NRAS

Summary

Gene Symbol: NRAS
Description: NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
Alias: ALPS4, CMNS, N-ras, NCMS, NRAS1, NS6, GTPase NRas, N-ras protein part 4, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog, transforming protein N-Ras, v-ras neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog
Species: human
Products:     NRAS

Top Publications

  1. Kwong L, Costello J, Liu H, Jiang S, Helms T, Langsdorf A, et al. Oncogenic NRAS signaling differentially regulates survival and proliferation in melanoma. Nat Med. 2012;18:1503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors of the BRAF proto-oncogene has revolutionized therapy for melanoma harboring mutations in BRAF, yet NRAS-mutant melanoma remains without an effective therapy...
  2. Douillard J, Oliner K, Siena S, Tabernero J, Burkes R, Barugel M, et al. Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1023-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Other activating RAS mutations may also be negative predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy...
  3. Ohashi K, Sequist L, Arcila M, Lovly C, Chen X, Rudin C, et al. Characteristics of lung cancers harboring NRAS mutations. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:2584-91 pubmed publisher
    We sought to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with lung cancer harboring NRAS mutations...
  4. Kfir S, Ehrlich M, Goldshmid A, Liu X, Kloog Y, Henis Y. Pathway- and expression level-dependent effects of oncogenic N-Ras: p27(Kip1) mislocalization by the Ral-GEF pathway and Erk-mediated interference with Smad signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8239-50 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the contribution of activated Ras to oncogenesis and for the conversion of TGF-beta from an inhibitory to a metastatic factor in some epithelial tumors. ..
  5. Cirstea I, Kutsche K, Dvorsky R, Gremer L, Carta C, Horn D, et al. A restricted spectrum of NRAS mutations causes Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2010;42:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that germline NRAS mutations conferring enhanced stimulus-dependent MAPK activation account for some cases of this disorder...
  6. Oliveira J, Bidere N, Niemela J, Zheng L, Sakai K, Nix C, et al. NRAS mutation causes a human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8953-8 pubmed
    The p21 RAS subfamily of small GTPases, including KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS, regulates cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and other signaling networks, and is the most frequent target of activating mutations in cancer...
  7. Sensi M, Nicolini G, Petti C, Bersani I, Lozupone F, Molla A, et al. Mutually exclusive NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E mutations at the single-cell level in the same human melanoma. Oncogene. 2006;25:3357-64 pubmed
    Activating BRAF or NRAS mutations have been found in 80% of human sporadic melanomas, but only one of these genetic alterations could be detected in each tumour...
  8. Colombino M, Lissia A, Capone M, de Giorgi V, Massi D, Stanganelli I, et al. Heterogeneous distribution of BRAF/NRAS mutations among Italian patients with advanced melanoma. J Transl Med. 2013;11:202 pubmed publisher
    Prevalence and distribution of pathogenetic mutations in BRAF and NRAS genes were evaluated in multiple melanoma lesions from patients with different geographical origin within the same Italian population...
  9. Devitt B, Liu W, Salemi R, Wolfe R, Kelly J, Tzen C, et al. Clinical outcome and pathological features associated with NRAS mutation in cutaneous melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:666-72 pubmed publisher
    The effect of NRAS mutations on the pathological features and clinical outcomes in patients with cutaneous melanoma was compared with that of tumors containing BRAF(V600E) mutations and tumors wild type for both (WT)...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Pedersen M, Küsters Vandevelde H, Viros A, Groenen P, Sanchez Laorden B, Gilhuis J, et al. Primary melanoma of the CNS in children is driven by congenital expression of oncogenic NRAS in melanocytes. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:458-469 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS mutations are common in human melanoma. To produce a mouse model of NRAS-driven melanoma, we expressed oncogenic NRAS (NRAS(G12D)) in mouse melanocytes...
  2. Lee J, Choi J, Kim Y. Frequencies of BRAF and NRAS mutations are different in histological types and sites of origin of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:776-84 pubmed publisher
    There have been conflicting data regarding the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of BRAF and NRAS mutations in primary cutaneous melanoma...
  3. Kraoua L, Journel H, Bonnet P, Amiel J, Pouvreau N, Baumann C, et al. Constitutional NRAS mutations are rare among patients with Noonan syndrome or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:2407-11 pubmed publisher
    Recently, germline mutations of NRAS have been shown to be associated with Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart disease, and distinctive facial features...
  4. Bando H, Yoshino T, Shinozaki E, Nishina T, Yamazaki K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Simultaneous identification of 36 mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA in a single reaction by multiplex assay kit. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:405 pubmed publisher
    Retrospective analyses in the West suggest that mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are negative predictive factors for cetuximab treatment in colorectal cancer patients...
  5. Ritter M, Kim T, Lisske P, Thiede C, Schaich M, Neubauer A. Prognostic significance of N-RAS and K-RAS mutations in 232 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica. 2004;89:1397-9 pubmed
    ..No significant correlations between RAS mutations and clinical features, karyotype or FLT3 were found. ..
  6. Omholt K, Platz A, Kanter L, Ringborg U, Hansson J. NRAS and BRAF mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:6483-8 pubmed
    ..Previously, we analyzed a large series of paired primary and metastatic melanomas for NRAS codon 61 mutations and showed that they arise early and are preserved during tumor progression...
  7. Bucheit A, Syklawer E, Jakob J, Bassett R, Curry J, Gershenwald J, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes with specific BRAF and NRAS mutations in patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2013;119:3821-9 pubmed publisher
    Hotspot mutations in BRAF and NRAS are the most common somatic events in patients with melanoma. These mutations occur at highly conserved residues, but include several different substitutions...
  8. Vauthey J, Zimmitti G, Kopetz S, Shindoh J, Chen S, Andreou A, et al. RAS mutation status predicts survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases. Ann Surg. 2013;258:619-26; discussion 626-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Detected somatic mutations included RAS (KRAS/NRAS) in 34 (18%), PIK3CA in 13 (7%), and BRAF in 2 (1%) patients...
  9. Carbuccia N, Trouplin V, Gelsi Boyer V, Murati A, Rocquain J, Adelaide J, et al. Mutual exclusion of ASXL1 and NPM1 mutations in a series of acute myeloid leukemias. Leukemia. 2010;24:469-73 pubmed publisher
  10. Akslen L, Angelini S, Straume O, Bachmann I, Molven A, Hemminki K, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations are frequent in nodular melanoma but are not associated with tumor cell proliferation or patient survival. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:312-7 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown frequent mutations in the BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) or NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral [V-ras] oncogene homolog) genes in cutaneous melanoma, but the relationship between these ..
  11. Chou F, Wunderlich M, Griesinger A, Mulloy J. N-Ras(G12D) induces features of stepwise transformation in preleukemic human umbilical cord blood cultures expressing the AML1-ETO fusion gene. Blood. 2011;117:2237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..N-Ras(G12D) promotes progression toward transformation in AE-expressing cells, partially through up-regulating Bcl-2. ..
  12. Lurkin I, Stoehr R, Hurst C, van Tilborg A, Knowles M, Hartmann A, et al. Two multiplex assays that simultaneously identify 22 possible mutation sites in the KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA genes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8802 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed two multiplex assays that simultaneously screen 22 nucleotides in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes for mutations...
  13. Birkeland E, Busch C, Berge E, Geisler J, Jonsson G, Lillehaug J, et al. Low BRAF and NRAS expression levels are associated with clinical benefit from DTIC therapy and prognosis in metastatic melanoma. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013;30:867-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this single institution study, we correlated mutation status and expression levels of BRAF and NRAS to dacarbazine (DTIC) treatment response as well as progression-free and overall survival in a cohort of 85 ..
  14. Doisaki S, Muramatsu H, Shimada A, Takahashi Y, Mori Ezaki M, Sato M, et al. Somatic mosaicism for oncogenic NRAS mutations in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood. 2012;120:1485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Somatic mutations in genes involved in GM-CSF signal transduction, such as NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11, NF1, and CBL, have been identified in more than 70% of children with JMML...
  15. Schlenk R, Dohner K, Krauter J, Fröhling S, Corbacioglu A, Bullinger L, et al. Mutations and treatment outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1909-18 pubmed publisher
    ..protein alpha gene (CEPBA), the myeloid-lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL), and the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS). We evaluated the associations of these mutations with clinical outcomes in patients...
  16. Ekedahl H, Cirenajwis H, Harbst K, Carneiro A, Nielsen K, Olsson H, et al. The clinical significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in a clinic-based metastatic melanoma cohort. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:1049-55 pubmed publisher
    BRAF and NRAS mutations are frequently found in melanoma tumours, and recently developed BRAF-targeted therapies demonstrate significant clinical benefit...
  17. Poynter J, Elder J, Fullen D, Nair R, Soengas M, Johnson T, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma and melanocytic nevi. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:267-73 pubmed
    In this report, we investigated BRAF/NRAS mutations in samples from a case-control study of melanoma and a series of benign melanocytic nevi...
  18. Greene V, Johnson M, Grimm E, Ellerhorst J. Frequencies of NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1483-8 pubmed publisher
    A lack of consensus exists with regards to the relative rates of NRAS and BRAF mutations in the radial (RGP) and vertical (VGP) growth phases of individual melanoma tumors...
  19. Ellerhorst J, Greene V, Ekmekcioglu S, Warneke C, Johnson M, Cooke C, et al. Clinical correlates of NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary human melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:229-35 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS and BRAF mutations are common in cutaneous melanomas, although rarely detected mutually in the same tumor...
  20. Irahara N, Baba Y, Nosho K, Shima K, Yan L, Dias Santagata D, et al. NRAS mutations are rare in colorectal cancer. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2010;19:157-63 pubmed publisher
    Activating mutations in members of the RAS oncogene family (KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS) have been found in a variety of human malignancies, suggesting a dominant role in carcinogenesis...
  21. Vaughn C, Zobell S, Furtado L, Baker C, Samowitz W. Frequency of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..12 and 13, were tested for mutations in codons 61 and 146 of KRAS, codon 600 of BRAF, and codons 12, 13, and 61 of NRAS. Mutation status was determined by targeted pyrosequencing...
  22. Edlundh Rose E, Egyhazi S, Omholt K, Månsson Brahme E, Platz A, Hansson J, et al. NRAS and BRAF mutations in melanoma tumours in relation to clinical characteristics: a study based on mutation screening by pyrosequencing. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:471-8 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated the use of pyrosequencing to investigate NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog] mutations in melanoma biopsies...
  23. Jakob J, Bassett R, Ng C, Curry J, Joseph R, Alvarado G, et al. NRAS mutation status is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2012;118:4014-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS) mutations in patients with metastatic melanoma...
  24. Mann G, Pupo G, Campain A, Carter C, Schramm S, Pianova S, et al. BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in patients with stage III melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..0) or low pigmentation (3.0, 0.8-100.0) in the nodal metastases. Absence of BRAF mutation (20.0, 1.0-1000.0) or NRAS mutation (16.7, 0.6-1000.0) were both favorable prognostic factors...
  25. Beadling C, Jacobson Dunlop E, Hodi F, Le C, Warrick A, Patterson J, et al. KIT gene mutations and copy number in melanoma subtypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KIT copy number was assessed by quantitative PCR. A subset of cases was evaluated for BRAF and NRAS mutations. Immunohistochemistry was done to assess KIT (CD117) expression...
  26. Dovey M, White R, Zon L. Oncogenic NRAS cooperates with p53 loss to generate melanoma in zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2009;6:397-404 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS mutations are a common oncogenic event in skin cancer, occurring frequently in congenital nevi and malignant melanoma...
  27. Shull A, Latham Schwark A, Ramasamy P, Leskoske K, Oroian D, Birtwistle M, et al. Novel somatic mutations to PI3K pathway genes in metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43369 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, BRAF(V600) mutations were seen in 51% of the melanomas, whereas NRAS mutations were seen in 19% of the melanomas...
  28. Wu D, Wang M, Wang X, Yin N, Song T, Li H, et al. Lack of BRAF(V600E) mutations in giant congenital melanocytic nevi in a Chinese population. Am J Dermatopathol. 2011;33:341-4 pubmed publisher
    ..mutation frequencies of BRAF(V600E) (V-raf murine sarcoma virus oncogene homolog B1) and NRAS (neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog) codon 61 in CMNs of Chinese, we selected 55 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, including 37 cases ..
  29. Platz A, Egyhazi S, Ringborg U, Hansson J. Human cutaneous melanoma; a review of NRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies in relation to histogenetic subclass and body site. Mol Oncol. 2008;1:395-405 pubmed publisher
    A majority of cutaneous melanomas show activating mutations in the NRAS or BRAF proto-oncogenes, components of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk signal transduction pathway...
  30. Pacold M, Suire S, Perisic O, Lara Gonzalez S, Davis C, Walker E, et al. Crystal structure and functional analysis of Ras binding to its effector phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma. Cell. 2000;103:931-43 pubmed
    ..These unique Ras/PI3Kgamma interactions are likely to be shared by PI3Kalpha. The complex with Ras shows a change in the PI3K conformation that may represent an allosteric component of Ras activation. ..
  31. Auewarakul C, Lauhakirti D, Tocharoentanaphol C. Frequency of RAS gene mutation and its cooperative genetic events in Southeast Asian adult acute myeloid leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 2006;77:51-6 pubmed
    ..Several additional genetic abnormalities occurred in RAS-mutated patients. Future molecular-targeting approaches should take into account the multiple genetic events that coexist with RAS mutations in AML patients. ..
  32. Colombino M, Capone M, Lissia A, Cossu A, Rubino C, de Giorgi V, et al. BRAF/NRAS mutation frequencies among primary tumors and metastases in patients with melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2522-9 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of BRAF, NRAS, and p16CDKN2A mutations during melanoma progression remains inconclusive. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of mutations in these genes in different melanoma tissues...
  33. Zenker M, Lehmann K, Schulz A, Barth H, Hansmann D, Koenig R, et al. Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in patients with KRAS germline mutations. J Med Genet. 2007;44:131-5 pubmed
    ..Germline mutations in KRAS have recently been identified in a small number of patients with Noonan syndrome and CFC...
  34. Kinsler V, Thomas A, Ishida M, Bulstrode N, Loughlin S, Hing S, et al. Multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and neurocutaneous melanosis are caused by postzygotic mutations in codon 61 of NRAS. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in NRAS, BRAF, and Tp53 have been described in individual CMN samples; however, their role in the pathogenesis of multiple ..
  35. De Roock W, Claes B, Bernasconi D, De Schutter J, Biesmans B, Fountzilas G, et al. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..and were included in mutation frequency analyses; mass spectrometry genotyping of tumour samples for KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA was done centrally...
  36. Runtuwene V, van Eekelen M, Overvoorde J, Rehmann H, Yntema H, Nillesen W, et al. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E...
  37. Ishikawa Y, Kiyoi H, Tsujimura A, Miyawaki S, Miyazaki Y, Kuriyama K, et al. Comprehensive analysis of cooperative gene mutations between class I and class II in de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 2009;83:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively suggest that TP53 mutation might be a functionally distinguishable class of mutation. ..
  38. Haferlach C, Bacher U, Haferlach T, Dicker F, Alpermann T, Kern W, et al. The inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26) is frequently accompanied by alterations of the RUNX1, KRAS and NRAS and NF1 genes and mediates adverse prognosis both in MDS and in AML: a study in 39 cases of MDS or AML. Leukemia. 2011;25:874-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Hsieh R, Nico M, Camillo C, Oliveira K, Sangueza M, Lourenço S. Mutational Status of NRAS and BRAF Genes and Protein Expression Analysis in a Series of Primary Oral Mucosal Melanoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2017;39:104-110 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate NRAS and BRAF genes, both components of mitogen-activated protein kinase molecular pathway, and compare with their ..
  40. McEvoy A, Wood B, Ardakani N, Pereira M, Pearce R, Cowell L, et al. Droplet Digital PCR for Mutation Detection in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Melanoma Tissues: A Comparison with Sanger Sequencing and Pyrosequencing. J Mol Diagn. 2018;20:240-252 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we evaluated the detection of common mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and TERT promoter in 40 melanoma FFPE tissues using Droplet Digital (dd)PCR, and compared the results to the ..
  41. Kuang P, Ran J, Liu Z, Wang H, Li N, Su Y, et al. Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of BiOI Nanoplate-Zinc Oxide Nanorod p-n Heterojunction. Chemistry. 2015;21:15360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we describe the synthesis of a p-n heterostructured photocatalyst, consisting of ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) decorated with BiOI nanoplates (NPs), by a facile solvothermal method...
  42. Di Bartolomeo M, Pietrantonio F, Perrone F, Dotti K, Lampis A, Bertan C, et al. Lack of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations improves outcome of elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab, oxaliplatin and UFT. Target Oncol. 2014;9:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the impact of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PI3KCA and TP53 status on outcome of elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients enrolled in TEGAFOX-E (..
  43. Bulent Vatan M, Kalaycı Yigin A, Akdemir R, Tarik Agac M, Akif Cakar M, Aksoy M, et al. Altered Plasma MicroRNA Expression in Patients with Mitral Chordae Tendineae Rupture. J Heart Valve Dis. 2016;25:580-588 pubmed
    ..miRNA targets and pathways are commonly related to the development of MCTR: MMPs, TIMP-2,TGFBR2, VEGFA, PIK3R2, NRAS, PPP3CA, PPP3R1, PTGS 2 were predicted as putative targets of 13 of these miRNAs...
  44. Gurzu S, Sugimura H, Bara T, Beleaua M, Jung I. A systematic review of the possible carcinogenic role of the aristolochic acid. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58:41-44 pubmed
    ..Genes including H-ras, FGFR3, N-ras and BRCA2 are also involved. For further understanding of AA's role in tumorigenesis, the exploration of the AA's molecular signature is necessary. ..
  45. Beránek M, Sirak I, Vosmik M, Petera J, Drastíková M, Palicka V. Carrier molecules and extraction of circulating tumor DNA for next generation sequencing in colorectal cancer. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2016;59:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ctDNA extraction recovery, and iii) to use next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to analyze KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS somatic mutations in ctDNA from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
  46. Zhong Y, Smart E, Weksler B, Couraud P, Hennig B, Toborek M. Caveolin-1 regulates human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat-induced alterations of tight junction protein expression via modulation of the Ras signaling. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, caveolin-1 may provide an effective target to protect against Tat-induced HBMEC dysfunction and the disruption of the BBB in HIV-1-infected patients. ..
  47. Xu Y, Li Y, Xu Q, Chen Y, Lv N, Jing Y, et al. Implications of mutational spectrum in myelodysplastic syndromes based on targeted next-generation sequencing. Oncotarget. 2017;8:82475-82490 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with ? 2 mutations had poor progression-free survival, while GATA1/GATA2, DNMT3A and KRAS/NRAS mutations were associated with poor overall survival...
  48. Pandith A, Hussain A, Khan M, Shah Z, Wani M, Siddiqi M. Oncogenic Activation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-3 and RAS Genes as Non-Overlapping Mutual Exclusive Events in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:2787-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that RAS and FGFR3 mutations in UC are mutually exclusive and non-overlapping events which reflect activation of oncogenic pathways through different elements. ..
  49. Kapeli K, Hurlin P. Differential regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc synthesis, degradation, and transcriptional activity by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how oncogenic Ras augments N-Myc levels in cells and suggest that enhanced N-Myc translation and degradation-coupled transactivation may contribute to oncogenesis. ..
  50. Kwak M, Lee W, Lim Y, Lee S, Ryoo S. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the nitrate reductase assay for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the detection limits in liquid medium. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;141:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9723-0.9952. The time to results (TTR) for the direct and indirect NRAs was 7-28days and 6-15days, respectively...
  51. Taparowsky E, Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Wigler M. Structure and activation of the human N-ras gene. Cell. 1983;34:581-6 pubmed
    ..From previous studies we conclude that amino acid substitutions in two distinct regions can activate the transforming potential of ras gene products. ..
  52. Verduzco D, Kuenzi B, Kinose F, Sondak V, Eroglu Z, Rix U, et al. Ceritinib Enhances the Efficacy of Trametinib in BRAF/NRAS-Wild-Type Melanoma Cell Lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2018;17:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..options are currently lacking for the heterogeneous population of patients whose melanomas lack BRAF or NRAS mutations (∼35% of cases)...
  53. Jin T, Ding Q, Huang H, Xu D, Jiang Y, Zhou B, et al. PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus. Cell Res. 2012;22:661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 markedly elevates Golgi localization of HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. PAQR10 and PAQR11 can also interact with HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B...
  54. Puzziello A, Guerra A, Murino A, Izzo G, Carrano M, Angrisani E, et al. Benign thyroid nodules with RAS mutation grow faster. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016;84:736-40 pubmed publisher
    ..aspiration of 78 thyroid nodules with benign cytology was analysed by pyrosequencing for the presence of NRAS(61) and KRAS(13) mutations. Ultrasonographic features were obtained...
  55. Formisano L, D Amato V, Servetto A, Brillante S, Raimondo L, Di Mauro C, et al. Src inhibitors act through different mechanisms in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer models depending on EGFR and RAS mutational status. Oncotarget. 2015;6:26090-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Src inhibitors may act with different mechanisms in NSCLCs, depending on EGFR/Ras mutational profile, and may be integrated with EGFR or MEK inhibitors for different cohorts of NSCLCs. ..
  56. Spencer Smith R, O Bryan J. Direct inhibition of RAS: Quest for the Holy Grail?. Semin Cancer Biol. 2019;54:138-148 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the state of the art of RAS inhibition, the approaches taken to achieve this goal, and the challenges of translating these discoveries into viable therapeutics. ..
  57. Algars A, Sundström J, Lintunen M, Jokilehto T, Kytola S, Kaare M, et al. EGFR gene copy number predicts response to anti-EGFR treatment in RAS wild type and RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:922-929 pubmed publisher
    ..Next generation sequencing was used for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA gene mutation analyses...
  58. McCormick F. Ras-related proteins in signal transduction and growth control. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;42:500-6 pubmed
    ..The possible connection between R-Ras and apoptosis will be discussed. ..
  59. Moses W, Weng J, Khanafshar E, Duh Q, Clark O, Kebebew E. Multiple genetic alterations in papillary thyroid cancer are associated with younger age at presentation. J Surg Res. 2010;160:179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..for six common somatic genetic alterations (RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1 rearrangements, and BRAF V600E, KRAS, and NRAS hotspot mutations) by PCR and direct sequencing, and nested PCR...
  60. Jeong J, Park S, Park M, Kim M, Kim K, Park P, et al. N-ras mutation detection by pyrosequencing in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia at a single institution. Ann Lab Med. 2013;33:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed the correlation between the N-ras mutation and the therapeutic response. However, pyrosequencing provides quantitative data and is useful for monitoring therapeutic responses. ..
  61. Nemeth K, Szabo S, Cottrell C, McNulty S, Segura A, Sokumbi O, et al. Mosaic pathogenic HRAS variant in a patient with nevus spilus with agminated Spitz nevi and parametrial-uterine rhabdomyosarcoma. Br J Dermatol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies indicate that cutaneous nevi can also harbor HRAS, KRAS and NRAS mutations, and this group of RAS mutation positive birthmarks has been referred to as the mosaic RASopathies...
  62. Moorcraft S, Jones T, Walker B, Ladas G, Kalaitzaki E, Yuan L, et al. Molecular profiling of colorectal pulmonary metastases and primary tumours: implications for targeted treatment. Oncotarget. 2017;8:64999-65008 pubmed publisher
    ..The concordance for KRAS and NRAS was 100%. At our institutions, patients with resectable colorectal PM had a favourable prognosis...
  63. Sadras T, Heatley S, Kok C, Dang P, Galbraith K, McClure B, et al. Differential expression of MUC4, GPR110 and IL2RA defines two groups of CRLF2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with distinct secondary lesions. Cancer Lett. 2017;408:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Less is known about the genomics of CRLF2-r cases lacking JAK2-pathway mutations, but KRAS/NRAS mutations were identified in 4/9 non-Ph-like samples...
  64. Conway C, Beswick S, Elliott F, Chang Y, Randerson Moor J, Harland M, et al. Deletion at chromosome arm 9p in relation to BRAF/NRAS mutations and prognostic significance for primary melanoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49:425-38 pubmed publisher
    We report an investigation of gene dosage at 9p21.3 and mutations in BRAF and NRAS, as predictors of relapse and histological markers of poor melanoma prognosis...
  65. Yin J, Xie X, Zhang F, Chen Z, Hu C, Su G, et al. Low frequency of mutations in Chinese with acute myeloid leukemia: Different disease or different aetiology?. Leuk Res. 2015;39:646-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in FLT3, DNMT3A, NRAS, NF1 and TP53 occur in persons of predominately European descent with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
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