmed
    ..by MyoD, and (iii) MyoD-dependent myogenic conversion is reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from p38alpha(-/-) embryos...
  35. Cardone R, Bellizzi A, Busco G, Weinman E, Dell Aquila M, Casavola V, et al. The NHERF1 PDZ2 domain regulates PKA-RhoA-p38-mediated NHE1 activation and invasion in breast tumor cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1768-80 pubmed
    ..and hypoxia stimulate the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, invasion, and activate a protein kinase A (PKA)-gated RhoA/p38 invasion signal module...
  36. Raingeaud J, Whitmarsh A, Barrett T, Derijard B, Davis R. MKK3- and MKK6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1247-55 pubmed
    ..The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus...
  37. White A, Pargellis C, Studts J, Werneburg B, Farmer B. Molecular basis of MAPK-activated protein kinase 2:p38 assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6353-8 pubmed
    ..The physical association of p38alpha isoform and MK2 is believed to be physiologically important for this signaling. We report the 2...
  38. Yang H, Cohen P, Rousseau S. IL-1beta-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and p38alpha MAPK mediates the transcriptional up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO-alpha in HeLa cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:375-80 pubmed
    ..Specific inhibition of p38alpha MAP kinase or preventing the activation of ERK1/ERK2 partially reduced the production of these substances, while ..
  39. Demuth T, Reavie L, Rennert J, Nakada M, Nakada S, Hoelzinger D, et al. MAP-ing glioma invasion: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 and p38 drive glioma invasion and progression and predict patient survival. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1212-22 pubmed
    ..We identify mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3 (MKK3) as a key activator of p38 MAPK in glioma; MKK3 activation is strongly correlated with p38 activation in vitro and in vivo...
  40. Gillis P, Okagaki L, Rice S. Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 induces p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and apoptosis in HeLa cells. J Virol. 2009;83:1767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..viral replication including host shutoff, viral gene expression, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and apoptosis inhibition...
  41. Camps M, Nichols A, Gillieron C, Antonsson B, Muda M, Chabert C, et al. Catalytic activation of the phosphatase MKP-3 by ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Science. 1998;280:1262-5 pubmed
    ..Sevenmaker ERK2 mutant D319N nor c-Jun amino-terminal kinase-stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) or p38 MAP kinases bound MKP-3 or caused its catalytic activation...
  42. Cannell I, Kong Y, Johnston S, Chen M, Collins H, Dobbyn H, et al. p38 MAPK/MK2-mediated induction of miR-34c following DNA damage prevents Myc-dependent DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..following DNA damage, we show that in cells lacking p53 this is achieved by an alternative pathway which involves p38 MAPK signalling to MK2. The data presented here suggest that a major physiological target of miR-34c is c-Myc...
  43. McMullen M, Bryant P, Glembotski C, Vincent P, Pumiglia K. Activation of p38 has opposing effects on the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20995-1003 pubmed
    ..These conditions are associated with the elaboration of a variety of cytokines and increases in p38 activity in endothelial cells...
  44. Saha R, Jana M, Pahan K. MAPK p38 regulates transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB in primary human astrocytes via acetylation of p65. J Immunol. 2007;179:7101-9 pubmed
    MAPK-p38 plays an important role in inflammation...
  45. Trushin S, Algeciras Schimnich A, Vlahakis S, Bren G, Warren S, Schnepple D, et al. Glycoprotein 120 binding to CXCR4 causes p38-dependent primary T cell death that is facilitated by, but does not require cell-associated CD4. J Immunol. 2007;178:4846-53 pubmed
    ..Using primary human CD4 T cells, we demonstrate that gp120 binding to CD4 T cells activates proapoptotic p38, but does not activate antiapoptotic Akt...
  46. Del Corno M, Liu Q, Schols D, De Clercq E, Gessani S, Freedman B, et al. HIV-1 gp120 and chemokine activation of Pyk2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases in primary macrophages mediated by calcium-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive chemokine receptor signaling. Blood. 2001;98:2909-16 pubmed
    ..protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK...
  47. Saffar A, Dragon S, Ezzati P, Shan L, Gounni A. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulate induction of Mcl-1 and survival in glucocorticoid-treated human neutrophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:492-498.e10 pubmed
    ..enhancement of Mcl-1 and survival were significantly suppressed by pharmacologic inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
  48. Chouinard N, Valerie K, Rouabhia M, Huot J. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53. Biochem J. 2002;365:133-45 pubmed
    ..We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively...
  49. Takenaka K, Moriguchi T, Nishida E. Activation of the protein kinase p38 in the spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic arrest. Science. 1998;280:599-602 pubmed
    ..classical MAPK (also called ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal or stress-activated protein kinase (JNK or SAPK), and p38. Although MAPK is essential for meiotic processes in Xenopus oocytes and the spindle assembly checkpoint in Xenopus ..
  50. Sanz V, Arozarena I, Crespo P. Distinct carboxy-termini confer divergent characteristics to the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38alpha and its splice isoform Mxi2. FEBS Lett. 2000;474:169-74 pubmed
    The p38 family of mitogen-activated protein kinases is composed of several isoforms. Mxi2 is a splicing variant of p38alpha that harbors a unique carboxy-terminus...
  51. Bogatcheva N, Adyshev D, Mambetsariev B, Moldobaeva N, Verin A. Involvement of microtubules, p38, and Rho kinases pathway in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced lung vascular barrier dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L487-99 pubmed
    ..2ME induces significant ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation and activation; however, only p38 activation is relevant to the 2ME-induced endothelial ..
  52. Chretien A, Dierick J, Delaive E, Larsen M, Dieu M, Raes M, et al. Role of TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein neosynthesis, p38alphaMAPK, and cdc42 in hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence-like morphogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1732-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho-GTPase cdc42 was shown to be responsible for p38(MAPK) activation, in turn triggering phosphorylation of L-caldesmon and HSP27...
  53. Evans I, Britton G, Zachary I. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces heat shock protein (HSP) 27 serine 82 phosphorylation and endothelial tubulogenesis via protein kinase D and independent of p38 kinase. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..migration and tubulogenesis, whereas inhibition of the p38 kinase pathway using either SB203580 or siRNAs against p38alpha or MAPKAPK2, had no significant effect on the chemotactic response to VEGF...
  54. Alvarado Kristensson M, Melander F, Leandersson K, Ronnstrand L, Wernstedt C, Andersson T. p38-MAPK signals survival by phosphorylation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in human neutrophils. J Exp Med. 2004;199:449-58 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) associates to caspase-8 and caspase-3 during neutrophil apoptosis and that ..
  55. Lee C, Tomkowicz B, Freedman B, Collman R. HIV-1 gp120-induced TNF-{alpha} production by primary human macrophages is mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:1016-23 pubmed
    ..mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2; PD98059, U0126) and p38 (SB202190, PD169316) inhibited the secretion of TNF-alpha...
  56. Bradham C, McClay D. p38 MAPK in development and cancer. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:824-8 pubmed
    b>p38 is a MAPK that has been shown to induce a wide variety of biological effects in cell culture in response to a wide range of stimuli...
  57. Dreissigacker U, Mueller M, Unger M, Siegert P, Genze F, Gierschik P, et al. Oncogenic K-Ras down-regulates Rac1 and RhoA activity and enhances migration and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells through activation of p38. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1156-68 pubmed
    ..of the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases revealed that EGFP-K-Ras (V12) enhanced the activity of p38, but did not affect the activities of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade and JNK...
  58. Lafarga V, Cuadrado A, Lopez de Silanes I, Bengoechea R, Fernandez Capetillo O, Nebreda A. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase- and HuR-dependent stabilization of p21(Cip1) mRNA mediates the G(1)/S checkpoint. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4341-51 pubmed publisher
    Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays an important role in the G(2)/M cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage, but little is known about the role of this signaling pathway in the G(1)/S transition...
  59. Kumawat K, Pathak S, Spetz A, Kundu M, Basu J. Exogenous Nef is an inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and macrophage apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Nef inhibits ASK1/p38 MAPK-dependent Mtb-induced TNF-alpha production probably by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter...
  60. Derijard B, Raingeaud J, Barrett T, Wu I, Han J, Ulevitch R, et al. Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms. Science. 1995;267:682-5 pubmed
    ..Two human MAP kinase kinases (MKK3 and MKK4) were cloned that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. These MKK isoforms did not activate the ERK subgroup of MAP kinases, but MKK4 did activate JNK...
  61. Patel D, King C, Bailey S, Holt J, Venkatachalam K, Agrawal A, et al. Interleukin-17 stimulates C-reactive protein expression in hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2-dependent NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27229-38 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of wild type p50, p65, and C/EBPbeta stimulated CRP transcription. IL-17 stimulated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation, and SB203580 and PD98059 blunted IL-17-mediated NF-kappaB and C/EBP activation and CRP ..
  62. Stone M, Kolling G, Lindner M, Obrig T. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor alpha induction of shiga toxin 2 sensitivity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1115-21 pubmed
    ..Cell viability assays indicated that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 and the general protein synthesis ..
  63. Zakkar M, Chaudhury H, Sandvik G, Enesa K, Luong L, Cuhlmann S, et al. Increased endothelial mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression suppresses proinflammatory activation at sites that are resistant to atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2008;103:726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..induce adhesion molecules (eg, vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1) in endothelial cells (ECs) by activating p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by phosphorylation...
  64. Saxena M, Williams S, Brockdorff J, Gilman J, Mustelin T. Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP). J Biol Chem. 1999;274:11693-700 pubmed
    ..HePTP correlated with its physical association through its noncatalytic N terminus with Erk and another MAP kinase, p38, but not Jnk or other proteins...
  65. Ge B, Gram H, Di Padova F, Huang B, New L, Ulevitch R, et al. MAPKK-independent activation of p38alpha mediated by TAB1-dependent autophosphorylation of p38alpha. Science. 2002;295:1291-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we report an unexpected activation mechanism for p38alpha MAPK that does not involve the prototypic kinase cascade...
  66. Junttila M, Ala aho R, Jokilehto T, Peltonen J, Kallajoki M, Grenman R, et al. p38alpha and p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms regulate invasion and growth of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:5267-79 pubmed
    ..of p38 pathway component mRNA expression in HNSCC cell lines (n=42) compared to HEKs (n=8) revealed that p38alpha and p38delta isoforms are predominantly expressed in both cell types and that MKK3 is the primary upstream ..
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    ..In mammalian cells the MAPK p38 is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cellular responses during infection through its effects ..
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    ..deregulation of p53 activation, and both a p38 MAPK chemical inhibitor and the expression of a dominant-negative p38alpha inhibited p53 activation in the presence of H-ras in wild-type MEF...
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    ..Here, we demonstrate that the p38 MAPK stimulates both ERalpha- and ERbeta-mediated transcription in MCF-7 breast carcinoma, Ishikawa endometrial ..
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    ..activity is enhanced after phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. The binding between ATF-2 and Smad3/4 is mediated via the MH1 region of the Smad proteins and the basic leucine ..
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    ..that MKP-1 is able to interact selectively with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38alpha, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) MAP kinase isoforms...
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    The p38 MAP kinase plays a crucial role in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1...
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    ..organelles, might augment T-cell proliferation as well as IL-2 expression, and if mitogen activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK) might be an underlying mechanism through which the LDSWs enhanced T-cell function...
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    ..However, as opposed to ERalpha, the p38 MAPK pathway was found to be involved in liganded ERbeta repression activity by ErbB2 signaling and in regulating ..
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    Although p38 MAPK is known to be activated in response to various environmental stresses and to have inhibitory roles in cell proliferation and tumor progression, its role in cell cycle progression in the absence of stress is unknown in ..
  76. Lecona E, Barrasa J, Olmo N, Llorente B, Turnay J, Lizarbe M. Upregulation of annexin A1 expression by butyrate in human colon adenocarcinoma cells: role of p53, NF-Y, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4665-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of p53 with the promoter is dependent on p38 MAPK activity either in the absence or in the presence of butyrate...
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    ..protein (MAP) kinase protein family has a critical role in cellular signaling events, with MAP kinase p38alpha acting in inflammatory processes and being an important drug discovery target...
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    b>p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated by environmental stress and cytokines and plays a role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses...
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    ..keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), induced rapid and marked activation and prompt nuclear accumulation of phospho-p38 (p-p38) and -ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), but not of JNK (p-JNK1/2), in corneal epithelial cells...
  80. Sanz Moreno V, Casar B, Crespo P. p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its nuclear activity by sustaining its phosphorylation levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3079-90 pubmed
    Mxi2 is a p38alpha splice isoform that is distinctively activated by mitogenic stimuli...
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    ..Following UV irradiation, USF-1 is phosphorylated by the p38 stress-activated kinase on threonine 153 and directly up-regulates expression of the POMC, MC1R, TYR, TYRP-1 and ..
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    ..nuclear factor kappaB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase > mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) > Akt1/2...
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    ..Our results suggest that Vpr should be monitored based on the viral titer, and they provide the rationale for the development of novel, anti-AIDS therapeutics targeting Vpr. ..
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    ..Binding of the pyridinyl-imidazole compounds inhibited CSBP kinase activity and could be directly correlated with their ability to inhibit cytokine production, suggesting that ..
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    ..vitro and in vivo, displaying much reduced activity towards stress activated MAP kinase isoforms such as JNK-1 and p38/RK...
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    ..Taken together, our results suggest that 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by FRAP/mTOR on Thr-37 and Thr-46 is a priming event for subsequent phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal serum-sensitive sites. ..
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    ..LC-PTP and LC-PTPCS made complexes with ERK1, ERK2, and p38alpha, but not with the gain-of-function sevenmaker ERK2 mutant (D321N)...
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    ..However, the CD domain alone does not determine the docking specificity. Here we have identified a novel site on p38 and ERK2 MAPKs that regulates the docking specificity towards MAPKAPKs...
  90. Prickett T, Brautigan D. Cytokine activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and apoptosis is opposed by alpha-4 targeting of protein phosphatase 2A for site-specific dephosphorylation of MEK3. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4217-27 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation site screen revealed that knockdown of alpha-4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun phosphorylation without changes in JNK or ERK...
  91. Cuadrado A, Lafarga V, Cheung P, Dolado I, Llanos S, Cohen P, et al. A new p38 MAP kinase-regulated transcriptional coactivator that stimulates p53-dependent apoptosis. EMBO J. 2007;26:2115-26 pubmed
    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in stress-induced cell-fate decisions by orchestrating responses that go from cell-cycle arrest to apoptosis...
  92. Renda T, Baraldo S, Pelaia G, Bazzan E, Turato G, Papi A, et al. Increased activation of p38 MAPK in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:62-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a Western blot analysis of phospho-p38 and total p38alpha isoform expressed by alveolar macrophages was performed...