Gene Symbol: NR2B
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B
Alias: EIEE27, GluN2B, MRD6, NMDAR2B, NR2B, NR3, hNR3, glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 3, glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-2, glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-2, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B
Species: human
Products:     NR2B

Top Publications

  1. Tai D, Su C, Ma Y, Lee E. SGK1 phosphorylation of IkappaB Kinase alpha and p300 Up-regulates NF-kappaB activity and increases N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A and NR2B expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4073-89 pubmed publisher
    ..SGK1 enhanced nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and up-regulated N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2A and NR2B expression through activation of IKKalpha at Thr-23 and Ser-180, and these two residues play an equally important ..
  2. Wu S, Wang W, Shyu H, Ho Y, Shieh J, Fu Y, et al. Association analysis of GRIN1 and GRIN2B polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in a hospital-based case-control study. Neurosci Lett. 2010;478:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..78, 95%CI=0.59-1.02, P(trend)=0.073). Our results suggest that polymorphisms in the GRIN1 and GRIN2B genes may serve as potential biomarkers for a reduced risk of PD among the Chinese population in Taiwan. ..
  3. Tang Y, Shimizu E, Dube G, Rampon C, Kerchner G, Zhuo M, et al. Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice. Nature. 1999;401:63-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that overexpression of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) in the forebrains of transgenic mice leads to enhanced activation of NMDA receptors, facilitating synaptic ..
  4. Schito A, Pizzuti A, Di Maria E, Schenone A, Ratti A, Defferrari R, et al. mRNA distribution in adult human brain of GRIN2B, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. Neurosci Lett. 1997;239:49-53 pubmed
    The expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR2B/epsilon2 (GRIN2B) in the human adult brain was assayed by in situ hybridisation, by using a specific cRNA probe. The full length GRIN2B cDNA was cloned and sequenced...
  5. Liu J, Kim M, Nagpal J, Yamashita K, Poeta L, Chang X, et al. Quantitative hypermethylation of NMDAR2B in human gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1994-2000 pubmed
    NMDA receptor Type 2B (NMDAR2B) is a candidate TSG first identified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
  6. O Roak B, Vives L, Fu W, Egertson J, Stanaway I, Phelps I, et al. Multiplex targeted sequencing identifies recurrently mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders. Science. 2012;338:1619-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support associations between specific genes and reciprocal subphenotypes (CHD8-macrocephaly and DYRK1A-microcephaly) and replicate the importance of a ?-catenin-chromatin-remodeling network to ASD etiology. ..
  7. Laurie D, Bartke I, Schoepfer R, Naujoks K, Seeburg P. Regional, developmental and interspecies expression of the four NMDAR2 subunits, examined using monoclonal antibodies. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;51:23-32 pubmed
    Mouse monoclonal antibodies were raised against bacterially expressed protein sequences of the NR2A, NR2B, NR2C and NR2D subunits of the rat NMDA receptor...
  8. Zhao Q, Che R, Zhang Z, Wang P, Li J, Li Y, et al. Positive association between GRIN2B gene and bipolar disorder in the Chinese Han Population. Psychiatry Res. 2011;185:290-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Rs1805247 and the haplotype consisting of rs1805502 and rs1805247 were significantly associated, suggesting GRIN2B as having a role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. ..
  9. Lee J, Cho J, Lee E, Park S, Jeon B. Differential genetic susceptibility in diphasic and peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There may be a genetic susceptibility in the development of DDSK in PD patients on chronic levodopa therapy, and its underlying pathophysiological mechanism might be distinct from that of PDSK...

More Information


  1. Endele S, Rosenberger G, Geider K, Popp B, Tamer C, Stefanova I, et al. Mutations in GRIN2A and GRIN2B encoding regulatory subunits of NMDA receptors cause variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Nat Genet. 2010;42:1021-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Either GRIN2B or GRIN2A, encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NR2B and NR2A, was found to be disrupted by chromosome translocation breakpoints in individuals with mental retardation ..
  2. Raveendran R, Devi Suma Priya S, Mayadevi M, Steephan M, Santhoshkumar T, Cheriyan J, et al. Phosphorylation status of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor regulates its interaction with calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Neurochem. 2009;110:92-105 pubmed publisher
    ..of post-synaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) and its translocation to the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor. The major binding site for CaMKII on NR2B undergoes phosphorylation at Ser1303, in vivo...
  3. Avramopoulos D, Lasseter V, Fallin M, Wolyniec P, McGrath J, Nestadt G, et al. Stage II follow-up on a linkage scan for bipolar disorder in the Ashkenazim provides suggestive evidence for chromosome 12p and the GRIN2B gene. Genet Med. 2007;9:745-51 pubmed
    ..Our results on chromosome 12p support GRIN2B as a candidate gene for bipolar disorder that needs further investigation. ..
  4. Arning L, Saft C, Wieczorek S, Andrich J, Kraus P, Epplen J. NR2A and NR2B receptor gene variations modify age at onset in Huntington disease in a sex-specific manner. Hum Genet. 2007;122:175-82 pubmed
    ..g. variations in the NR2A and NR2B glutamate receptor subunit genes (GRIN2A, GRIN2B)...
  5. Mori F, Ribolsi M, Kusayanagi H, Siracusano A, Mantovani V, Marasco E, et al. Genetic variants of the NMDA receptor influence cortical excitability and plasticity in humans. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..healthy subjects carrying specific allelic variants of the NR1 subunit gene (GRIN1 rs4880213 and rs6293) or of the NR2B subunit gene (GRIN2B rs7301328, rs3764028, and rs1805247)...
  6. Shin A, Thayer S. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat induces excitotoxic loss of presynaptic terminals in hippocampal cultures. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;54:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that ifenprodil, an NR2B subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonist, induced recovery of postsynaptic densities...
  7. Tarabeux J, Kebir O, Gauthier J, Hamdan F, Xiong L, Piton A, et al. Rare mutations in N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2011;1:e55 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional compensation could occur to counteract the loss of one allele in GRIN2C and GRIN3 family genes, whereas GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2D appear instrumental to normal brain development and function. ..
  8. Williams N, Bowen T, Spurlock G, Norton N, Williams H, Hoogendoorn B, et al. Determination of the genomic structure and mutation screening in schizophrenic individuals for five subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:508-14 pubmed
    ..2). These SNPs will therefore be suitable for studying neuropsychiatric phenotypes that are putatively related to NMDA dysfunction. Pooled analysis provided no support for association between any of the GRIN genes and schizophrenia. ..
  9. Eugenin E, King J, Nath A, Calderon T, Zukin R, Bennett M, et al. HIV-tat induces formation of an LRP-PSD-95- NMDAR-nNOS complex that promotes apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3438-43 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate the complex in HIV-induced neuronal apoptosis and suggest therapeutic targets for intervention in the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS. ..
  10. Jiang H, Jia J. Association between NR2B subunit gene (GRIN2B) promoter polymorphisms and sporadic Alzheimer's disease in the North Chinese population. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:356-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected four polymorphisms of the promoter regions of the human NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit gene (GRIN2B) in 362 AD patients and 334 healthy in North Han Chinese populations, these were -200T/G (..
  11. Omkumar R, Kiely M, Rosenstein A, Min K, Kennedy M. Identification of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31670-8 pubmed
    ..L., and MacDonald, J. F. (1994) Nature 369, 230-232). Here we identify a major phosphorylation site on subunit NR2B that is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II), an abundant protein kinase ..
  12. Liao G, Wagner D, Hsu M, Leonard J. Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:960-4 pubmed
    ..Experiments using chimeras initially indicated that the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of NR2B (responsive to PKC) and NR2C (unresponsive to PKC) subunits contain the amino acid residues responsible for the ..
  13. Dorval K, Wigg K, Crosbie J, Tannock R, Kennedy J, Ickowicz A, et al. Association of the glutamate receptor subunit gene GRIN2B with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:444-52 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest an association between variations in the GRIN2B subunit gene and ADHD as measured categorically or as a quantitatively distributed trait. ..
  14. Martucci L, Wong A, De Luca V, Likhodi O, Wong G, King N, et al. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit gene GRIN2B in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Polymorphisms and mRNA levels. Schizophr Res. 2006;84:214-21 pubmed
    The NR2B protein is a critical structural and functional subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor...
  15. Chen C, Li X, Wang T, Wang H, Fu Y, Zhang L, et al. Association between NMDA receptor subunit 2b gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in Chinese Han population in Shanghai. Neurosci Bull. 2010;26:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The NMDA receptor subunit 2b (NR2B) has attracted more attention due to its characteristic distribution and selective reduction in AD brain...
  16. Qin S, Zhao X, Pan Y, Liu J, Feng G, Fu J, et al. An association study of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit gene (GRIN1) and NR2B subunit gene (GRIN2B) in schizophrenia with universal DNA microarray. Eur J Hum Genet. 2005;13:807-14 pubmed the Chinese population, we examined 16 reported SNPs across the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit gene (GRIN1) and NR2B subunit gene (GRIN2B), five of which were identified in the Chinese population...
  17. Arning L, Kraus P, Valentin S, Saft C, Andrich J, Epplen J. NR2A and NR2B receptor gene variations modify age at onset in Huntington disease. Neurogenetics. 2005;6:25-8 pubmed
    ..5% to GRIN2A genotype variation. We conclude that these two genes, coding for NR2B and NR2A subtypes mainly expressed in the striatum, may influence the variability in AO of HD...
  18. Haughey N, Nath A, Mattson M, Slevin J, Geiger J. HIV-1 Tat through phosphorylation of NMDA receptors potentiates glutamate excitotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2001;78:457-67 pubmed
    ..Tat increased 32P incorporation into NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B and this effect was blocked by genestein...
  19. Monyer H, Sprengel R, Schoepfer R, Herb A, Higuchi M, Lomeli H, et al. Heteromeric NMDA receptors: molecular and functional distinction of subtypes. Science. 1992;256:1217-21 pubmed
    ..cloning identified three complementary DNA species of rat brain, encoding NMDA receptor subunits NMDAR2A (NR2A), NR2B, and NR2C, which are 55 to 70% identical in sequence...
  20. Stein J, Hua X, Morra J, Lee S, Hibar D, Ho A, et al. Genome-wide analysis reveals novel genes influencing temporal lobe structure with relevance to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage. 2010;51:542-54 pubmed publisher
    ..One SNP, rs10845840, is located in the GRIN2B gene which encodes the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor NR2B subunit...
  21. Shin A, Kim H, Thayer S. Subtype selective NMDA receptor antagonists induce recovery of synapses lost following exposure to HIV-1 Tat. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:1002-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Memantine (10 µM) and ifenprodil (10 µM), which preferentially inhibit GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, protected from Tat-induced cell death with no effect on synapse loss...
  22. Dalvie S, Horn N, Nossek C, van der Merwe L, Stein D, Ramesar R. Psychosis and relapse in bipolar disorder are related to GRM3, DAOA, and GRIN2B genotype. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2010;13:297-301 pubmed
    ..Speculatively, newly derived genes associated with various evolutionary advantages, may also increase the risk for more severe BD. These preliminary findings deserve validation in a larger cohort. ..
  23. Lee J, Lee E, Park S, Lim J, Kim H, Kim J, et al. Association of DRD3 and GRIN2B with impulse control and related behaviors in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..57, P = 0.0087). Variants of DRD3 p.S9G and GRIN2B c.366C>G may be associated with the appearance of ICRB in PD. ..
  24. Ohtsuki T, Sakurai K, Dou H, Toru M, Yamakawa Kobayashi K, Arinami T. Mutation analysis of the NMDAR2B (GRIN2B) gene in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:211-6 pubmed
    ..on this hypothesis, we screened 48 Japanese patients with schizophrenia for mutations in the coding region of the NMDAR2B subunit gene (GRIN2B)...
  25. Liou Y, Wang Y, Chen J, Bai Y, Lin C, Liao D, et al. Association analysis of polymorphisms in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B) gene and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2007;153:271-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that genetic variations in the human GRIN2B gene probably do not play a major role in susceptibility to, or severity of TD. ..
  26. Miglio G, Varsaldi F, Lombardi G. Human T lymphocytes express N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors functionally active in controlling T cell activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1875-83 pubmed
    ..that human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and Jurkat T cells express genes encoding for both NR1 and NR2B subunits: phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated PBL also expresses both these genes and the NR2A and NR2D genes...
  27. Bu F, Tian H, Gong S, Zhu Q, Xu G, Tao J, et al. Phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunits by protein kinase C in arcuate nucleus contributes to inflammatory pain in rats. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15945 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, CFA injection also remarkably elevated the level of phosphorylated NR2B (Tyr1472) without affecting the expression of total NR2B...
  28. Tachibana N, Kinoshita M, Saito Y, Ikeda S. Identification of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related epitope, NR2B, in the normal human ovary: implication for the pathogenesis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;230:13-6 pubmed
    ..NR1 and NR2 and their combinations are classified into several diverse forms including NR1/NR1/NR2A/NR2A, NR1/NR1/NR2B/NR2B and NR1/NR1/NR2A/NR2B...
  29. Singhakumar R, Boontem P, Ekthuwapranee K, Sotthibundhu A, Mukda S, Chetsawang B, et al. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus: An in vivo study. Neurosci Lett. 2015;606:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..MAPK) signaling activity and altered expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)...
  30. Saeed M. Novel linkage disequilibrium clustering algorithm identifies new lupus genes on meta-analysis of GWAS datasets. Immunogenetics. 2017;69:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, OASIS is a novel linkage disequilibrium clustering method that can be universally applied to existing GWAS datasets for the identification of new genes. ..
  31. Yu M, Zhang Y, Chen X, Zhang T. Antidepressant-like effects and possible mechanisms of amantadine on cognitive and synaptic deficits in a rat model of chronic stress. Stress. 2016;19:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NR2B and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) proteins were measured by Western-blot analysis...
  32. Plattner F, Hern ndez A, Kistler T, Pozo K, Zhong P, Yuen E, et al. Memory enhancement by targeting Cdk5 regulation of NR2B. Neuron. 2014;81:1070-1083 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when overexpressed in neurons...
  33. Gass N, Becker R, Sack M, Schwarz A, Reinwald J, Cosa Linan A, et al. Antagonism at the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors induces increased connectivity of the prefrontal and subcortical regions regulating reward behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018;235:1055-1068 pubmed publisher
    Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR)...
  34. Wang Y, Liu S, Zhang N, Yang J, Zhang Y. Impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NR2A/2B expression ratio in remifentanil withdrawal rats. Neurotoxicology. 2016;53:115-123 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated increased NR2A/NR2B ratio that should be included depression of LTP...
  35. Stan T, Sousa V, Zhang X, Ono M, Svenningsson P. Lurasidone and fluoxetine reduce novelty-induced hypophagia and NMDA receptor subunit and PSD-95 expression in mouse brain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1714-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting experiments showed that both lurasidone and fluoxetine decreased the total levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors and PSD-95 (PostSynaptic Density-95) in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
  36. Wohleb E, Gerhard D, Thomas A, Duman R. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Rapid-Acting Antidepressants Ketamine and Scopolamine. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017;15:11-20 pubmed
    ..e., NR2B and M1-AChR) in the PFC produce comparable antidepressant responses...
  37. Wang L, Fu H, Liu B, Liu X, Chen W, Yu X. The effect of postnatal manganese exposure on the NMDA receptor signaling pathway in rat hippocampus. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..3 weeks of Mn exposure, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus were ..
  38. Sun Y, Jiang M, Hou B, Lu C, Lei Y, Ma Z, et al. Mas-Related Gene (Mrg) C Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain via Modulating Gi and NR2B. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154851 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry...
  39. Pla R, Stanco A, Howard M, Rubin A, Vogt D, Mortimer N, et al. Dlx1 and Dlx2 Promote Interneuron GABA Synthesis, Synaptogenesis, and Dendritogenesis. Cereb Cortex. 2017;:1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Dlx1&2 coordinate key components of CIN postnatal development by promoting their excitability, inhibitory output, and survival...
  40. Szczepankiewicz A, Skibińska M, Suwalska A, Hauser J, Rybakowski J. No association of three GRIN2B polymorphisms with lithium response in bipolar patients. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61:448-52 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude that polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene did not show an association with the treatment response to lithium in bipolar patients. ..
  41. Chakraborty M, Chen L, Fridel E, Klein M, Senft R, Sarkar A, et al. Overexpression of human NR2B receptor subunit in LMAN causes stuttering and song sequence changes in adult zebra finches. Sci Rep. 2017;7:942 pubmed publisher
    ..candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B)...
  42. Subramanian M, Holt A, Mueller P. Physical activity correlates with glutamate receptor gene expression in spinally-projecting RVLM neurons: a laser capture microdissection study. Brain Res. 2014;1585:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no significant difference in the gene expression of NMDA (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C and NR2D), AMPA (GLUR1, GLUR2 and GLUR3) and GABAA (GABAA1 and GABAA2) receptor subunits...
  43. Rossi S, Studer V, Moscatelli A, Motta C, Coghe G, Fenu G, et al. Opposite roles of NMDA receptors in relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67357 pubmed publisher MS was first explored in 691 subjects carrying specific allelic variants of the NR1 subunit gene or of the NR2B subunit gene of this glutamate receptor...
  44. Zuckerman C, Blumkin E, Melamed O, Golan H. Glutamatergic synapse protein composition of wild-type mice is sensitive to in utero MTHFR genotype and the timing of neonatal vigabatrin exposure. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..that in utero MTHFR deficiency is sufficient to alter the levels of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and NR2B in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring with a WT genotype...
  45. Tamura H, Suzuki M, Moriya Y, Hoshino H, Okamoto T, Yoshida S, et al. Aberrant methylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type 2B (NMDAR2B) in non-small cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:220 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression and genetic methylation patterns of NMDAR2B in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown...
  46. Tong W, Maira M, Gagnon M, Saragovi H. Ligands Binding to Cell Surface Ganglioside GD2 Cause Src-Dependent Activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Signaling and Changes in Cellular Morphology. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134255 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid and transient activation of Src-family kinases, followed by Src-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA-receptor NR2B subunits selectively, activation of Ca++ fluxes, production of cAMP, and changes in cellular morphology...
  47. Singh P, Talwar P. Exploring putative inhibitors of Death Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1) via targeting Gly-Glu-Leu (GEL) and Pro-Glu-Asn (PEN) substrate recognition motifs. J Mol Graph Model. 2017;77:153-167 pubmed publisher
    ..a new signaling complex Death Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1) ̶ N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NMDAR2B or NR2B) engaged in the neuronal death cascade was identified and it was found that after stroke injury, N-methyl-..
  48. Biello S, Bonsall D, Atkinson L, Molyneux P, Harrington M, Lall G. Alterations in glutamatergic signaling contribute to the decline of circadian photoentrainment in aged mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2018;66:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that this shift in NMDA sensitivity was through the reduced SCN expression of this receptor's NR2B subunit. Only in young animals did an NR2B antagonist attenuate behavioral resetting...
  49. Ness V, Arning L, Niesert H, Stüttgen M, Epplen J, Beste C. Variations in the GRIN2B gene are associated with risky decision-making. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:950-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underline the necessity to integrate the glutamatergic system when examining decision-making processes. ..
  50. Bharadwaj R, Peter C, Jiang Y, Roussos P, Vogel Ciernia A, Shen E, et al. Conserved higher-order chromatin regulates NMDA receptor gene expression and cognition. Neuron. 2014;84:997-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. ..
  51. Zainal Abidin S, Tan E, Chan S, Jaafar A, Lee A, Abd Hamid M, et al. DRD and GRIN2B polymorphisms and their association with the development of impulse control behaviour among Malaysian Parkinson's disease patients. BMC Neurol. 2015;15:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in dopamine [DRD1 (rs4532 and rs4867798) and DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497] and glutamate (GRIN2B rs7301328) receptor genes confer increased risk of ICB development among PD patients. ..
  52. Lin T, Lai C, Hsieh M, Jiang J, Cheng J, Chau Y, et al. Neuropathic Allodynia Involves Spinal Neurexin-1β-dependent Neuroligin-1/Postsynaptic Density-95/NR2B Cascade in Rats. Anesthesiology. 2015;123:909-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In 626 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, the withdrawal threshold and NL1, PSD-95, phosphorylated NR2B (pNR2B) expressions, interactions, and locations in dorsal horn (L4 to L5) were compared between the sham operation ..
  53. Sharp C, Hines I, Houghton J, Warren A, Jackson T, Jawahar A, et al. Glutamate causes a loss in human cerebral endothelial barrier integrity through activation of NMDA receptor. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H2592-8 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a model where glutamate, at excitotoxic levels, may lead to a breakdown in the blood brain barrier via activation of NMDA receptors. ..
  54. Corasaniti M, Melino G, Navarra M, Garaci E, Finazzi Agro A, Nistico G. Death of cultured human neuroblastoma cells induced by HIV-1 gp120 is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists and inhibitors of nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase. Neurodegeneration. 1995;4:315-21 pubmed
    ..1-10 microM). In conclusion, the present data suggest that death of human CHP100 neuroblastoma cells in culture produced by gp120 involves NO and PGE2 production. ..
  55. Toggas S, Masliah E, Mucke L. Prevention of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of transgenic mice by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Brain Res. 1996;706:303-7 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that clinically tolerated NMDA receptor antagonists may be useful in the prevention of neuronal damage in HIV-1-infected patients. ..
  56. Einarsdottir E, Peyrard Janvid M, Darki F, Tuulari J, Merisaari H, Karlsson L, et al. Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9294 pubmed publisher
    ..In infants, this same variant was found to be associated with cingulate and prefrontal grey matter volumes. Our results suggest NCAN as a new candidate gene for DD and indicate that NCAN variants affect brain structure. ..
  57. Tang Y, Wang X, Zhang S, Duan S, Qing W, Chen G, et al. Pre-existing weakness is critical for the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in mice of the same age. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182471 pubmed publisher
    ..The brains were collected to detect the levels of neuroinflammation, synaptophysin and NMDA receptor subunits NR2A, NR2B and NR1 (by western blot), and oxidative stress (by Dihydroethidium)...
  58. Kim H, Martemyanov K, Thayer S. Human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat induces synapse loss via a reversible process that is distinct from cell death. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the impaired network function and decreased neuronal survival produced by Tat involve distinct mechanisms and that pharmacologic targets, such as LRP, might prove useful in restoring function in HAD patients. ..
  59. Bi H, Sze C. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A and NR2B messenger RNA levels are altered in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2002;200:11-8 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR) was used to determine the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of postmortem brain samples from nine clinically well-characterized AD ..
  60. Mayadevi M, Praseeda M, Kumar K, Omkumar R. Sequence determinants on the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor responsible for specificity of phosphorylation by CaMKII. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1598:40-5 pubmed
    ..CaMKII binds to the NR2B subunit of NMDAR in more than one mode, a stable association involving a noncatalytic site on CaMKII and an enzyme-..
  61. Schulz S, Arning L, Pinnow M, Epplen J, Beste C. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (GRIN2B) gene variation is associated with alerting, but not with orienting and conflicting in the Attention Network Test. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the role of variations in GRIN2B, which encodes the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, was explored with regard to the regulation of arousal and ..
  62. Xu H, Bae M, Tovar Y Romo L, Patel N, Bandaru V, Pomerantz D, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 promotes forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17074-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking...
  63. Jiang Y, Lin M, Jicha G, Ding X, McIlwrath S, Fardo D, et al. Functional human GRIN2B promoter polymorphism and variation of mental processing speed in older adults. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:1293-1306 pubmed publisher
    ..Reaction times were significantly slower with age in older adults with G allele (p < 0.001). These findings support a role for rs3764030 in maintaining faster mental processing speed over aging. ..
  64. Miyatake R, Furukawa A, Suwaki H. Identification of a novel variant of the human NR2B gene promoter region and its possible association with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1101-6 pubmed
    ..We determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-upstream region of the human NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit gene and identified a novel T-200G variant located in one of the Sp1 binding sites...
  65. Platzer K, Yuan H, Schutz H, Winschel A, Chen W, Hu C, et al. GRIN2B encephalopathy: novel findings on phenotype, variant clustering, functional consequences and treatment aspects. J Med Genet. 2017;54:460-470 pubmed publisher
  66. Qiao H, An S, Xu C, Ma X. Role of proBDNF and BDNF in dendritic spine plasticity and depressive-like behaviors induced by an animal model of depression. Brain Res. 2017;1663:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..of BDNF and proBDNF on expressions of kalirin-7, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus of stressed and naïve control rats, respectively...
  67. Che F, Zhang Y, Wang G, Heng X, Liu S, Du Y. The role of GRIN2B in Tourette syndrome: Results from a transmission disequilibrium study. J Affect Disord. 2015;187:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the hypothesis that GRIN2B might play a major role in the pathogenesis of TS in Chinese Han trios. However, these results need to be replicated using larger datasets collected from different populations. ..
  68. Bagasrawala I, Memi F, V Radonjić N, Zecevic N. N-Methyl d-Aspartate Receptor Expression Patterns in the Human Fetal Cerebral Cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:5041-5053 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that 3 NMDAR subunits, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, a period of intense ..
  69. Wright D, Gray L, Finkelstein D, Crouch P, Pow D, Pang T, et al. N-acetylcysteine modulates glutamatergic dysfunction and depressive behavior in Huntington's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:2923-2933 pubmed
    ..NAC was able to rescue changes in key glutamate receptor proteins related to excitotoxicity in HD, including NMDAR2B. Thus, we have shown that baseline reductions in cysteine underlie glutamatergic dysfunction and depressive-like ..
  70. Gu W, Yang S, Shi W, Jin G, Zhen X. Requirement of PSD-95 for dopamine D1 receptor modulating glutamate NR1a/NR2B receptor function. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007;28:756-62 pubmed
    ..the role of scaffold protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 in the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-modulated NR1a/NR2B receptor response...
  71. Liu F, Wang X, Li M, Li J, Xi Z, Luan G, et al. Upregulated expression of postsynaptic density-93 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors subunits 2B mRNA in temporal lobe tissue of epilepsy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:825-30 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of PSD-93 mRNA and NR2B mRNA in the brain tissue from the patients with epilepsy so as to explore the possible mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the epilepsy...
  72. Preskorn S, Baker B, Kolluri S, Menniti F, Krams M, Landen J. An innovative design to establish proof of concept of the antidepressant effects of the NR2B subunit selective N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, CP-101,606, in patients with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:631-7 pubmed publisher
    ..double-blind study was the first to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy, safety, and tolerability of an NR2B subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, CP-101,606...
  73. Swanger S, Chen W, Wells G, Burger P, Tankovic A, Bhattacharya S, et al. Mechanistic Insight into NMDA Receptor Dysregulation by Rare Variants in the GluN2A and GluN2B Agonist Binding Domains. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;99:1261-1280 pubmed publisher
    Epilepsy and intellectual disability are associated with rare variants in the GluN2A and GluN2B (encoded by GRIN2A and GRIN2B) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand-gated ion channel with essential roles in brain ..
  74. Guo Z, Niu W, Bi Y, Zhang R, Ren D, Hu J, et al. A study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B in schizophrenia from Chinese Han population. Neurosci Lett. 2016;630:132-135 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, rs890 and rs1806191 were found to form a haplotype associated with schizophrenia. In summary, our results indicate that the GRIN2B SNP rs890 might be associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. ..
  75. Sircar R. Ethanol alters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor regulation in the hippocampus of adolescent rats. Neuroreport. 2017;28:625-629 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, particularly the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), has been implicated in several ethanol effects and in memory formation...
  76. Elagabani M, Briševac D, Kintscher M, Pohle J, Köhr G, Schmitz D, et al. Subunit-selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Signaling through Brefeldin A-resistant Arf Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors BRAG1 and BRAG2 during Synapse Maturation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:9105-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of glutamatergic synapses in the CNS is regulated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) that gradually change from a GluN2B- to a GluN2A-dominated subunit composition during postnatal development...
  77. Fang X, Qiao H, Groveman B, Feng S, Pflueger M, Xin W, et al. Regulated internalization of NMDA receptors drives PKD1-mediated suppression of the activity of residual cell-surface NMDA receptors. Mol Brain. 2015;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, modulating the activity of remaining surface receptors may be an effective approach for treating receptor internalization-induced changes in neuronal functions of the CNS. ..
  78. Andreoli V, De Marco E, Trecroci F, Cittadella R, Di Palma G, Gambardella A. Potential involvement of GRIN2B encoding the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2014;121:533-42 pubmed publisher
    Increasing evidence links dysregulation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor remodelling and trafficking to Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  79. Niethammer M, Kim E, Sheng M. Interaction between the C terminus of NMDA receptor subunits and multiple members of the PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases. J Neurosci. 1996;16:2157-63 pubmed in vitro binding assays, we have identified an interaction between NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B (NR2A and NR2B) and three distinct members of the PSD-95/SAP90 family of membrane-associated putative guanylate kinases...
  80. Xiong W, Xie J, Liu J, Xiong H. [HIV-1gp120 injures neurons by alteration of neuronal expressions of NR2B and PSD-95]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;30:139-42 pubmed
    ..Western blot techniques were employed to examine the changes of the expressions of N-methyl-D-asparate receptors 2B(NR2B) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) in cultured neurons in the presence and absence of gp120 in the culture media...